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TO-92 front view[1]
TO-92 back view[1]

The TO-92 is a widely used style of semiconductor package mainly used for transistors. The case is often made of epoxy or plastic, and offers compact size at a very low cost.

Contents

History and originEdit

The JEDEC TO-92 descriptor is derived from the original full name for the package: Transistor Outline Package, Case Style 92.[1] The package is also known by the designations SOT54 and JEITA SC-43A.[2] By 1966 the package was being used by Motorola for their 2N3904 devices among others. [3]

Construction and orientationEdit

The case is molded around the transistor elements in two parts; the face is flat, bearing a machine-printed part number. The back is semi-circularly-shaped. A line of moulding flash from the injection-moulding process can be seen around the case.

The leads protrude from the bottom of the case. When looking at the face of the transistor, the leads are commonly configured from left-to-right as the emitter, base, and collector for 2N series (JEDEC) transistors, however, other configurations are possible, such as emitter, collector, and base commonly used for 2S series (Japanese) transistors.

If the face has a part name made up of only one letter and a few numbers, it is usually assumed to be a Japanese part number (with the base on the end rather than in the center). Thus, "C1234" would likely be a 2SC1234 device.

The leads coming out of the case are spaced 0.05" (1.27 mm) apart. It is often convenient to bend them outward to a 0.10" (2.54 mm) spacing to make more room for wiring.[4] Units with their leads pre-bent may be ordered to fit specific board layouts, depending on the application. Otherwise, the leads may be bent manually; however, care must be taken as they can break easily, as with any other device that is manually configured.

The physical dimensions of the TO-92 housing may vary sightly depending of the manufacturer, however, the 1.27mm lead spacing must be respected.

AdvantagesEdit

  • Transistors of this type can be made very inexpensively and take up very little board space. Most models are readily available in large quantities from wholesale distributors.
  • They are easy to find in small electronics stores because of their wide usefulness, making them a popular choice for hobby work and prototyping.

DisadvantagesEdit

The main disadvantage of this style of case is the lack of heat sinking.

  • Transistors and ICs of these types cannot handle as much power as higher-power equivalents, such as the TO-220 and can burn out quickly if they dissipate excessive power.
  • There is no standard pinout for the TO-92. The American BJTs use the E-B-C pinout while their Japanese counterparts use the E-C-B pinout and some RF devices use the B-E-C pinout.

Voltage and currentEdit

Although TO-92 devices are mainly used in low-voltage / low-current (<30 V; <1 A) applications, high-voltage (600 Volt Vce) and high-current (5 A Ic) devices are available. Nominal maximum power dissipation is less than one watt (600 mW).

Common transistors using a TO-92 caseEdit

Additional uses of the TO-92 caseEdit

  • MK484, AM radio IC
  • 78Lxx series voltage regulators
  • TCR1AM, Triac
  • DS2501-UNW/DS2502, Add-only memory
  • DS18B20, Temperature sensor, digital output (1-Wire)
  • LM335, Temperature sensor, analog output (+ 10-mV/°K)
  • OH090U, Hall effect sensor[5]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c "JEDEC TO-92 package specification" (PDF). JEDEC. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 18, 2017.
  2. ^ "TO-92 (SOT54)". Nexperia. 2004-11-16. Retrieved 2017-12-12.
  3. ^ Motorola 1966 Semiconductor Handbook|https://archive.org/stream/bitsavers_motoroladaSemiconductorHandbook2edAug66_80459525/1966_Motorola_Semiconductor_Handbook_2ed_Aug66_djvu.txt
  4. ^ Bourns. "Package Mechanical Information, TO-92" (PDF). Retrieved 28 February 2016.
  5. ^ http://www.digikey.com/product-detail/en/OH090U/365-1001-ND/374779

External linksEdit

  • TO-92 Package, EESemi.com
  • [1] Essay about TO92 housings (German) by Dipl.-Ing. Bernd Wiebus at German national library server.