Lithic fragment (geology)
Lithic fragments, or lithics, are pieces of other rocks that have been eroded down to sand size and now are sand grains in a sedimentary rock. They were first described and named (in their modern definitions) by Bill Dickinson in 1970. Lithic fragments can be derived from sedimentary, igneous or metamorphic rocks. A lithic fragment is defined using the Gazzi-Dickinson point-counting method and being in the sand-size fraction. Sand grains in sedimentary rocks that are fragments of larger rocks that are not identified using the Gazzi-Dickinson method are usually called rock fragments instead of lithic fragments. Sandstones rich in lithic fragments are called lithic sandstones.
These can include granular (~rhyolitic), microlitic (~andesitic), lathwork (~basaltic), and vitric (glassy). These correlations between composition and volcanic lithic fragment type are approximate, at best. By definition, intrusive igneous rock fragments can not be considered lithic fragments.
- Dickinson, W.R., 1970, Interpreting detrital modes of graywacke and arkose: Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, v. 40, p. 695–707.
- Affolter, M.D. and Hendrix, M. S., 2004, Correlations between volcanic lithic fragments and volcanic rock, Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, Vol. 36, No. 5, p. 370
- Mathew D. Affolter, Raymond V. Ingersoll; Quantitative Analysis of Volcanic Lithic Fragments. Journal of Sedimentary Research ; 89 (6): 479–486. doi: https://doi.org/10.2110/jsr.2019.30