Sodium oxybate(Redirected from Xyrem)
Sodium oxybate is a prescription medication used to treat two symptoms of narcolepsy: sudden muscle weakness and excessive daytime sleepiness. It is used sometimes in France and Italy as an anesthetic given intravenously;:15, 27–28 it is also used in Italy to treat alcohol addiction and alcohol withdrawal syndrome.
|Trade names||Alcover, Gamma-OH, Natrii oxybutyras Kalceks, Somsanit, Xyrem|
|Elimination half-life||0.5 to 1 hour.|
|Excretion||Almost entirely by biotransformation to carbon dioxide, which is then eliminated by expiration|
|Chemical and physical data|
|Molar mass||126.09 g/mol|
|3D model (JSmol)|
|(what is this?)|
Sodium oxybate is the sodium salt of γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB). The clinical trials for narcolepsy were conducted just as abuse of GHB as a club drug and date rape drug became a matter of public concern; in 2000 GHB was made a Schedule I controlled substance, while sodium oxybate, when used under an FDA NDA or IND, was classified as a Schedule III controlled substance for medicinal use under the Controlled Substances Act, with illicit use subject to Schedule I penalties.
Sodium oxybate was approved for use by the FDA to treat symptoms of narcolepsy in 2002 with a strict risk evaluation and mitigation strategy (REMS) program mandated by the FDA. The US label for sodium oxybate also has a black box warning because it is a central nervous system depressant and may cause respiratory depression, seizures, coma, or death, especially if used in combination with other CNS depressants, such as alcohol and its use may cause dependence. In Canada and the European Union (EU) it was classified as a Schedule III and a Schedule IV controlled substance, respectively.
It was approved for treating symptoms of narcolepsy in Europe in 2005.
Orphan Medical had developed it and was acquired by Jazz Pharmaceuticals in 2005. The drug is marketed in Europe by UCB. Jazz raised the price of the drug dramatically after it acquired Orphan, and paid a $20M fine for off-label marketing of the drug in 2007.
Clinical use of sodium oxybate was introduced in Europe in 1964 as anesthetic given intravenously but it was not widely used since it caused seizures sometimes; as of 2006 it was still authorized for this use in France and Italy but not widely used.:15,27–28
The major use of sodium oxybate is in treating two of the symptoms of narcolepsy – cataplexy (sudden muscle weakness) and excessive daytime sleepiness. Reviews of sodium oxybate concluded that it is well tolerated and associated with "significant reductions in cataplexy and daytime sleepiness," and that its effectiveness "in treating major, clinically relevant narcolepsy symptoms and sleep architecture abnormalities" has been established. However, because of the risks of abuse associated with this medication, it is available in the US only through a risk evaluation and mitigation strategy (REMS) program mandated by the FDA. The program requires that providers who prescribe it are certified to do so, that it is only dispensed from a central pharmacy that is certified to do so, and people to whom it is prescribed must be enrolled in a program for the drug and must document that they are using the drug safely.
In more recent times[when?], investigations of its use in dealing with alcohol withdrawal syndrome have begun. These started in Italy, where its use in treating alcohol addiction was also explored; the evidence for these uses is weak:15,28–29 but growing and it has also been approved for use in Austria. There is insufficient evidence to make a definitive comparison with clomethiazole or benzodiazepine-based treatment approaches, though some data suggest it may be "better than naltrexone and disulfiram regarding abstinence maintenance and prevention of craving in the medium term i.e. 3-12 months." In a 2014 review, Gillian Keating described sodium oxybate as a "useful option for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and for the maintenance of abstinence in alcohol dependence." However, a 2018 review recognised the evidence for its efficacy but noted safety concerns and concluded that "studies are still limited and investigations including a larger number of patients are needed."
Pregnant women should not take it, and women should not become pregnant while taking it. It is excreted in breast milk and should not be used by breast feeding mothers.
The US label for sodium oxybate has a black box warning because it is a central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) and for its potential for abuse. Other potential adverse side effects include respiratory depression, seizures, coma, and death, especially when it is taken in combination with other CNS depressants such as alcohol. Cases of severe dependence and cravings have been reported with excessive and illicit use of this medication. GHB, the protonated (acidic) form of this salt, has been used to commit drug-facilitated sexual assault and date rape, though the illicit form of GHB typically has different characteristics from pharmaceutical-grade sodium oxybate.
Between 1% and 10% of people experience nasal congestion, runny nose, or sore throat, loss of appetite, distorted sense of taste, cataplexy, weakness, nervousness or anxiety, depressed mood, nightmares or abnormal dreams, sleep paralysis, sleepwalking, or other sleep disturbances including insomnia, sleepiness or sedation, falls, vertigo, tremor, balance disorder, cognitive issues including disturbance in attention, confusion or disorientation, numbed sense of touch, tingling, blurred vision, heart palpitations, high blood pressure, shortness of breath, snoring, vomiting, diarrhea, stomach pain, excessive sweating, rashes, joint pain, muscle pain, back pain, muscle spasms, bedwetting, urinary incontinence, and swelling of the limbs.
Reports of overdose in medical literature are generally from abuse, and often involve other drugs as well. Symptoms include vomiting, excessive sweating, coma, periods of stopped breathing, seizures, agitation, loss of psychomotor skills, and coma. Overdose can lead to death due to respiratory depression. People who overdose may die from asphyxiation from their own vomit. People that have overdosed or suspected of overdosing may need to be made to vomit, be intubated, or/and put on a respirator.
It is rapidly absorbed and is about 88% bioavailable; very little is bound to plasma protein. The average time to peak plasma concentration ranges from 0.5 to 1.25 hours. Very little of the drug is excreted; instead it is mostly metabolized through several steps into carbon dioxide and water.
Sodium oxybate is the sodium salt of γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB). Its systematic chemical name is sodium 4-hydroxybutanoate, though synonyms like sodium γ-hydroxybutyrate are commonly used. Its condensed structural formula is HOCH
2Na (molecular formula: C
3) and its molar mass is 126.09 g mol−1. It is highly hydrophilic. Treating the salt with acid allows the carboxylic acid form of the compound, which is GHB, to be recovered.
Alexander Zaytsev worked on this chemical family and published work on it in 1874.:79 The first extended research into GHB and its use in humans was conducted in the early 1960s by Dr. Henri Laborit to use in studying the neurotransmitter GABA.:11–12 It was studied in a range of uses including obstetric surgery and during childbirth and as an anxiolytic; there were anecdotal reports of it having antidepressant and aphrodisiac effects as well.:27 It was also studied as an intraveuous anesthetic agent and was marketed for that purpose starting in 1964 in Europe but it was not widely adopted as it caused seizures; as of 2006 that use was still authorized in France and Italy but not widely used.:27–28 GHB was also studied to treat alcohol addiction:28–29 and for use in narcolepsy from the 1960s onwards.:28
In May 1990 GHB was introduced as a dietary supplement and was marketed to body builders, for help with weight control and as a sleep aid, and as a "replacement" for L-tryptophan, which was removed from the market in November 1989 when batches of it were found to cause eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome. By November of that year 57 cases of illness caused by the GHB supplements had been reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, with people having taken up to three teaspoons of GHB; there were no deaths but nine people needed care in an intensive care unit. The FDA issued a warning in November 1990 that sale of GHB was illegal. GHB continued to be manufactured and sold illegally and it and analogs were adopted as a club drug and came to be used as a date rape drug. The DEA made seizures and the FDA reissued warnings several times throughout the 1990s.
At the same time, research on the use of GHB in the form of sodium oxybate had formalized, as a company called Orphan Medical Inc. had filed an investigational new drug application and was running clinical trials with the intention of gaining regulatory approval for use to treat narcolepsy.:18–25;28:10 In 1996 Orphan contracted with Lonza Group, a contract manufacturer for supply of the drug.
In 2000 the Hillory J. Farias and Samantha Reid Date-Rape Prevention Act of 2000 was signed into law in the US, which made GHB on Schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act, but sodium oxybate, when used under an IND or NDA from the US FDA, was considered a Schedule III substance but with Schedule I trafficking penalties.
In January 2007 Valeant announced that Jazz had licensed rights to market Xyrem in Canada to Valeant.
In July 2007 Jazz and their subsidiary Orphan Medical pleaded guilty to a criminal charge of felony misbranding in their marketing of sodium oxybate; they also settled a civil suit at the same time. The matter had been raised by a former sales representative who filed a qui tam case against the company under the False Claims Act. Sales representatives had made sales calls to doctors who did not treat people with narcolepsy and told them about potential uses for the drug including fatigue, insomnia, chronic pain, weight loss, depression, bipolar disorders, and movement disorders like Parkinson’s Disease, and downplayed the risks described in the label's black box warning. A sales manager who had been involved in the illegal marketing scheme had previously pleaded guilty and a psychiatrist who promoted the drug had previously been charged. Jazz paid $20M in total and agreed to a corporate integrity agreement and to implement internal reforms.
In October 2011, the FDA sent Jazz another FDA warning letter for failing to collect, evaluate, and promptly report adverse effects to the FDA after it started marketing the drug. It sent another letter in 2013 saying that the problems described in the 2011 letter appeared to be resolved.
In January 2017 the FDA approved the first generic sodium oxybate product for narcolepsy symptoms, which is also subject to the same REMS program conditions as the original. By April 2017 7 companies had filed ANDAs with the FDA to market generic versions of Xyrem and Jazz had filed patent infringement cases against them. Hikma Pharmaceuticals had been the first company to file an ANDA and Jazz settled with them in April 2017; under the agreement Hikma could begin selling an authorized generic in 2023 under Jazz' REMS, and would have five years of exclusivity, however those conditions could change if Jazz' patents were invalidated.
In 2017, Jazz and Valeant terminated the agreement under which Valeant marketed Xyrem in Canada.
Society and cultureEdit
In the US, GHB is a Schedule I controlled substance, while sodium oxybate, when used under an FDA NDA or IND, was classified as a Schedule III controlled substance for medicinal use under the Controlled Substances Act, with illicit use subject to Schedule I penalties.
In the US, the cost (as of Q3 2015) of Xyrem is $5,468.09 per 180 mL bottle (500 mg/mL)(a 10 to 15-day supply) As of 2017 the cost of sodium oxybate in the UK was £540.00 to £1,080.00 for a thirty day supply, which at typical doses is £6,500 to £13,100 per year.
Jazz Pharmaceuticals raised the price of Xyrem 841% earning a total of $569 million in 2013 and representing more than 50% of Jazz Pharmaceutical's revenues. In 2007 it cost $2.04; by 2014 it cost $19.40 per 1-milliliter dose. Jazz offers copay assistance to help patients access the expensive drug. According to DRX, a drug-data report published by Bloomberg, Jazz Pharmaceuticals price increase on Xyrem topped the list of price hikes in 2014.
Historically, orphan drugs cost more than other drugs and have received special treatment since the enactment of the U.S. Orphan Drug Act of 1983. However, these steep price increases of orphan and other specialty drugs has come under scrutiny. The average cost of a specialty drug in the US was $65,000 annually in June 2013 (about $5,416 a month). The price of Xyrem in the US has inflated by an average of 40% annually since it became available as a prescription.
In European Union (EU) countries, the government either provides national health insurance (as in the UK and Italy) or strictly regulates quasi-private social insurance funds (as in Germany, France, and the Netherlands). These government agencies are the sole purchaser (or regulator) of medical goods and services and have the power to set prices. The cost of pharmaceuticals, including sodium oxybate, tends to be lower in these countries.
NHS England authorises and pays for sodium oxybate by means of individual funding requests on the basis of exceptional circumstances. The British Department of Health pays for the medication for 80 patients who are taking legal action over problems linked to the use of the swine flu vaccine Pandemrix at a cost of £12,000 a year. As of 2016 there were many areas in the UK where NHS did not pay for it. In May 2016 they were ordered by the High Court to provide funding to treat a teenager with severe narcolepsy. The judge criticised their “thoroughly bad decision” and “absurd” policy discriminating against the girl when hundreds of other NHS patients already receive the drug.
As of April 2018 sodium oxybarate was sold under the following brands: Alcover (Italy), Gamma-OH (France), Natrii oxybutyras Kalceks (Latvia), Somsanit (Germany), Xyrem (many countries by Jazz and UCB).
Sodium oxybate needs to be given during the night; as of 2017 research was ongoing to create formulations that would last through the night.
Jazz has been developing JZP-386, a deuterated analog of sodium oxybate. The company presented Phase I results in 2015, stating that deuterium-related effects made it necessary to do further formulation work as part of the drug's development.
- "International brands for Sodium Oxybate -". Drugs.com. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
- "US sodium oxybate label" (PDF). FDA. 16 November 2017. Retrieved 14 April 2018. For US label updates see FDA index page for NDA 021196
- "UK label Summary of Product Characteristics". Electronic Medicines Compendium. 8 September 2015. Retrieved 14 April 2018.
- "Critical review of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB)" (PDF). 2012.
- "Alcover: Riassunto delle Caratteristiche del Prodotto". Agenzia Italiana del Farmaco. 31 March 2017. Index page
- "GHB Fact Sheet" (PDF). DEA. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
- Wang YG, Swick TJ, Carter LP, Thorpy MJ, Benowitz NL (August 2009). "Safety overview of postmarketing and clinical experience of sodium oxybate (Xyrem): abuse, misuse, dependence, and diversion". Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine. 5 (4): 365–71. PMC 2725257. PMID 19968016.
- Staton, Tracy (7 May 2014). "10 big brands keep pumping out big bucks, with a little help from price hikes". Fierce Pharma. Retrieved 13 November 2015.
- "Press release: US Attorney's Office - Eastern District of New York". US Department of Justice. 13 July 2007.
- Alshaikh, Mashael K.; Tricco, Andrea C.; Tashkandi, Mariam; Mamdani, Muhammad; Straus, Sharon E.; BaHammam, Ahmed S. (2012). "Sodium oxybate for narcolepsy with cataplexy: systematic review and meta-analysis". Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine. 8 (4): 451–458. doi:10.5664/jcsm.2048. PMC 3407266. PMID 22893778.
- Boscolo-Berto, Rafael; Viel, Guido; Montagnese, Sara; Raduazzo, Daniella I.; Ferrara, Santo D.; Dauvilliers, Yves (2012). "Narcolepsy and effectiveness of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB): a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials". Sleep Medicine Reviews. 16 (5): 431–43. doi:10.1016/j.smrv.2011.09.001. PMID 22055895.
- Keating, Gillian M. (2014). "Sodium oxybate: a review of its use in alcohol withdrawal syndrome and in the maintenance of abstinence in alcohol dependence". Clinical Drug Investigation. 34 (1): 63–80. doi:10.1007/s40261-013-0158-x. PMID 24307430.
- Busardò, Francesco Paolo; Kyriakou, Charalampia; Napoletano, S.; Marinelli, Eugene; Zaami, Simona (2015). "Clinical applications of sodium oxybate (GHB): from narcolepsy to alcohol withdrawal syndrome" (PDF). European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences. 19 (23): 4654–4663. PMID 26698265.
- Mannucci, Carmen; Pichini, Simona; Spagnolo, Elvira Ventura; Calapai, Fabrizio; Gangemi, Sebastiano; Navarra, Michele; Calapai, Gioacchino (2018). "Sodium oxybate therapy for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and the maintenance of alcohol abstinence". Current Drug Metabolism. 19. doi:10.2174/1389200219666171207122227. PMID 29219048.
- Miller, Richard Lawrence (2002). "GHB". The Encyclopedia of Addictive Drugs. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 182–185. ISBN 9780313318078.
- Abadinsky, Howard (2010). "GHB and GBL". Drug Use and Abuse: A Comprehensive Introduction (7th ed.). Cengage Learning. pp. 197–198. ISBN 9780495809913.
- Galloway, Gantt P.; Frederick, S. L.; Staggers, Frank E.; Gonzales, Marco; Stalcup, S. Alex; Smith, David E. (1997). "Gamma-hydroxybutyrate: an emerging drug of abuse that causes physical dependence". Addiction. 92 (1): 89–96. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.1997.tb03640.x. PMID 9060200.
- "FDA Approves 'Date-Rape' Drug to Treat Sleep Disorder". The Washington Post. July 18, 2002. Retrieved June 23, 2018.
- Wedin, Gregory P.; Hornfeldt, Carl S.; Ylitalo, Lisa M. (2006). "The clinical development of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB)". Current Drug Safety. 1 (1): 99–106. doi:10.2174/157488606775252647. PMID 18690919.
- Carter, Lawrence P.; Pardi, Daniel; Gorsline, Jane; Griffiths, Roland R. (2009). "Illicit gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and pharmaceutical sodium oxybate (Xyrem): differences in characteristics and misuse". Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 104 (1–2): 1–10. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2009.04.012. PMC 713368. PMID 19493637.
- Wise, Merrill S.; Arand, Donna L.; Auger, R. Robert; Brooks, Stephen N.; Watson, Natalie F. (2007). "Treatment of narcolepsy and other hypersomnias of central origin: An American Academy of Sleep Medicine Review". Sleep. 30 (12): 1712–1727. doi:10.1093/sleep/30.12.1712. PMC 2276130. PMID 18246981.
- Lewis, David E. (2012). "Section 4.4.3 Aleksandr Mikhailovich Zaitsev". Early Russian organic chemists and their legacy. Springer. ISBN 9783642282195.
- Saytzeff, Alexander (1874). "Über die Reduction des Succinylchlorids". Liebigs Annalen der Chemie (in German). 171 (2): 258–290. doi:10.1002/jlac.18741710216.
- Laborit, H; Jouany, JM; Gerard, J; Fabiani, F (1960). "Generalities concernant l'etude experimentale de l'emploi clinique du gamma hydroxybutyrate de Na". Aggressologie (in French). 1: 397–406. PMID 13758011.
- Centers for Disease Control (30 November 1990). "Multistate outbreak of poisonings associated with illicit use of gamma hydroxy butyrate". MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 39 (47): 861–3. PMID 2122223.
- Dyer, JE (July 1991). "gamma-Hydroxybutyrate: a health-food product producing coma and seizurelike activity". The American Journal of Emergency Medicine. 9 (4): 321–4. PMID 2054002.
- Institute of Medicine; National Research Council (US) Committee on the Framework for Evaluating the Safety of Dietary Supplements (2002). "Appendix D: Table of Food and Drug Administration Actions on Dietary Supplements". Proposed Framework for Evaluating the Safety of Dietary Supplements: For Comment. National Academies Press (US).
- "GHB: A Club Drug To Watch" (PDF). Substance Abuse Treatment Advisory. 2 (1). November 2002.
- Mason, P. E. (2002). "Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid (GHB) Intoxication". Academic Emergency Medicine. 9 (7): 730–739. doi:10.1197/aemj.9.7.730. PMID 12093716.
- "Transcript: FDA Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee Meeting". FDA. 6 June 2001.
- "Jazz Pharma (JAZZ) Announces that Lonza has Terminated Their Sodium Oxybate Supply Agreement". Street Insider. March 25, 2010.
- "2000 - Addition of Gamma-Hydroxybutyric Acid to Schedule I". US Department of Justice via the Federal Register. March 13, 2000.
- "William J. Clinton: Statement on Signing the Hillory J. Farias and Samantha Reid Date-Rape Drug Prohibition Act of 2000". February 18, 2000.
- "FDA Approves 'Date-Rape' Drug to Treat Sleep Disorder". Washington Post. 18 July 2002.
- "Celltech acquires rights to Xyrem from Orphan Medical - Pharmaceutical". The Pharma Letter. 3 November 2003.
- "Form S-1/A EX-10.41 Amended and Restated Xyrem License and Distribution Agreement". www.sec.gov. Jazz Pharmaceuticals vis SEC Edgar. 27 March 2007. Form S-1/A Index page
- "Celltech sold to Belgian firm in £1.5bn deal". the Guardian. 18 May 2004.
- "Jazz completes Orphan Medical buy - Pharmaceutical industry news". The Pharma Letter. 4 July 2005.
- "Press release: Valeant Pharmaceuticals Signs Licensing Agreement for Canadian Rights to (C)Xyrem(R) (Sodium Oxybate) from Jazz Pharmaceuticals. - Free Online Library". Valeant via Business Wire. January 12, 2007.
- Berenson, Alex (22 July 2006). "Indictment of Doctor Tests Drug Marketing Rules". The New York Times.
- Berenson, Alex (14 July 2007). "Maker of Narcolepsy Drug Pleads Guilty in U.S. Case". The New York Times.
- "FDA Warning Letter, Jazz Pharmaceuticals, Inc 10/11/11".
- The Associated Press (2010-10-12). "FDA Says No to Jazz Pharma Fibromyalgia Drug". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-10-12.
- "2013 - Jazz Pharmaceuticals, Inc.- Close Out Letter". FDA. 2 August 2013.
- "Press release: FDA approves a generic of Xyrem with a REMS Program". FDA Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. 17 January 2017.
- "This Rival Might Swipe 20% Of Jazz's Sleep Business, But Stock Perks Up | Investor's Business Daily". Investor's Business Daily. 6 April 2017.
- "8-K". www.sec.gov. Jazz via SEC Edgar. April 5, 2017.
- "10-K For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2017". Jazz via SEC Edgar. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
- "Narcolepsy with or without cataplexy in adults: pitolisant | Guidance and guidelines: Other Treatments". NICE. March 2017. Retrieved 14 April 2018.
- Kane, Nancy (May 2017). "Sodium oxybate for the treatment of narcolepsy with cataplexy in adults" (PDF). NHS Regional Drug & Therapeutics Centre (Newcastle).
- Rattner, Steven (2013-06-30). "An Orphan Jackpot". The New York Times.
- Danzon PM (Spring 2000). "Making sense of drug prices" (PDF). Regulation. 23 (1): 56–63.
- "Narcolepsy". NHS Choices. 29 May 2016. Retrieved 14 April 2018.
- "DH funds private prescriptions for drug denied to NHS patients". Health Service Journal. 20 July 2015. Retrieved 20 July 2015.
- "Judge criticises NHS England for 'totally irrational' drug decision". Health Service Journal. 4 May 2016. Retrieved 4 May 2016.
- "Sodium oxybate: CHMP Scientific Discussion" (PDF). EMA. 9 August 2006. Linked from EMA index page for EMEA 000593
- Abad, VC; Guilleminault, C (2017). "New developments in the management of narcolepsy". Nature and Science of Sleep. 9: 39–57. doi:10.2147/NSS.S103467. PMC 5344488. PMID 28424564.
- de Biase, S; Nilo, A; Gigli, GL; Valente, M (August 2017). "Investigational therapies for the treatment of narcolepsy". Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs. 26 (8): 953–963. doi:10.1080/13543784.2017.1356819. PMID 28726523.