The Hanging Tree
The Hanging Tree is a 1959 Technicolor Western film directed by Delmer Daves, based on the novelette, The Hanging Tree, written by Dorothy M. Johnson in 1957. Karl Malden took over directing duties for several days when Daves fell ill. The film stars Gary Cooper, Maria Schell, George C. Scott and Malden and is set in the gold fields of Montana during the gold rush of the 1860s and '70s. The story follows a doctor who saves a criminal from a lynch mob, then learns of the man's past and tries to manipulate him.
|The Hanging Tree|
|Directed by||Delmer Daves|
|Produced by||Martin Jurow|
|Screenplay by||Wendell Mayes|
|Based on||The Hanging Tree|
by Dorothy M. Johnson
|Music by||Jerry Livingston (title song)|
|Cinematography||Ted D. McCord|
|Edited by||Owen Marks|
|Distributed by||Warner Bros.|
|Box office||$2.2 million (est. US/ Canada rentals)|
Joseph Frail (Gary Cooper)—doctor, gambler, gunslinger—rides into the small town of Skull Creek, Montana, with miners in a gold rush, looking to set up a doctor's office. He passes by the "hanging tree," an old oak with a thick branch over which has been slung a rope with a frayed end, presumably a former noose.
He rescues and treats Rune (Ben Piazza), a young man who was shot by "Frenchy" (Karl Malden) while trying to steal gold from a sluice. Frail forces Rune into temporary servitude with the threat of revealing he is the thief.
A stagecoach is robbed and overturned, killing the driver and a male passenger. A search party is formed, and Frenchy finds the sole survivor, Swiss immigrant Elizabeth Mahler (Maria Schell), daughter of the male passenger.
Crippled by burns, blindness and dehydration, Elizabeth is moved into a house next to the doctor's house to recover. The placement causes much chagrin among the town's righteous women, who believe that Elizabeth may be paying for her medical care through illicit behavior.
Frenchy sneaks in under the guise of trying to strike a business deal with Elizabeth, but instead tries to kiss her. Frail witnesses the aggression and chases Frenchy back to town. Frail beats him up and threatens to kill him. Meanwhile, a faith healer named Dr. Grubb (George C. Scott) sees Frail's medical practice as a threat.
Elizabeth eventually regains her sight and makes romantic overtures toward Frail. He rejects her. She leaves in a huff, determined to strike it rich as a prospector so that she can pay off Frail and get out from under his control.
She teams up with Rune and Frenchy, who plan to buy a claim and set up a sluice. To get money, she pawns a family heirloom necklace. It is worthless, but Frail secretly tells the storekeeper to loan her however much money she needs. Thus Frail secretly continues to control her.
She finds out and asks Frail why he did not respond to her affection. He reveals that his wife had an affair with his own brother. He found them together, both dead, an apparent murder-suicide. In a rage, he burned down his house with their bodies in it. He tells Elizabeth he is "not allowed to forget."
Elizabeth, Frenchy and Rune strike it rich on their claim, finding a "glory hole" of gold under a large tree stump. They ride into town, tossing a few pieces of gold to the townsfolk. Frenchy, overwhelmed by his sudden importance in the town, uses some of the gold to buy whiskey for everyone. The gaiety quickly turns into a riot of the lawless town members led by Dr. Grubb. While the lawful citizens of the town are engaged in fighting fires set by Grubb, Frenchy takes advantage of the commotion to make advances on Elizabeth. Her disinterest sparks a brutal physical assault as he attempts to rape her. Frail again catches Frenchy just in time. A fistfight ensues. Frenchy pulls his pistol and shoots, but misses. Frail kills Frenchy.
Seeing his opportunity to remove his "competition", Grubb incites the mob to lynch Frail. They carry him to the hanging tree, tie his hands, and stand him up in a wagon bed, the rope around his neck. Rune and Elizabeth rush in carrying their gold and the deed to their claim. Elizabeth offers everything to the townsfolk if they will let Frail live. As the mob turns on itself in the struggle to grab the gold and the deed, the lynch party disperses.
Elizabeth now feels she has finally repaid Frail in full. Rune slips the noose off, and Elizabeth turns to walk away. Frail calls out her name. She turns back, and steps to the end of the wagon. He kneels down, cups her chin with both hands, and they touch foreheads, while a ballad plays in the background.
Principal photography was shot on location in the Oak Creek Wildlife Area, in the mountains west of Yakima, Washington. The scenes during the opening credits and title, where Gary Cooper rides alongside the river on horseback with a pack horse in tow, were filmed about mid-June in 1958, just northeast of Goose Prairie, Washington, along the north bank of the Bumping River. The fictional small gold mining town of Skull Creek was a temporary film set constructed along the south side of Little Rattlesnake Creek by its confluence with Rattlesnake Creek, just southwest of Nile, Washington.
With the direction of Ted McCord, A.S.C., Directory of Photography for The Hanging Tree, made use of full-aperture photography and reduction printing to improve the grain quality of the film. This process involves widening the aperture of the camera to capture a larger image, then reducing the image back to standard size in post-production. While this achieves the greatest effect jumping from larger formats like 65mm film, Ted McCord used 35mm film and extended to aperture to the sprocket holes on the film. When shooting a subject from 100 feet, this extended the width of the shot from 42 feet to 48 feet. 
Marty Robbins performed the title song that was nominated for best song at the 32nd Annual Academy Awards and the 1960 Golden Laurel Award for Best Song. The lyrics contain a short reference to the film's story. It was also released on the reissue of the album Gunfighter Ballads and Trail Songs (1959) by Marty Robbins, who performed this song in the opening credits of this film. A known cover-version is by Frankie Laine who performed this song at the 32nd Academy Awards.
The film's score was composed by Max Steiner.
The film was received well by audiences and critics at its 1959 debut. Film Bulletin drew a parallel between the "glory hole" of gold Elizabeth and Rune discover and the profits of the film. The well-rounded casting, beautiful landscapes, and Marty Robbins title song all contributed to the film's success.
- "1959: Probable Domestic Take", Variety, 6 January 1960 p 34
- "Alumni of William Morris and MCA Shops, Jurow-Shepherd See Properties Magic That Baits Elusive Stars". Variety. February 11, 1959. p. 3. Retrieved July 6, 2019 – via Archive.org.
- Gene Triplett (August 11, 2012). "Gary Cooper's daughter revisits 'The Hanging Tree'". NewsOK blog.
- American Cinematographer (1959). Media History Digital Library. Los Angeles, The A.S.C. Agency, Inc. 1959.CS1 maint: others (link)
- "The Hanging Tree". Retrieved 7 January 2018 – via www.imdb.com.
- Film Bulletin Company; Film Bulletin Company (1959). Film Bulletin (1959). New York The Museum of Modern Art Library. New York, Film Bulletin Company.