|Bahrani Arabic test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator|
|Native to||Bahrain, Oman and Saudi Arabia|
|Native speakers||600,000 in Bahrain (2011)|
|Writing system||Arabic alphabet|
In Saudi Arabia, the dialect is spoken in and around Qatif.
The differences between Bahrani Arabic and neighboring dialects suggest differing historical origins. The main differences between Bahrani and non-Bahrani dialects are evident in certain grammatical forms and pronunciation. Most of the vocabulary, however, is shared between dialects, or is distinctly Bahraini, arising from a shared modern history. Many Bahrani words have also been borrowed from Hindi or English.
Examples of words borrowed from other languages
- bānka 'ceiling fan' from Persian
- sōmān 'equipment' from Hindi.
- lētar 'lighter' from English.
- wīl 'wheel' from English
- tēm 'time' from English
- dareesha 'window ' from Ottoman Turkish
- dowshag 'mattress' from Persian
- orradi 'already' from English
Bahrani Arabic (called Baħrāni by its speakers) has the main features of Gulf Arabic dialects (e.g. Kuwait, UAE, Qatar) in addition to its own unique features. General features include the Standard Arabic q becoming g (qamar vs gamar 'moon'), k becoming ch in some positions (kalb vs chalb 'dog'). J becoming y in some villages (jiħħe vs yiħħe 'watermelon'). Final Standard Arabic -ah becomes -e in some positions. Unique features include changing "th" and "dh" into "f" and "d". Many younger speakers avoid such pronunciations, however.
- John Jones, 2011. Introduction to the Baharna, p. 40
- Mahdi Abdalla Al-Tajir. 1983. Language and Linguistic Origins in Bahrain: The Bahrani Dialect of Arabic. ISBN 0-7103-0024-7
- Clive Holes. 1983. "Bahraini Dialects: Sectarian Differences and the Sedentary/Nomadic Split," Zeitschrift für arabische Linguistik 10:7-38.
- Clive Holes. 1987. Language Variation and Change in a Modernising Arab State: The Case of Bahrain. ISBN 0-7103-0244-4
- Clive Holes. 2001. Dialect, Culture, and Society in Eastern Arabia: Glossary. ISBN 90-04-10763-0
- Clive Holes, "Dialect and National Identity. The Cultural Politics of Self-Represenation in Bahraini Musalsalat", in Paul Dresch and James Piscatori (eds), Monarchies and Nations: Globalisation and Identity in the Arab states of the Gulf, London: I.B. Tauris, 2005, p. 60.
- Baharna Arabic Travel Phrases
- Ethnologue: Baharna Arabic
- Dialects of the Arabian Peninsula