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A variety show, also known as variety arts or variety entertainment, is an entertainment made up of a variety of acts (hence the name), especially musical performances and sketch comedy, and normally introduced by a compère (master of ceremonies) or host. Other types of acts include magic, animal and circus acts, acrobatics, juggling and ventriloquism. The variety format made its way from Victorian era stage to radio to television. Variety shows were a staple of anglophone television from its early days into the 1970s, and lasted into the 1980s. In several parts of the world, variety TV remains popular and widespread.
The format is basically that of music hall in the United Kingdom or vaudeville in the United States. Variety in the UK evolved in theatres and music halls, and later in Working Men's Clubs. Most of the early top performers on British television and radio did an apprenticeship either in stage variety, or during World War II in Entertainments National Service Association (ENSA). In the UK, the ultimate accolade for a variety artist for decades was to be asked to do the annual Royal Command Performance at the London Palladium theatre, in front of the monarch.
In the United States, former vaudeville performers such as the Marx Brothers, George Burns and Gracie Allen, W. C. Fields, and Jack Benny moved to talkies, to radio shows, and then to television shows, including variety shows. In the 1960s, even a popular rock band such as The Beatles undertook this ritual of appearing on variety shows on TV. In the U.S., shows featuring Perry Como, Milton Berle, Jackie Gleason, Bob Hope, and Dean Martin also helped to make the Golden Age of Television successful.
From 1948 to 1971, The Ed Sullivan Show was one of CBS's most popular television series. Using his no-nonsense approach, Ed Sullivan allowed many acts from several different mediums to get their "fifteen minutes of fame." Sullivan was also partially responsible for bringing Elvis Presley and The Beatles to U.S. prominence.
In the UK, The Good Old Days – which ran from 1953 to 1983 – featured modern artists performing dressed in late Victorian/Early Edwardian costume, either doing their own act or performing as a music hall artist of that period. The audience was also encouraged to dress in period costume in a similar fashion.
On television, variety reached its peak during the period of the 1960s and 1970s. With a turn of the television dial, viewers around the globe could variously have seen shows and occasional specials featuring Dinah Shore, Bob Hope, Bing Crosby, Perry Como, Andy Williams, Julie Andrews, The Carpenters, Olivia Newton-John, John Denver, John Davidson, Mac Davis, Bobby Goldsboro, Lynda Carter, Johnny Cash, Sonny and Cher, Bob Monkhouse, Carol Burnett, Rod Hull and Emu, Flip Wilson, Lawrence Welk, Glen Campbell, Donny & Marie Osmond, Barbara Mandrell, Judy Garland, The Captain & Tennille, The Jacksons, The Keane Brothers, Bobby Darin, Sammy Davis, Jr., Mary Tyler Moore, Dean Martin, Tony Orlando and Dawn, The Smothers Brothers, Danny Kaye, Des O'Connor, Buck and Roy, Roy Hudd, Billy Dainty, Max Wall or The Muppet Show. Even "The Brady Bunch" had a variety show. Variety shows were once as common on television as Westerns, courtroom dramas, suspense thrillers, sitcoms, or (in more modern times) reality shows.
During the 1960s and 1970s, there were also numerous one-time variety specials featuring stars such as Shirley MacLaine, Frank Sinatra, Diana Ross and Mitzi Gaynor, none of whom ever had a regular television series.
Contemporary U.S. variety shows
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Variety shows began to fade from popularity in the early 1970s, when research began to show that variety shows appealed to an older audience that was less appealing to advertisers; over the course of the so-called "rural purge", several of the early era variety shows were canceled, though newer ones (fewer in number nonetheless) continued to be created and broadcast for several years after. By the late 1970s, variety shows had mostly ended production, and by the early 1980s, the few new variety shows being produced were of remarkably poor quality (see, for instance, the infamous Pink Lady and Jeff), hastening the format's demise. Since Pink Lady, only a few traditional variety shows have been attempted on television programs: Dolly (starring Dolly Parton), which ran for 23 episodes on the ABC television network during the 1987–'88 season; a revival of The Carol Burnett Show, which was broadcast by CBS for nine episodes in 1991; and the first incarnation of The Wayne Brady Show, which was telecast by ABC in August 2001.
By the 21st century, the variety show format had fallen out of fashion, due largely to changing tastes and the fracturing of media audiences (caused by the proliferation of cable and satellite television) that makes a multiple-genre variety show impractical. Even reruns of variety shows have generally not been particularly widespread; TV Land telecast briefly some variety shows (namely The Ed Sullivan Show and The Sonny and Cher Comedy Hour) upon its beginning in 1996, but within a few years, those reruns stopped. Similarly, CMT held the rights to Hee Haw but telecast very few episodes. (The current rights holder RFD-TV has been more prominent in its telecasts of the show). A notable exception is The Lawrence Welk Show, which has been telecast continually in reruns on the Public Broadcasting System (PBS) since 1986. The Spanish language variety show Sabado Gigante, which began in 1962, and then moved from Chile to the United States in 1986, continues to produce and broadcast new episodes on Univision to this day.
However, though the format had faded in popularity in prime time, it thrived in late night. The variety shows of this daypart eventually evolved into late-night talk shows, which combine variety entertainment (primarily comedy and live music) with the aspects of a talk show (such as interviews with celebrities). The Emmy Awards organization considers the two genres to be related closely enough that it awards the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Variety, Music or Comedy Series to any of these types of show. Although only one network (NBC, with its The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson and later Late Night with David Letterman) had a successful late-night talk show until 1992, the field greatly expanded beginning with Carson's retirement and the controversial selection of Jay Leno as Tonight’s new host. Within ten years, all of the "Big Three" networks, along with several cable outlets, had late night variety talk shows being shown nightly. After ceding his hosting role on The Tonight Show to Conan O'Brien in 2009, Leno began hosting The Jay Leno Show, a late-night styled program broadcast by NBC in the final hour of primetime. In early 2010, after poor viewership and a dispute with Conan O'Brien surrounding a plan to move The Jay Leno Show into late night and push back the remainder of NBC's late-night lineup, the series was cancelled and Leno returned to The Tonight Show (with Conan leaving NBC entirely to host a new self-titled late night show on the cable channel TBS).
Sketch comedy series such as Saturday Night Live, In Living Color, Almost Live!, MADtv and SCTV also contain variety show elements, particularly musical performances and comedy sketches (though only the first of these remains telecast as of 2010). The most obvious difference between shows such as Saturday Night Live and traditional variety shows is the lack of a single lead host (or hosts) and a large ensemble cast. SNL has used different guest hosts ever since its inception.
The variety show format also continues in the form of the telethon, which feature variety entertainment (often music) interspersed with appeals for viewers to make donations to support a charity or cause. The Jerry Lewis MDA Telethon was one of the best known national telethons, however it too has lessened in popularity; over the course of 2011 and 2012 the MDA telethon was cut from over 21 hours to three as a response to declining returns, while Jerry Lewis himself was controversially removed from the telethon, and only a handful of long-established local telethons remain.
In 2004, ABC's The Nick and Jessica Variety Hour attempted to revive the prime-time variety hour as a special for today's generation. It was followed by Nick & Jessica's Family Christmas in early December of that year, though no further specials would be produced after that due to the couple's divorce. NBC's Rosie Live did not fare so well: the series's pilot episode was telecast the day before Thanksgiving Day in 2008 and, after being panned by critics, it was not purchased. In December 2009, the singer Carrie Underwood made her first attempt at a Christmas variety special on Fox.
Fox's Osbournes Reloaded, a variety show featuring the family of rocker Ozzy Osbourne, was canceled after only one episode had been telecast in 2009. More than two dozen affiliates refused to telecast the first episode of the show. This series had been slated for a six-episode run.
Other shows that have had varying degrees of success combining the two formats was Star Search, which had a run in the 1980s in syndication and a run on CBS in the early 2000s during the reality television boom, and The Gong Show, which reached its peak in the 1970s, but it has had occasional revivals since then. The Richard Bey Show combined the variety show with the tabloid talk show, not only having its guests talk about their problems but also having them participate in absurdist games. NBC's series America's Got Talent crosses the concept of a variety show with the format of reality competitions such as American Idol.
Australia: The prime time variety show format was popular in the early decades of Australian television, spawning such series as In Melbourne Tonight, The Graham Kennedy Show, The Don Lane Show, and Hey Hey It's Saturday, which ran for 27 years. Recent prime time variety shows include the short lived Micallef Tonight and The Sideshow.
Taiwan: Another of today's variety shows in Asia is Taiwan's Guess (variety show) and 100% Entertainment. East Asian variety programs are known for its constant use of sound effects, on-screen visuals and comedic bantering. Many of the shows are presented in a live-like presentation in a fast-paced setting, with scenes repeating or fast forwarded.
Another popular variety show in Taiwan is Kangxi Lai Le, a talk show with variety show elements. The hosts and guests were associated with variety shows. Famous for it's bantering, which were written before tapings.
Hong Kong: The first Chinese variety show to become a major success was Hong Kong's Enjoy Yourself Tonight, which first aired in 1967 and ran for 27 years. In Hong Kong, variety shows are often combined with elements of a cooking show or a talent competition but end in various results.
Japan: Variety programming has remained one of the dominant genres of television programming. While Japanese variety shows are famous abroad for their wild stunts, they vary from talk shows to music shows, from tabloid news shows to skit comedy. The prominent use of telop on screen has created a style that has influenced variety programming across Asia.
South Korea: In South Korea the hugely popular Muhan Dojeon (Infinite Challenge), broadcast by MBC since 2005, is a new model of this, called "Real Variety Show". It combines comedy and variety scenes including unscripted stunts. Although many variety shows have existed in Korea long before the broadcast of Muhan Dojeon, this program has given a rise to a new page in the history of Korean variety shows by introducing unscripted stunts. As a result, other broadcasting channels such as KBS and SBS have followed its path and introduced programs such as Il Bak Ee Il (2 Days 1 Night) and Running Man. These types of Korean variety shows are grabbing foreign interest of countries such as Japan, China, Thailand, and even the United States bringing on a new type of the Korean wave globally.
Philippines: Variety shows are a huge part of daily life in the Philippines, with all of the major networks running their own variety shows usually during lunchtime and can be on the air for between one and a half hours to three hours. The most notable Philippine variety show is the longest-running Eat Bulaga, which premiered in 1979 and has aired on RPN 9, ABS-CBN, and GMA Network in the succeeding years. Recently many other TV networks are different formats of variety shows, such as talk-variety Gandang Gabi, Vice!, The Ryzza Mae Show and action-variety, I Dare You has shown great popularity and interest to Filipino viewers.
Mexico:Siempre en Domingo premiered in 1969 with Raúl Velasco hosting. It became Mexico's longest-running variety series, remaining on Televisa until 1998. Other long-running variety shows, most of which have been Televisa productions, have included La Carabina de Ambrosio, Anabel, Al Fin de Semana, Silvia y Enrique, La Parodia, Muevete, Desmadruga2 and Sabadazo.. Most, if not all, of Televisa's variety shows have aired in other countries, including the Univision networks in the United States.
Venezuela: In Venezuela, the best known variety show is Súper Sábado Sensacional. Originally established in 1968 (as Sábado Espectacular) on Radio Caracas Television, the show moved to Venevision in 1970 and was renamed Sábado Sensacional. In 1990, "Súper" was added to the title, and is how the show is currently known today.
Chile: The Spanish-language variety show known as Sábados Gigantes (forerunner of the U.S. Sábado Gigante) began in 1962 with Don Francisco and lasted into the 1990s. His daughter, Vivianne Kreutzberger, currently hosts the program under the title Gigantes con Vivi, while Don Francisco has hosted the U.S. version since 1986.
Many television special continue to resemble the variety show format to this day.
- "Television in the United States." Encyclopædia Britannica Online, 2011. Web. 06 Jun. 2011.
- "Sid Caesar." Encyclopædia Britannica Online, 2011. Web. 06 Jun. 2011.
- Gerow, Aaron (2010), "Kind Participation: Postmodern Consumption and Capital with Japan's Telop TV", in Yoshimoto, Mitsuhiro, Television, Japan, and Globalization, Ann Arbor: Center for Japanese Studies, University of Michigan, pp. 117–150