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United States presidential election in Georgia, 1948

The 1948 United States presidential election in Georgia took place on November 2, 1948, as part of the wider United States Presidential election. Voters chose twelve representatives, or electors, to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

United States presidential election in Georgia, 1948

← 1944 November 2, 1948 (1948-11-02) 1952 →

  Harry S. Truman.jpg StromThurmond.png ThomasDewey.png
Nominee Harry Truman Strom Thurmond Thomas E. Dewey
Party Democratic Dixiecrat Republican
Home state Missouri South Carolina New York
Running mate Alben Barkley Fielding L. Wright Earl Warren
Electoral vote 12 0 0
Popular vote 254,646 85,055 76,691
Percentage 60.81% 20.31% 18.31%

Georgia Presidential Election Results 1948.svg
County Results

President before election

Harry Truman
Democratic

Elected President

Harry Truman
Democratic

Contents

BackgroundEdit

With the exception of a handful of historically Unionist North Georgia counties – chiefly Fannin but also to a lesser extent Pickens, Gilmer and Towns – Georgia since the 1880s had been a one-party state dominated by the Democratic Party. Disfranchisement of almost all African-Americans and most poor whites had made the Republican Party virtually nonexistent outside of local governments in those few hill counties, and the national Democratic Party served as the guardian of white supremacy against a Republican Party historically associated with memories of Reconstruction. The only competitive elections were Democratic primaries, which state laws restricted to whites on the grounds of the Democratic Party being legally a private club.[1]

Dixiecrat revoltEdit

However, on February 2, 1948, incumbent President Harry S. Truman, fearing that the antidemocratic practices and racial discrimination of the South would severely denigrate the United States' reputation in the Cold War,[2] launched the first Civil Rights bill since the end of Reconstruction, along with an executive order for desegregation of the military. Mississippi Governor Fielding Wright had already sounded a call for revolt, which he took to the Southern Governors Conference at Wakulla Springs, Florida,[3] to say that calls for civil rights legislation by national Democrats would not be tolerated in Dixie.

After Truman was renominated at the 1948 Democratic National Convention, Southern Democrats walked out and convened at Birmingham, Alabama on July 17, nominating South Carolina Governor James Strom Thurmond for president and Mississippi Governor Fielding L. Wright for vice president.[4]

To bolt or not to boltEdit

Given that Georgia had no threat from the Republican Party and a relatively high proportion African Americans in its population, one would have expected the Peach State to bolt from Truman's civil rights platform and nominate Thurmond as the official Democratic Party candidate. However, leading "conservative" gubernatorial candidate Herman Talmadge had experienced the "Three Governors Crisis" in 1947 which removed him from office[a] until a special election was to be held concurrently with the presidential election.[5] Herman consequently feared that if he supported Thurmond for president, Truman loyalists would challenge him for governor in the concurrent general election. Moreover, neither the Talmadge nor the anti-Talmadge faction wished to be accused of bolting during the summer's Democratic gubernatorial primary.[6]

Thus, although most of the Talmadge faction was pro-Thurmond,[7] it did not nominate as Democratic electors candidates pledged to support Thurmond and Fielding Wright, unlike the anti-Long faction in Louisiana.[6] Thumond and Wright thus had to take their place on the ballot as the "States' Rights" party. Interim Governor Thompson also played an important role in ensuring the "Democratic" label would be given to electors supporting the national ticket.[8]

VoteEdit

Because Southern senators and congressmen had their seniority to worry about as it determined places on committees, few of Georgia's congressmen would risk openly supporting Thurmond once Truman was established as the "Democratic" candidate.[9] Consequently, Truman had no trouble carrying the state by 40.49 percentage points, and Thurmond gained a majority in just ten of 159 counties. Almost all of these Thurmond counties were located adjacent to the South Carolina governor's home county of Edgefield, South Carolina, whilst in most counties north of Atlanta Thurmond's percentage remained in single figures.[8]

ResultsEdit

United States presidential election in Georgia, 1948 [10]
Party Candidate Votes Percentage Electoral votes
Democratic Harry Truman 254,646 60.81% 12
States' Rights Strom Thurmond 85,055 20.31% 0
Republican Thomas E. Dewey 76,691 18.31% 0
Progressive Henry Wallace 1,636 0.39% 0
Prohibition Claude Watson 732 0.17% 0
Socialist (Write-in) Norman Thomas 3 0.01% 0

Results by countyEdit

County Truman#[11] Truman% Dewey#[11] Dewey% Thurmond#[12] Thurmond% Wallace#[13] Wallace% Others# Others% Total votes cast
Appling 2,268 70.72% 289 9.01% 639 19.93% 5 0.16% 6 0.19% 3,207
Atkinson 938 83.75% 66 5.89% 114 10.18% 1 0.09% 1 0.09% 1,120
Bacon 785 63.56% 104 8.42% 343 27.77% 2 0.16% 1 0.08% 1,235
Baker 218 77.03% 7 2.47% 58 20.49% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 283
Baldwin 1,132 54.03% 559 26.68% 395 18.85% 6 0.29% 3 0.14% 2,095
Banks 533 89.13% 38 6.35% 26 4.35% 0 0.00% 1 0.17% 598
Barrow 1,554 75.69% 155 7.55% 344 16.76% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 2,053
Bartow 2,384 77.71% 440 14.34% 203 6.62% 28 0.91% 13 0.42% 3,068
Ben Hill 1,438 75.84% 223 11.76% 225 11.87% 1 0.05% 9 0.47% 1,896
Berrien 1,772 83.31% 107 5.03% 237 11.14% 6 0.28% 5 0.24% 2,127
Bibb 7,011 49.80% 3,043 21.62% 3,837 27.26% 165 1.17% 21 0.15% 14,077
Bleckley 536 63.96% 71 8.47% 227 27.09% 0 0.00% 4 0.48% 838
Brantley 463 60.44% 79 10.31% 224 29.24% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 766
Brooks 975 58.14% 188 11.21% 511 30.47% 2 0.12% 1 0.06% 1,677
Bryan 1,147 65.21% 135 7.67% 472 26.83% 4 0.23% 1 0.06% 1,759
Bulloch 2,036 68.95% 276 9.35% 625 21.16% 6 0.20% 10 0.34% 2,953
Burke 357 23.86% 107 7.15% 1,028 68.72% 2 0.13% 2 0.13% 1,496
Butts 987 84.50% 61 5.22% 119 10.19% 1 0.09% 0 0.00% 1,168
Calhoun 399 77.63% 36 7.00% 79 15.37% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 514
Camden 552 50.88% 208 19.17% 324 29.86% 1 0.09% 0 0.00% 1,085
Candler 589 58.49% 125 12.41% 290 28.80% 2 0.20% 1 0.10% 1,007
Carroll 2,671 72.76% 526 14.33% 470 12.80% 3 0.08% 1 0.03% 3,671
Catoosa 1,051 68.34% 268 17.43% 214 13.91% 3 0.20% 2 0.13% 1,538
Charlton 339 59.68% 70 12.32% 159 27.99% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 568
Chatham 10,864 45.46% 5,966 24.97% 6,839 28.62% 210 0.88% 18 0.08% 23,897
Chattahoochee 46 39.66% 1 0.86% 69 59.48% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 116
Chattooga 3,396 85.97% 362 9.16% 187 4.73% 4 0.10% 1 0.03% 3,950
Cherokee 1,267 58.85% 631 29.31% 250 11.61% 4 0.19% 1 0.05% 2,153
Clarke 3,095 71.69% 707 16.38% 497 11.51% 11 0.25% 7 0.16% 4,317
Clay 295 80.38% 39 10.63% 33 8.99% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 367
Clayton 2,192 66.50% 339 10.29% 757 22.97% 4 0.12% 4 0.12% 3,296
Clinch 1,283 73.57% 168 9.63% 287 16.46% 1 0.06% 5 0.29% 1,744
Cobb 4,766 67.15% 1,524 21.47% 779 10.97% 16 0.23% 13 0.18% 7,098
Coffee 3,168 76.45% 309 7.46% 653 15.76% 9 0.22% 5 0.12% 4,144
Colquitt 2,255 65.08% 537 15.50% 664 19.16% 7 0.20% 2 0.06% 3,465
Columbia 164 15.47% 59 5.57% 836 78.87% 0 0.00% 1 0.09% 1,060
Cook 1,192 75.73% 123 7.81% 255 16.20% 0 0.00% 4 0.25% 1,574
Coweta 2,214 83.58% 219 8.27% 209 7.89% 1 0.04% 6 0.23% 2,649
Crawford 389 54.79% 64 9.01% 257 36.20% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 710
Crisp 1,225 62.09% 221 11.20% 524 26.56% 1 0.05% 2 0.10% 1,973
Dade 1,488 73.45% 338 16.68% 193 9.53% 3 0.15% 4 0.20% 2,026
Dawson 660 44.35% 786 52.82% 42 2.82% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 1,488
De Kalb 10,826 55.46% 5,758 29.50% 2,845 14.57% 64 0.33% 28 0.14% 19,521
Decatur 1,209 53.21% 296 13.03% 757 33.32% 3 0.13% 7 0.31% 2,272
Dodge 1,725 69.75% 210 8.49% 532 21.51% 2 0.08% 4 0.16% 2,473
Dooly 577 88.50% 22 3.37% 51 7.82% 1 0.15% 1 0.15% 652
Dougherty 2,517 64.19% 614 15.66% 768 19.59% 18 0.46% 4 0.10% 3,921
Douglas 1,336 39.93% 1,019 30.45% 987 29.50% 2 0.06% 2 0.06% 3,346
Early 1,110 82.04% 94 6.95% 148 10.94% 0 0.00% 1 0.07% 1,353
Echols 332 53.29% 32 5.14% 258 41.41% 1 0.16% 0 0.00% 623
Effingham 347 26.84% 160 12.37% 779 60.25% 4 0.31% 3 0.23% 1,293
Elbert 1,617 76.17% 152 7.16% 350 16.49% 1 0.05% 3 0.14% 2,123
Emanuel 1,436 59.88% 241 10.05% 717 29.90% 3 0.13% 1 0.04% 2,398
Evans 953 67.97% 118 8.42% 327 23.32% 0 0.00% 4 0.29% 1,402
Fannin 1,998 41.03% 2,789 57.27% 82 1.68% 0 0.00% 1 0.02% 4,870
Fayette 825 72.12% 54 4.72% 263 22.99% 0 0.00% 2 0.17% 1,144
Floyd 5,247 68.94% 1,689 22.19% 653 8.58% 17 0.22% 5 0.07% 7,611
Forsyth 1,813 68.11% 573 21.53% 252 9.47% 3 0.11% 21 0.79% 2,662
Franklin 1,036 77.95% 138 10.38% 154 11.59% 1 0.08% 0 0.00% 1,329
Fulton 29,318 57.43% 14,976 29.33% 5,980 11.71% 568 1.11% 212 0.42% 51,054
Gilmer 1,275 50.20% 1,203 47.36% 59 2.32% 1 0.04% 2 0.08% 2,540
Glascock 123 24.40% 13 2.58% 365 72.42% 3 0.60% 0 0.00% 504
Glynn 2,444 53.36% 1,090 23.80% 992 21.66% 50 1.09% 4 0.09% 4,580
Gordon 1,523 73.75% 377 18.26% 157 7.60% 1 0.05% 7 0.34% 2,065
Grady 1,516 69.54% 244 11.19% 416 19.08% 1 0.05% 3 0.14% 2,180
Greene 1,213 76.29% 92 5.79% 282 17.74% 1 0.06% 2 0.13% 1,590
Gwinnett 2,832 75.99% 413 11.08% 471 12.64% 4 0.11% 7 0.19% 3,727
Habersham 1,477 71.32% 368 17.77% 212 10.24% 10 0.48% 4 0.19% 2,071
Hall 3,093 74.37% 606 14.57% 449 10.80% 4 0.10% 7 0.17% 4,159
Hancock 441 57.12% 111 14.38% 219 28.37% 1 0.13% 0 0.00% 772
Haralson 2,263 63.51% 831 23.32% 457 12.83% 7 0.20% 5 0.14% 3,563
Harris 759 66.75% 138 12.14% 238 20.93% 1 0.09% 1 0.09% 1,137
Hart 1,363 89.08% 78 5.10% 87 5.69% 0 0.00% 2 0.13% 1,530
Heard 670 83.75% 77 9.63% 53 6.63% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 800
Henry 1,400 75.84% 229 12.41% 213 11.54% 3 0.16% 1 0.05% 1,846
Houston 1,437 69.35% 204 9.85% 424 20.46% 4 0.19% 3 0.14% 2,072
Irwin 946 69.82% 146 10.77% 256 18.89% 6 0.44% 1 0.07% 1,355
Jackson 1,866 83.98% 145 6.53% 211 9.50% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 2,222
Jasper 562 64.97% 87 10.06% 215 24.86% 1 0.12% 0 0.00% 865
Jeff Davis 611 67.51% 70 7.73% 211 23.31% 9 0.99% 4 0.44% 905
Jefferson 544 31.70% 137 7.98% 1,031 60.08% 2 0.12% 2 0.12% 1,716
Jenkins 595 61.40% 98 10.11% 275 28.38% 1 0.10% 0 0.00% 969
Johnson 685 54.54% 67 5.33% 503 40.05% 0 0.00% 1 0.08% 1,256
Jones 588 52.78% 103 9.25% 423 37.97% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 1,114
Lamar 909 71.63% 164 12.92% 191 15.05% 0 0.00% 5 0.39% 1,269
Lanier 486 71.47% 92 13.53% 100 14.71% 1 0.15% 1 0.15% 680
Laurens 2,325 61.12% 268 7.05% 1,211 31.83% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 3,804
Lee 215 45.94% 36 7.69% 216 46.15% 1 0.21% 0 0.00% 468
Liberty 820 67.66% 121 9.98% 269 22.19% 2 0.17% 0 0.00% 1,212
Lincoln 99 13.58% 32 4.39% 596 81.76% 1 0.14% 1 0.14% 729
Long 337 65.69% 25 4.87% 151 29.43% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 513
Lowndes 1,867 47.17% 634 16.02% 1,448 36.58% 5 0.13% 4 0.10% 3,958
Lumpkin 547 74.02% 142 19.22% 41 5.55% 5 0.68% 4 0.54% 739
Macon 675 57.11% 127 10.74% 379 32.06% 1 0.08% 0 0.00% 1,182
Madison 1,160 80.61% 62 4.31% 214 14.87% 2 0.14% 1 0.07% 1,439
Marion 283 52.31% 45 8.32% 212 39.19% 1 0.18% 0 0.00% 541
McDuffie 182 12.13% 51 3.40% 1,260 84.00% 2 0.13% 5 0.33% 1,500
McIntosh 425 48.85% 233 26.78% 201 23.10% 11 1.26% 0 0.00% 870
Meriwether 1,967 81.65% 204 8.47% 237 9.84% 1 0.04% 0 0.00% 2,409
Miller 723 83.97% 32 3.72% 94 10.92% 6 0.70% 6 0.70% 861
Mitchell 1,453 70.30% 152 7.35% 457 22.11% 3 0.15% 2 0.10% 2,067
Monroe 881 62.04% 169 11.90% 368 25.92% 1 0.07% 1 0.07% 1,420
Montgomery 1,048 61.90% 117 6.91% 520 30.71% 5 0.30% 3 0.18% 1,693
Morgan 1,147 81.58% 115 8.18% 138 9.82% 4 0.28% 2 0.14% 1,406
Murray 1,653 68.19% 616 25.41% 147 6.06% 7 0.29% 1 0.04% 2,424
Muscogee 5,920 58.02% 2,443 23.94% 1,802 17.66% 31 0.30% 7 0.07% 10,203
Newton 2,113 84.52% 243 9.72% 143 5.72% 0 0.00% 1 0.04% 2,500
Oconee 579 61.93% 94 10.05% 254 27.17% 0 0.00% 8 0.86% 935
Oglethorpe 819 73.26% 62 5.55% 237 21.20% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 1,118
Paulding 981 67.38% 333 22.87% 139 9.55% 0 0.00% 3 0.21% 1,456
Peach 642 53.81% 166 13.91% 372 31.18% 11 0.92% 2 0.17% 1,193
Pickens 1,239 45.52% 1,255 46.11% 225 8.27% 3 0.11% 0 0.00% 2,722
Pierce 908 59.97% 108 7.13% 492 32.50% 3 0.20% 3 0.20% 1,514
Pike 256 54.24% 72 15.25% 142 30.08% 0 0.00% 2 0.42% 472
Polk 2,918 78.74% 491 13.25% 277 7.47% 19 0.51% 1 0.03% 3,706
Pulaski 567 71.41% 64 8.06% 161 20.28% 2 0.25% 0 0.00% 794
Putnam 609 71.31% 110 12.88% 132 15.46% 3 0.35% 0 0.00% 854
Quitman 246 68.14% 19 5.26% 93 25.76% 3 0.83% 0 0.00% 361
Rabun 747 77.09% 165 17.03% 54 5.57% 2 0.21% 1 0.10% 969
Randolph 575 59.28% 134 13.81% 259 26.70% 2 0.21% 0 0.00% 970
Richmond 2,450 19.07% 1,528 11.89% 8,814 68.61% 31 0.24% 23 0.18% 12,846
Rockdale 1,209 81.63% 126 8.51% 140 9.45% 1 0.07% 5 0.34% 1,481
Schley 257 68.53% 43 11.47% 74 19.73% 0 0.00% 1 0.27% 375
Screven 838 55.39% 172 11.37% 502 33.18% 0 0.00% 1 0.07% 1,513
Seminole 722 80.31% 105 11.68% 71 7.90% 0 0.00% 1 0.11% 899
Spalding 3,441 74.38% 506 10.94% 671 14.50% 2 0.04% 6 0.13% 4,626
Stephens 912 68.93% 278 21.01% 130 9.83% 0 0.00% 3 0.23% 1,323
Stewart 276 46.94% 46 7.82% 265 45.07% 1 0.17% 0 0.00% 588
Sumter 1,018 47.48% 256 11.94% 858 40.02% 2 0.09% 10 0.47% 2,144
Talbot 582 71.67% 92 11.33% 135 16.63% 1 0.12% 2 0.25% 812
Taliaferro 504 84.14% 21 3.51% 73 12.19% 0 0.00% 1 0.17% 599
Tattnall 1,071 57.46% 216 11.59% 567 30.42% 5 0.27% 5 0.27% 1,864
Taylor 638 57.95% 99 8.99% 360 32.70% 3 0.27% 1 0.09% 1,101
Telfair 712 63.18% 75 6.65% 339 30.08% 0 0.00% 1 0.09% 1,127
Terrell 608 63.93% 100 10.52% 242 25.45% 0 0.00% 1 0.11% 951
Thomas 1,429 38.97% 925 25.22% 1,295 35.31% 8 0.22% 10 0.27% 3,667
Tift 3,158 68.00% 637 13.72% 829 17.85% 5 0.11% 15 0.32% 4,644
Toombs 1,161 57.59% 193 9.57% 656 32.54% 1 0.05% 5 0.25% 2,016
Towns 516 62.62% 302 36.65% 6 0.73% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 824
Treutlen 413 61.37% 26 3.86% 216 32.10% 1 0.15% 17 2.53% 673
Troup 3,896 75.37% 536 10.37% 731 14.14% 4 0.08% 2 0.04% 5,169
Turner 774 67.72% 147 12.86% 222 19.42% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 1,143
Twiggs 359 44.05% 52 6.38% 401 49.20% 1 0.12% 2 0.25% 815
Union 1,420 51.12% 1,274 45.86% 75 2.70% 2 0.07% 7 0.25% 2,778
Upson 2,432 81.26% 262 8.75% 293 9.79% 1 0.03% 5 0.17% 2,993
Walker 3,418 69.83% 980 20.02% 477 9.74% 7 0.14% 13 0.27% 4,895
Walton 2,440 84.99% 164 5.71% 262 9.13% 3 0.10% 2 0.07% 2,871
Ware 2,611 56.15% 655 14.09% 1,374 29.55% 6 0.13% 4 0.09% 4,650
Warren 256 31.45% 33 4.05% 525 64.50% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 814
Washington 1,169 84.77% 204 14.79% 2 0.15% 4 0.29% 0 0.00% 1,379
Wayne 1,277 72.89% 190 10.84% 278 15.87% 2 0.11% 5 0.29% 1,752
Webster 118 37.58% 79 25.16% 117 37.26% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 314
Wheeler 560 63.28% 39 4.41% 286 32.32% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 885
White 497 78.89% 59 9.37% 72 11.43% 0 0.00% 2 0.32% 630
Whitfield 3,419 63.42% 1,249 23.17% 621 11.52% 94 1.74% 8 0.15% 5,391
Wilcox 791 70.94% 75 6.73% 247 22.15% 1 0.09% 1 0.09% 1,115
Wilkes 771 63.61% 95 7.84% 345 28.47% 1 0.08% 0 0.00% 1,212
Wilkinson 501 45.59% 96 8.74% 500 45.50% 1 0.09% 1 0.09% 1,099
Worth 1,159 77.06% 124 8.24% 216 14.36% 3 0.20% 2 0.13% 1,504
Totals 254,646 60.80% 76,691 18.31% 85,135 20.33% 1,636 0.39% 736 0.18% 418,844

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Springer, Melanie Jean; How the States Shaped the Nation: American Electoral Institutions and Voter Turnout, 1920-2000, p. 155 ISBN 022611435X
  2. ^ Frederickson, Kari A.; The Dixiecrat Revolt and the End of the Solid South, p. 76 ISBN 0807849103
  3. ^ Key, Valdimer Orlando; Southern Politics in State and Nation, p. 330 Alfred A. Knopf (1949)
  4. ^ Key; Southern Politics, p. 335
  5. ^ Mickey, Robert; Paths Out of Dixie: The Democratization of Authoritarian Enclaves in America's Deep South, 1944-1972, p. 128 ISBN 1400838789
  6. ^ a b Key; Southern Politics, p. 341
  7. ^ Buchanan, Scott E.; Some of the People Who Ate My Barbecue Didn't Vote for Me: The Life of Georgia Governor Marvin Griffin, p. 79 ISBN
  8. ^ a b Mickey, Paths out of Dixie; p. 166
  9. ^ Sundquite, James L.; Dynamics of the Party System: Alignment and Realignment of Political Parties in the United States, p. 277 ISBN 0815723180
  10. ^ Dave Leip's U.S. Election Atlas; 1948 Presidential General Election Results – Georgia
  11. ^ a b Géoelections; 1948 Presidential Election Popular Vote (xlsx file for €15)
  12. ^ Géoelections; Popular Vote for Strom Thurmond (xlsx file for €15)
  13. ^ Géoelections; Popular Vote for Henry Wallace (xlsx file for €15)

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Georgia's Supreme Court in Thompson v Talmadge ruled that Melvin E. Thompson was the legitimate governor until the special election was held in the mid-term.