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Surtitles, also known as supertitles, SurCaps, OpTrans, are translated or transcribed lyrics/dialogue projected above a stage or displayed on a screen, commonly used in opera or other musical performances. The word "surtitle" comes from the French language "sur", meaning "over" or "on", and the English language word "title", formed in a similar way to the related subtitle. The word Surtitle is a trademark of the Canadian Opera Company.
Surtitles was introduced in the 1990s to translate the meaning of the lyrics into the audience's language, or to transcribe lyrics that may be difficult to understand in the sung form in the opera-house auditoria. The two possible types of presentation of surtitles are as projected text, or as the electronic libretto system. Titles in the theatre have proven a commercial success in areas such as opera, and are finding increased use for allowing hearing-impaired patrons to enjoy theatre productions more fully. Surtitles are used in live productions in the same way as subtitles are used in movie and television productions.
Projected titles or translationsEdit
Generally projected above the theatre's proscenium arch (but, alternately, on either side of the stage), surtitles are usually displayed using a supertitling machine. The text must be prepared beforehand as in subtitles. These machines can be used for events other than artistic performances, when the text is easier to show to the audience than it is to vocalize.
Surtitles are different from subtitles, which are more often used in filmmaking and television production. Originally, translations would be broken up into small chunks and photographed onto slides that could be projected onto a screen above the stage, but most companies now use a combination of video projectors and computers.
John Leberg developed the Surtitle system for the Canadian Opera Company when he was the company's director of operations.Lotfi Mansouri, then general director of the company, first used the system in the January 1983 staging of Elektra.
The surtitle is given an insertion point in the score (piano score) for the surtitle's entry and exit. An operator will push a button at the marked point when following the music.
The American company called Figaro Systems established by Patrick Markle, Geoff Webb, and Ron Erkman developed the first assistive technology for individualized libretto-reading for audiences. This technology allows the audience to select their preferred language from a list or simply turn it off, watching the performance without surtitles.
Personal titling systemsEdit
Surtitles can be a distraction, focusing attention on the titles instead of the stage. Therefore, several systems have been developed to provide captions visible only to those individual viewers who wish to see them.
Electronic libretto systemEdit
The electronic libretto system uses individual screens placed in front of each seat allowing patrons either to view a translation or to switch them off during the performance. New York's Metropolitan Opera installed the patented Met Titles, becoming the first house in the United States to use this system.
Rear Window Captioning SystemEdit
The Rear Window Captioning System is a method for presenting, through captions, a transcript of the audio portion of a film in theatres. The system was co-developed by WGBH and Rufus Butler Seder and initially targeted at people who are deaf or hard-of-hearing.
On the way into the theatre, viewers pick up a reflective plastic panel mounted on a flexible stalk. The panel sits in a seat cupholder or on the floor adjacent to the seat. A large LED display is mounted on a rear wall that displays caption characters in mirror image. Viewers move the panels into position (usually below the movie screen or stage) so they can read the reflected captions and watch the presentation. Others seated alongside do not watch, or usually even see, the captions.
- Smith, Patrick (Winter 1986). "Supertitles". Arts Review. 3 (2): 32.
- "Surtitles™: An Introduction". Retrieved 23 March 2017.
- "Canadian Trademarks Details 0498073 - Canadian Trademarks Database - Intellectual property and copyright - Canadian Intellectual Property Office - Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada". Cite journal requires
- Cooke, Mervyn (2005). The Cambridge Companion to Twentieth-Century Opera. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. p. 321. ISBN 0521780098.
- "The COC launches surtitles". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC). 27 March 1983. Retrieved 23 March 2017.
- "Lotfollah Mansouri." Marquis Who's Who TM. Marquis Who's Who, 2008. Reproduced in Biography Resource Center. Farmington Hills, Mich.: Gale, 2008. http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/BioRC Document Number: K2013018226. Fee. Retrieved 27 December 2008.
- Tommasini, Anthony (2007-07-22). "No Supertitle Goes Here, and That's a Good Thing". The New York Times.
- Webb, Andrew (November 23, 2003). "Opera subtitle firm eyes new game". The Business Journals. Retrieved 2019-10-25.
- Subtitles for theatre, Mac application for creating, translating and screening surtitles
- Guide des difficultés de rédaction en musique (GDRM): Guides > Surtitres et sous-titres, in French
- Surtitles (official site)
- Opera Supertitles rental library
- Subtivals, a free software for surtitling
- Qstit, another free software for surtitling, developed by Nova Cinema.
- Radio Marconi
- Drina mos-av, Android supported supertitle system
- Supertitles.gr, Windows software for projecting surtitles (commercial)