Superior Craton

  (Redirected from Superior craton)

The Superior Craton is a stable crustal block covering Quebec, Ontario, and southeast Manitoba in Canada, and northern Minnesota in the United States. It is the biggest craton among those formed during the Archean period.[1] A craton is a large part of the Earth's crust that has been stable and subjected to very little geological changes over a long time.[2] The size of Superior Craton is about 1,572,000 km2.[3] The craton underwent a series of events from 4.3 to 2.57 Ga. These events included the growth, drifting and deformation of both oceanic and continental crusts.[1]

Researchers have divided the Superior Craton into many different domains based on rock types and deformation styles.[4] These domains (grouped into western and eastern superior provinces), include the North Superior Superterrane and Wawa Terrane, among others[4] (shown in the table below).

Studies on the formation of the Superior Craton varied in progress between the western and the eastern part. For the western part, five major orogenies were involved. They include the Northern Superior Orogeny (2720 Ma), the Uchian Orogeny (2720–2700 Ma), the Central Superior Orogeny (2700 Ma), the Shebandowanian Orogeny (2690 Ma), and the Minnesotan Orogeny (2680 Ma).[4] For the eastern part, two models are suggested. The first model by Percival and Skulski (2000) focuses on the collision between the terranes.[5] The second model by Bédard (2003)[6] and Bédard et al. (2003)[7] focuses on the effect of an active anorogenic magmatic activity.


The western to the northeastern part of the craton is bounded by the Trans-Hudson orogens. The eastern and the southeastern side is neighbouring the Grenville orogens. The southern side is generally meeting the Keweenawan rift, while the southernmost tip of the craton in Minnesota is reaching the Central Plain orogen.

The Superior Craton covers central Canada; it occupies the northern and central part of Quebec, extending across the central and the southern part of Ontario, and also covers southeast Manitoba, with its tip reaching the boundary between the U.S. states of South Dakota and Minnesota.[8]

Tectonic settingEdit

The Archean Superior Craton extends over 1572000 km2 of the North American continent.[3] Forming the core of the Canadian Shield, the Archean Superior craton is encompassed by early Proterozoic orogens.[1] The western to the northeastern part of the craton is bound by the Trans-Hudson orogens.[9] To the eastern and the southeastern side are the neighbouring Grenville orogens.[4] The southern side meets the Keweenawan rift, while the southernmost tip of the craton in Minnesota reaches the Central Plain orogen.[10]

Regarding the faults, there are three major trends of subparallel faults slicing the craton into linear subprovinces. In the northwestern part, faulting occurs in a west–northwest direction. The northeastern part has northwest-trending faults.[8] The faults in the remaining southern part possess an east–west direction.[4]

Growth history of the terranesEdit

The craton-forming terranes are created from very diverse settings, such as oceanic arc, ancient forearc, oceanic tectonic melange, uplift within the craton, fold-thrust belt and extra. Common among them is that these features were mostly formed in a compression setting.

Some of the terranes were formed from the structures of a volcanic arc, including the volcanic arc chain and the forearc setting.

Oceanic arc settingEdit

Some terranes, such as the Western Wabigoon Terrane, are formed from the setting of an oceanic arc. An oceanic arc is a chain of volcanoes which formed above and parallel to the subduction zones. Due to tectonic activities in the Earth, the relevant continental and oceanic crusts collided before 2.70 Ga.[1] The denser oceanic crust subducted underneath the continental crust and melted into the mantle, which generated more magma. The huge amount of magma then rose up, penetrated through the crust above and erupted. The continuous eruption of volcanic material cooled down and accumulated around the centers of eruption, forming a chain of volcanoes in the shape of an arc.[11]

Ancient forearc basin settingEdit

Some terranes, such as the Quetico Terrane, were forearcs in the past. A forearc is the region between the volcanic arc and the subduction zone. It includes several components, including the subduction trench, the outer arc high of the oceanic crust, the accretionary wedges, and the sedimentary basin. The outer arc high is formed by the flexural upward motion of the oceanic crust edge before it enters the subduction zone. The accretionary wedges are formed from the accumulation of marine sediment scraped off from the oceanic crust before it is subducted. The sedimentary basin is formed from the accumulation of erosive material from the volcanoes, which lying flatly between the volcanoes and the topographic high of the accretionary wedge.[11]

Uplift settingEdit

Some terranes, such as the Kapuskasing Uplift, were formed from the uplifting of the crustal block. For example, during 1.85 Ga, the American Midcontinent and the Superior Craton collided. The collision between the two cratons triggered an Archean reverse fault, the Ivanhoe Lake fault. The upward movement of the hanging wall causes the uplift of a crustal block, known as the Kapuskasing Uplift.[12]

Some terranes, such as the Pontiac Terrane, were previously a fold-thrust belt. A fold-thrust belt is a zone consisting of a series of thrusts (reverse faults) and fault-bend folds separated by main thrust faults.

Fold-thrust belt settingEdit

Some terranes, such as the Pontiac Terrane, were previously a fold-thrust belt. A fold-thrust belt is a zone consisting of a series of thrusts (reverse faults) and fault-bend folds separated by main thrust faults. The fold-thrust belt is formed in a compression setting like crust collision. when the crust is compressed, thrusts dipping towards where the compression comes formed. The hanging walls of the thrusts slide up along the fault plane and stacks above the footwall, forming a ramp anticline or fault-bend fold.[13]

General compositionEdit

This map shows the major domains of the Superior Craton. NSS: Northern Superior Superterrane; OSD Oxford-Stull Terrane; NCT: North Caribou Terrane; ERT: English River Domain; WRT: Winnipeg River Domain; WWT: Western Wabigoon Terrane; EWT: Eastern Wabigoon Terrane; MT: Marmion Terrane; QT: Quetico Terrane; WT: Wawa Terrane; MRVT: Minnesota River Valley Terrane; KU: Kapuskasing Uplift; AT: Abitibi Terrane; PT: Pontiac Terrane; OcS: Opatica Subprovince; AC: Ashuanipi Complex; OnS: Opinaca Subprovince; LG: La Grande Subprovince; BS: Bienville Subprovince; I: Inukjuak Domain; II Tikkerutuk Domain; IV: Lake Minto Domain; V: Goudalie Domain: VI Utsalik Domain; VII: Douglas Harbour Domain

The Superior Province can be divided into three parts. The first part is the northwestern region characterized by high-grade gneiss, such as Minto and Pikwitonei.[8][14] The second part is the northeastern region, which is characterized by pervasive metamorphic rocks of granulite-facies.[8] The last part is the southern region like the Minnesota River Valley, which are metavolcanic or metasedimentary subprovinces with an east–west orientation.[8][14]

The general geological characteristics of the terranes are listed below.

List of subprovinces and their dominating rocksEdit

Subprovince Age Dominating rock Possible tectonic event Mineral deposit
Western Superior Province
Northern Superior Superterrane (NSS) - Granitic and gneissic rocks[15]

- Mafic-intermediate volcanic rocks[4][16][17]

- Minor greywacke[4][16][17]

- Granitoid magmatism[18]

- Amphibolite-forming metamorphism caused by tectonic accretion[4]

- Lode gold deposits[19]

- Diamond-containing kimberlite pipes[19]

Oxford-Skull Domain (OSD) - Basalt (Hayers River Assemblage)[20]

- Volcaniclastic rocks (Oxford Lake assemblage)[20]

- Underlain by tonalitic, granodioritic, granitic pluton with mafic intrusion[4]

- Oceanic setting[4]

- Sealed the sediment after the collision of NSS and NCS[4]

- Lode gold deposits[21] (like Monument Bay gold deposit)
North Caribou Superterrane (NCS) - Plutonic base overlain by arc sequences[22]

- Pervasive granitic to tonalitic pluton in the central region[4]

- Dominating plutonism[4]

- Rifting in the southern margin[4]

- Gold deposits (like Red Lake Gold Camp)[4]

- Massive sulphide deposits[23]

English River Domain (ERT) - Sedimentary rocks like wackes[24]

- Amphibolite and low-pressure granulite[4][25]

- Migmatite and diatexite[26]

- Related to the suture of the NCS and WRT[26] /
Winnipeg River Terrane (WRT) - Gneiss and foliated tonalite[27][28][29]

- Granite[28]

- Tonalitic plutonism followed by granitic plutonism[4] - Iron deposits[4][30]

- Native silver deposits[4][30]

Wabigoon Terrane (WwT/EwT) - Mafic volcanic rocks and tonalitic pluton in the West[31]

- Greenstone belts intruded by granitoid pluton in the East[4]

- Oceanic arc setting in the West[32][33][34][35]

- Continental margin setting in the East[36]

Quetico Terrane (QT) - Mainly greywacke, migmatite, granite[4]

- Metarsedimentary successions intruded by tonalite,[4] nepheline, syenite, carbonatite[37] and granite[38]

- Ancient forearc[31][39][40] /
Wawa Terrane (WT) - Calc-alkalic to alkalic rocks[41]

- Sanukitoids[4]

- Oceanic tectonic mélange[42][43][44] - Michipicoten-Mishubishu belt (Fe, Au, Cu and minor Ni)[45]

- Shebandowan-Schreiber belt (Fe, Au,[45] VMS,[46] Ni)[47]

Kapuskasing Uplift (KU) - Tonalite, paragneiss and anorthosite - Intracratonic Uplift[48] /
Eastern Superior Province
Abitibi Terrane (AT) - North: Layered-intrusion-related volcanic rocks[4][49]

- Central: Plutonic rocks and minor volcanic rocks[50] - South: Younger greywackes, conglomerate and alkaline volcanic rocks[51]

/ - North: Massive sulphide deposits, Cu-Zn vein deposits, lode gold deposits[4]

- Central: Massive sulphide deposits and vein gold deposits[50] - South: Gold deposits, Cu-Zn massive sulphide deposits, intrusive Ni deposits, and minor porphyry deposits[4][52]

Pontiac Terrane (PT) - North: schists and paragneiss[53]

- South: volcanic rocks[53]

- Fold-thrust belt[54] - Quartz-vein-hosted gold deposits[4]

- Gabbroic-sill-hosted Ni-Cu sulphide deposits[4]

Opatica Subprovince (OcS) - Tonalite, granodiorite, granite and pegmatite[55][56][57] - West-verging shearing followed by south-vergent movement[57] - Volcanogenic massive sulphide (VMS) deposits, Cu-Au vein deposits, Intrusion-hosted Ni-Cu deposits and iron formation[4]
Opinaca Subprovince (OnS) - metagreywacke[58]

- massive leucogranite intrusion[59]

/ - Rare metals in peraluminous granites and pegmatites[4]
Ashuanipi Complex (AC) - Tonalite and diorite[60]

- Granulite[61] - Intrusion of diatexite,[61] syenite, granodiorite and granite[4][62]

/ /
La Grande Subprovince (LG) - Gneissic basement[63]

- komatiites[4]

/ - Porphyry and igneous mineralization[4]
Bienville Subprovince (BS) - North: granitic and granodioritic intrusions[64]

- South: massive granodioritic complex[64][65]

/ /
Northeastern Superior Province - I: tonalite and tonalitic gneiss[4]

- II: pyroxene-bearing plutonic rocks[4] - IV: metasedimentary and pyroxene-bearing pluton[66] - V: pyroxene-bearing pluton with minor tonalite[4] - VI: magnetic pyroxene-bearing pluton[67] - VII: tonalitic complex[7][6]

/ - Syngenetic: Algoma-type iron formation, volcanogenic massive sulphide, Ni-Cu deposits, Fe-Ti-V deposits (hosted by mafic intrusions), and U-Th-Mo bearing porphyry deposits[4]

- Epigenetic: Cu, Ni, Ag, Au, rare earth elements (REE) and limited U deposits[4]


Research of the Superior Craton in the past focused on how the western part formed. This leaves uncertainties in the linkage between the west and the east.[68]

Western Superior CratonEdit

The western Superior Craton is formed by different terranes stitching with each other continuously during the Neoarchean period.[39][69][70][71] Such a progressive assembly can be explained by five discrete orogenies (mountain-building processes). They are, from the oldest event to the youngest event, the Northern Superior Orogeny, the Uchian Orogeny, the Central Superior Orogeny, the Shebandowanian Orogeny and the Minnesotan Orogeny.[71] These events show that the timeline of accretions starts from the north with a southward assembling direction.[68]

For these accretions, the North Caribou Terrane acted as the accretion nuclei onto which other terranes dock on its northern and southern side.

Northern Superior Orogeny (2720 Ma)Edit

Before 2720 Ma, there were many pieces of microcontinent fragments which E-W trending conduit-like ocean crusts (with unknown extent) separates them.[70]
Northern Superior Superterrane moves southward to dock onto the North Caribou Terrane.[70][71]

Before 2720 Ma, there were many pieces of microcontinent fragments which E-W trending conduit-like ocean crusts (with unknown extent) separates them.[70] During 2720 Ma, active subduction along the Northern Superior Superterrane and the North Caribou Terrane caused the southward drifting of the Northern Superior Superterrane. Over time, it united the North Caribou Superterrane and confined the Oxford-Stull domain, which contains rock assemblages related to the continental margin and oceanic crust.[70][71] The combination of the Northern Superior Superterrane and the North Caribou Superterrane by subduction marked the initiation of the Superior Craton formation. The southward movement of the Northern Superior Superterrane to the North Caribou Superterrane driven by subduction activity is evident by a) arc-related magmatism in Oxford-Stull domain during 2775-2733 Ma;[71] b) the south-over-north shearing zone at the contact between the two terranes.[72] The suture zone of the subduction is inferred to be the margin of the North Kenyon Fault.[71] The docking of the Northern Superior Superterrane is evident by the >3.5 Ga detrital zircons found in synorogenic (meaning that it forms during an orogenic event) sedimentary rocks aged <2.711 Ga.[71] The docking also initiated the eruption of shoshonitic volcanic rocks during 2710 Ma and the regional shortening. The regional shortening had undergone folding and foliation to form right-lateral, NW-trending shear zones.[70][71]

Uchian Orogeny (2720–2700 Ma)Edit

During this period, the Winnipeg River Terrane at the south docked northward onto the North Caribou Terrane.[71] The two terranes then sutured to form the English River belt, which was no earlier than <2705 Ma. Also, it marks the accretion of the younger Western Wabigoon terrane to the southwestern margin of the Winnipeg River Terrane.[71]

During this period, the Winnipeg River Terrane at the south docked northward onto the North Caribou Terrane. The two terranes then sutured to form the English River belt, which was no earlier than <2705 Ma.[71]

During the orogeny, at the south-central North Caribou Superterrane, rocks were deformed thoroughly (from 2718 to 2712 Ma). After the deformation, plutons were emplaced in the area after the tectonic movements and cooled by about 2700 Ma. Following the cooling of the pluton was the swift burial and melting of the rocks in the English River belt and Winnipeg River Terrane, as well as the overthrusting of the North Caribou Superterrane onto the English River Basin in a southward direction.[71] Arc-related magmatic activities sustained in other areas of the southern North Caribou Superterrane margin at <2710 Ma. What was following is the deformation penetrative in both eastern (occurred at 2714-2702 Ma) and western (occurred at <2704 Ma) margins, followed by ductile-brittle faults.[70][71]

Central Superior Orogeny (2700 Ma)Edit

The Central Orogeny is significant as it involves the accretion of the younger Western Wabigoon terrane to the southwestern margin of the Winnipeg River Terrane.[71]

Two types of models were proposed to illustrate the process accretion with distinctive subduction polarity: Sanborn-Barrie and Skulski (2006)[73] suggested that the accretion was achieved by the northeastward subduction of the Western Wabigoon Terrane underneath the Winnipeg River Terrane. This model is supported by evidence like the formation of the tonalitic and pyroclastic rocks in 2715-2700Ma and the deformation style of the Warclub turbidite assemblage which infers the over-riding of Winnipeg River Terrane on Western Wabigoon Terrane.[71]

Another type of Models was suggested by Davis and Smith (1991),[74] Percival et al. (2004a)[75] and Melnyk et al. (2006),[29] which suggested an opposite direction of subduction (Southwestward). These models are supported by the ductile rock textures in the lower plate of the Winnipeg River Terrane and the open folds in the Western Wabigoon Terrane, implying the overriding role of Western Wabigoon Terrane instead of Winnipeg River Terrane shown in the previous model.[71]

Shebandowanian Orogeny (2690 Ma)Edit

The Wawa-Abitibi terrane moved northward to collide with the growing craton.[1]

Shebandowanian orogeny marks the accretion of the Wawa-Abitibi terrane to the composite Superior superterrane at the southern margin of the Wabigoon terranes.[1]

The northward direction of the subduction is evident due to the ceased arc magmatism in Winnipeg River superterrane at about 2695 Ma. Apart from the ceased magmatism, the sanukitoid plutons formed in the area during 2695-2685 Ma (which inferred the breakoff of a subduction slab) also indicated the subduction towards the north. After the subduction, the two terranes were sutured under the Quetico belt. This also trapped the clastic sediments fluxing into the belt, marking its transition from an accretionary wedge to a foreland basin.[71] At the northern Wawa-Abitibi terrane, researchers identified two events of deformation occurred during the orogeny. The first one (D1 deformation event) is the intra-arc deformation accompanied by calc-alkaline magmatism during 2695 Ma. The second one (D2 deformation event) is the transpressive deformation at the margin between the Wawa-Abitibi Terrane and the Wabigoon terranes during 2685-2680 Ma.[71]

Minnesotan Orogeny (2680 Ma)Edit

Minnesotan River Valley Terrane moved northward to collide with the pre-mature craton.[71]

As the last significant accretion event, The Minnesotan Orogeny is associated with the accretion of the oceanic Minnesota River Valley Terrane and the composite Superior Craton. Subduction between the to terranes drove the Minnesota River Valley Terrane northward to meet the gigantic craton, which the two terranes sutured along the Great Lake tectonic zone.[71]

The northward direction of the subduction is proven by the peraluminous granitoid magmatism in the southern margin of the Abitibi terrane, as well as the isotopic signature of the ancient crust underneath it.[71]

The Minnesotan orogeny accounts for most of the deformation events in the Wawa-Abitibi Terrane and Minnesota River Valley Terrane. Research in the past regarded the Minnesota River Valley Terrane as a stiff crust with higher resistance relative to the weaker zones between the Minnesota River Valley Terrane and the Wawa-Abitibi Terrane, like a rigid "jaw" juxtaposing a weak zone in the "vice" models suggested by Ellis et al. (1998).[76] However, the study of seismic reflection images by Percival et al.[71] reveals that Minnesota River Valley Terrane positions at the bottom of a thrust sequence, providing evidence that it is an oceanic slab.[71]

Summary of the Western Superior Craton developmentEdit

Time Event Description
2720 Ma Northern Superior Orogeny Northern Superior Superterrane moves southward to dock onto the North Caribou Terrane.[70][71]
2700 Ma Uchian Orogeny Winnipeg River Terrane docked northward onto the North Caribou Terrane.[71]
2720-2700 Ma Central Superior Orogeny Sanborn-Barrie and Skulski (2006):[73] Western Wabigoon Terrane docked northeastward to the Winnipeg River Terrane.

Davis and Smith (1991),[74] Percival et al. (2004a)[75] and Melnyk et al. (2006):[29] The young craton moved southwestward to fuse with the Western Wabigoon Terrane.

2690 Ma Shebandowanian Orogeny The Wawa-Abitibi terrane moved northward to collide with the growing craton.[1]
2680 Ma Minnesotan Orogeny Minnesotan River Valley Terrane moved northward to collide with the pre-mature craton.[71]

Orogenesis in the northeastern Superior CratonEdit

The correlations of different building processes of the NE Superior Craton remains sophisticated. Still, there are two general understandings to unveil the relationships among the overlapping magmatic and metamorphic events.

The first one is suggested by Percival and Skulski (2000).[5] It is a collisional model which at 2700 Ma, the Rivière terrane from the east collided with the Hudson Bay terrane located at the west side. This collision leads to the high-grade metamorphism followed by a regional folding event. Apart from this, the model relates the collision with the Uchian orogeny concurrently happening at the south and the west.[71]

The second one is suggested by Bédard (2003)[77] and Bédard et al. (2003).[78] This model puts emphasis on the role of magmatic diapirism in the linear structure and metamorphism of the NE superior craton, implying an active anorogenic magmatism during the accretion of the southern Superior Craton.

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ a b c d e f g Percival, John and (2012). Skulski, Thomas and Sanborn-Barrie, M. and Stott, Greg and Leclair, A.D. and Corkery, M.T. and Boily, M. "Geology and tectonic evolution of the Superior Province, Canada". Geological Association of Canada Special Paper (49): 321–378.
  2. ^ Bleeker, W., & Davis, B. W. (2004, May). What is a craton? How many are there? How do they relate? And how did they form?. In AGU Spring Meeting Abstracts.
  3. ^ a b Anhaeusser, Carl R. (2014-12-01). "Archaean greenstone belts and associated granitic rocks – A review". Journal of African Earth Sciences. 100: 684–732. Bibcode:2014JAfES.100..684A. doi:10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2014.07.019. ISSN 1464-343X.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al John Percival (2007). "Geology and Metallogeny of the Superior Province, Canada". Geological Association of Canada, Mineral Deposits Division, Special Publication. 5: 903–928.
  5. ^ a b Percival, J. A.; Skulski, T. (2000-04-01). "Tectonothermal Evolution of the Northern Minto Block, Superior Province, Quebec, Canada". The Canadian Mineralogist. 38 (2): 345–378. doi:10.2113/gscanmin.38.2.345. ISSN 0008-4476.
  6. ^ a b Bédard, Jean H. (March 2003). "Evidence for Regional‐Scale, Pluton‐Driven, High‐Grade Metamorphism in the Archaean Minto Block, Northern Superior Province, Canada". The Journal of Geology. 111 (2): 183–205. Bibcode:2003JG....111..183B. doi:10.1086/345842. ISSN 0022-1376.
  7. ^ a b Bedard, J.H (June 2004). "Erratum to "Archaean cratonization and deformation in the northern Superior Province, Canada: an evaluation of plate tectonic versus vertical tectonic models"". Precambrian Research. 131 (3–4): 373–374. Bibcode:2004PreR..131..373B. doi:10.1016/j.precamres.2004.02.001. ISSN 0301-9268.
  8. ^ a b c d e Mints, Michael V. (2017-11-01). "The composite North American Craton, Superior Province: Deep crustal structure and mantle-plume model of Neoarchaean evolution". Precambrian Research. 302: 94–121. Bibcode:2017PreR..302...94M. doi:10.1016/j.precamres.2017.08.025. ISSN 0301-9268.
  9. ^ Cook, Frederick A.; White, Donald J.; Jones, Alan G.; Eaton, David W.S.; Hall, Jeremy; Clowes, Ronald M. (April 2010). Spence, George (ed.). "How the crust meets the mantle: Lithoprobe perspectives on the Mohorovičić discontinuity and crust–mantle transitionThis article is one of a series of papers published in this Special Issue on the theme Lithoprobe — parameters, processes, and the evolution of a continent ". Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. 47 (4): 315–351. doi:10.1139/E09-076. ISSN 0008-4077.
  10. ^ Mints, Michael V.; Dokukina, Ksenia A.; Konilov, Alexander N.; Philippova, Irina B.; Zlobin, Valery L.; Babayants, Pavel S.; Belousova, Elena A.; Blokh, Yury I.; Bogina, Maria M. (May 2015). "Abstract". Geological Society of America Special Papers. 510. Geological Society of America. pp. 1–2. doi:10.1130/2015.2510. ISBN 9780813725109.
  11. ^ a b Grove, T. L., Till, C. B., Lev, E., Chatterjee, N., & Médard, E. (2009). Kinematic variables and water transport control the formation and location of arc volcanoes. Nature, 459(7247), 694.
  12. ^ Zhang, B. (1999). A study of crustal uplift along the Kapuskasing Zone using 2. 45 Ga Matachewan dykes. University of Toronto.
  13. ^ Poblet, J., & Lisle, R. J. (2011). Kinematic evolution and structural styles of fold-and-thrust belts. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 349(1), 1-24.
  14. ^ a b Card, K. D. (1985). "Geology and tectonics of the Archean Superior Province, Canadian Shield". Lunar and Planetary Inst. Workshop on Early Crustal Genesis: The World's Oldest Rocks: 27–29.
  15. ^ Skulski, T., Percival, J. A., Whalen, J. B., Stern, R. A., Harrap, R. M., & Helmstaedt, H. H. (1999). Archean crustal evolution in the northern Superior Province. Tectonic and magmatic processes in crustal growth: A Pan-Lithoprobe perspective. Edited by, RM Harrap and HH Helmstaedt. Lithoprobe Secretariat, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Lithoprobe Report, 75, 128-129.
  16. ^ a b Böhm, Christian O.; Heaman, Larry M.; Creaser, Robert A.; Corkery, M. Timothy (2000-01-01). "Discovery of pre-3.5 Ga exotic crust at the northwestern Superior Province margin, Manitoba". Geology. 28 (1): 75–78. Bibcode:2000Geo....28...75B. doi:10.1130/0091-7613(2000)28<75:DOPGEC>2.0.CO;2. ISSN 0091-7613.
  17. ^ a b Böhm, Christian O; Heaman, Larry M; Stern, Richard A; Corkery, M. Timothy; Creaser, Robert A (2003-09-15). "Nature of assean lake ancient crust, Manitoba: a combined SHRIMP–ID-TIMS U–Pb geochronology and Sm–Nd isotope study". Precambrian Research. 126 (1): 55–94. Bibcode:2003PreR..126...55B. doi:10.1016/S0301-9268(03)00127-X. ISSN 0301-9268.
  18. ^ T. Skulski (2000). M.T. Corkery, D. Stone, J.B. Whalen and R.A. Stern. "Geological and geochronological investigations in the Stull Lake–Edmund Lake greenstone belt and granitoid rocks of the northwestern Superior Province" (PDF). Report of Activities: 117–128.
  19. ^ a b Stone, D. (2005). Geology of the Northern Superior Area, Ontario. Ministry of Northern Development & Mines, Ontario Geological Survey.
  20. ^ a b Corkery, M. T., Cameron, H. D. M., Lin, S., Skulski, T., Whalen, J. B., & Stern, R. A. (2000). Geological investigations in the Knee Lake belt (parts of NTS 53L). Report of activities, 129-136.
  21. ^ Anderson, Scott (2008). "Orogenic gold deposits in the Superior Province of Manitoba" (PDF).
  22. ^ Thurston, P.C; Chivers, K.M (January 1990). "Secular variation in greenstone sequence development emphasizing Superior Province, Canada". Precambrian Research. 46 (1–2): 21–58. Bibcode:1990PreR...46...21T. doi:10.1016/0301-9268(90)90065-x. ISSN 0301-9268.
  23. ^ Nunes, P. D.; Thurston, P. C. (June 1980). "Two hundred and twenty million years of Archean evolution: a zircon U–Pb age stratigraphic study of the Uchi–Confederation Lakes greenstone belt, northwestern Ontario". Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. 17 (6): 710–721. Bibcode:1980CaJES..17..710N. doi:10.1139/e80-068. ISSN 0008-4077.
  24. ^ Meyn, H. D.; Palonen, P. A. (1980-09-01). "Stratigraphy of an Archean submarine fan". Precambrian Research. Early Precambrian Volcanology and Sedimentology in the Light of the Recent. 12 (1): 257–285. Bibcode:1980PreR...12..257M. doi:10.1016/0301-9268(80)90031-5. ISSN 0301-9268.
  25. ^ Perkins, Dexter; Chipera, Steve J. (March 1985). "Garnet-orthopyroxene-plagioclase-quartz barometry: refinement and application to the English River subprovince and the Minnesota River valley". Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology. 89 (1): 69–80. Bibcode:1985CoMP...89...69P. doi:10.1007/bf01177592. ISSN 0010-7999.
  26. ^ a b Corfu, F.; Stott, G. M.; Breaks, F. W. (October 1995). "U–Pb geoehronology and evolution of the English River Subprovince, an Archean low P-high T metasedimentary belt in the Superior Province". Tectonics. 14 (5): 1220–1233. Bibcode:1995Tecto..14.1220C. doi:10.1029/95TC01452.
  27. ^ Corfu, F. (March 1988). "Differential response of U–Pb systems in coexisting accessory minerals, Winnipeg River Subprovince, Canadian Shield: implications for Archean crustal growth and stabilization". Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology. 98 (3): 312–325. Bibcode:1988CoMP...98..312C. doi:10.1007/bf00375182. ISSN 0010-7999.
  28. ^ a b Davis, D.W.; Sutcliffe, R.H.; Trowell, N.F. (July 1988). "Geochronological constraints on the tectonic evolution of a late Archaean greenstone belt, Wabigoon Subprovince, Northwest Ontario, Canada". Precambrian Research. 39 (3): 171–191. Bibcode:1988PreR...39..171D. doi:10.1016/0301-9268(88)90041-1. ISSN 0301-9268.
  29. ^ a b c Melnyk, M; Davis, D W; Cruden, A R; Stern, R A (2006-07-01). "U–Pb ages constraining structural development of an Archean terrane boundary in the Lake of the Woods area, western Superior Province, Canada". Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. 43 (7): 967–993. Bibcode:2006CaJES..43..967M. doi:10.1139/e06-035. ISSN 0008-4077.
  30. ^ a b Davis, D. W.; Jackson, M. C. (1988-06-01). "Geochronology of the Lumby Lake greenstone belt: A 3 Ga complex within the Wabigoon subprovince, northwest Ontario". GSA Bulletin. 100 (6): 818–824. Bibcode:1988GSAB..100..818D. doi:10.1130/0016-7606(1988)100<0818:GOTLLG>2.3.CO;2. ISSN 0016-7606.
  31. ^ a b Thurston, P. C. (1991–1992). Geology of Ontario. Ontario Ministry of Northern Development and Mines. ISBN 0772989753. OCLC 25095097.
  32. ^ Ayer, J.A.; Davis, D.W. (February 1997). "Neoarchean evolution of differing convergent margin assemblages in the Wabigoon Subprovince: geochemical and geochronological evidence from the Lake of the Woods greenstone belt, Superior Province, Northwestern Ontario". Precambrian Research. 81 (3–4): 155–178. Bibcode:1997PreR...81..155A. doi:10.1016/s0301-9268(96)00033-2. ISSN 0301-9268.
  33. ^ Ayer, John Albert (1999). Petrogenesis and tectonic evolution of the Lake of the Woods greenstone belt, western Wabigoon Subprovince, Ontario, Canada (PhD thesis). National Library of Canada = Bibliothèque nationale du Canada (published 2001). ISBN 0612451682. OCLC 1006674881.
  34. ^ Ayer, John A.; Dostal, Jaroslav (2000). "Nd and Pb isotopes from the Lake of the Woods greenstone belt, northwestern Ontario: implications for mantle evolution and the formation of crust in the southern Superior Province". Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. 37 (12): 1677–1689. Bibcode:2000CaJES..37.1677A. doi:10.1139/cjes-37-12-1677. ISSN 1480-3313.
  35. ^ Wyman, D.A.; Ayer, J.A.; Devaney, J.R. (June 2000). "Niobium-enriched basalts from the Wabigoon subprovince, Canada: evidence for adakitic metasomatism above an Archean subduction zone". Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 179 (1): 21–30. Bibcode:2000E&PSL.179...21W. doi:10.1016/s0012-821x(00)00106-0. ISSN 0012-821X.
  36. ^ Stott, G. M. (2002), Geology and tectonostratigraphic assemblages, eastern Wabigoon Subprovince, Ontario, Geological Survey of Canada, OCLC 70147737
  37. ^ Lassen, Birgitte (2004). Petrogenesis of the late Archean Quetico alkaline suite intrusions, Western Superior Province, Canada (PhD thesis). University of Ottawa. OCLC 994809586.
  38. ^ SOUTHWICK, D. L. (1991). "On the genesis of Archean granite through two-stage melting of the Quetico accretionary prism at a transpressional plate boundary". Geological Society of America Bulletin. 103 (11): 1385. Bibcode:1991GSAB..103.1385S. doi:10.1130/0016-7606(1991)103<1385:otgoag>;2. ISSN 0016-7606.
  39. ^ a b Langford, F. F.; Morin, J. A. (1976-11-01). "The development of the Superior Province of northwestern Ontario by merging island arcs". American Journal of Science. 276 (9): 1023–1034. Bibcode:1976AmJS..276.1023L. doi:10.2475/ajs.276.9.1023. ISSN 0002-9599.
  40. ^ Percival, John A.; Williams, Howard R. (1989). "Late Archean Quetico accretionary complex, Superior province, Canada". Geology. 17 (1): 23. Bibcode:1989Geo....17...23P. doi:10.1130/0091-7613(1989)017<0023:laqacs>;2. ISSN 0091-7613.
  41. ^ Corfu, F.; Stott, G. M. (1998-11-01). "Shebandowan greenstone belt, western Superior Province: U–Pb ages, tectonic implications, and correlations". GSA Bulletin. 110 (11): 1467–1484. doi:10.1130/0016-7606(1998)110<1467:SGBWSP>2.3.CO;2. ISSN 0016-7606.
  42. ^ Polat, Ali; Kerrich, Robert (October 1999). "Formation of an Archean tectonic mélange in the Schreiber-Hemlo greenstone belt, Superior Province, Canada: Implications for Archean subduction-accretion process". Tectonics. 18 (5): 733–755. Bibcode:1999Tecto..18..733P. doi:10.1029/1999tc900032. ISSN 0278-7407.
  43. ^ Polat, A.; Kerrich, R. (April 2001). "Magnesian andesites, Nb-enriched basalt-andesites, and adakites from late-Archean 2.7 Ga Wawa greenstone belts, Superior Province, Canada: implications for late Archean subduction zone petrogenetic processes". Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology. 141 (1): 36–52. Bibcode:2001CoMP..141...36P. doi:10.1007/s004100000223. ISSN 0010-7999.
  44. ^ Polat, A.; Kerrich, R.; Wyman, D.A. (April 1998). "The late Archean Schreiber–Hemlo and White River–Dayohessarah greenstone belts, Superior Province: collages of oceanic plateaus, oceanic arcs, and subduction–accretion complexes". Tectonophysics. 289 (4): 295–326. Bibcode:1998Tectp.289..295P. doi:10.1016/s0040-1951(98)00002-x. ISSN 0040-1951.
  45. ^ a b Muir, T L (March 2003). "Structural evolution of the Hemlo greenstone belt in the vicinity of the world-class Hemlo gold deposit". Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. 40 (3): 395–430. Bibcode:2003CaJES..40..395M. doi:10.1139/e03-004. ISSN 0008-4077.
  46. ^ Zaleski, E; Peterson, V L (2001). Geology, Manitouwadge Greenstone Belt and the Wawa-Quetico Subprovince boundary, Ontario (Report). "A". Geological Survey of Canada. doi:10.4095/212652. Map 1917A – via GEOSCAN.
  47. ^ Corfu, F.; Stott, G. M. (August 1986). "U–Pb ages for late magmatism and regional deformation in the Shebandowan Belt, Superior Province, Canada". Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. 23 (8): 1075–1082. Bibcode:1986CaJES..23.1075C. doi:10.1139/e86-108. ISSN 0008-4077.
  48. ^ Percival, John A.; West, Gordon F. (1994-07-01). "The Kapuskasing uplift: a geological and geophysical synthesis". Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. 31 (7): 1256–1286. Bibcode:1994CaJES..31.1256P. doi:10.1139/e94-110. ISSN 0008-4077.
  49. ^ Ludden, John; Hubert, Claude; Gariépy, Clement (March 1986). "The tectonic evolution of the Abitibi greenstone belt of Canada". Geological Magazine. 123 (2): 153–166. Bibcode:1986GeoM..123..153L. doi:10.1017/S0016756800029800. ISSN 1469-5081.
  50. ^ a b Chown, E. H.; Daigneault, Réal; Mueller, Wulf; Mortensen, J. K. (October 1992). "Tectonic evolution of the Northern Volcanic Zone, Abitibi belt, Quebec". Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. 29 (10): 2211–2225. Bibcode:1992CaJES..29.2211C. doi:10.1139/e92-175. ISSN 0008-4077.
  51. ^ Davis, Donald W. (May 2002). "U–Pb geochronology of Archean metasedimentary rocks in the Pontiac and Abitibi subprovinces, Quebec, constraints on timing, provenance and regional tectonics". Precambrian Research. 115 (1–4): 97–117. Bibcode:2002PreR..115...97D. doi:10.1016/s0301-9268(02)00007-4. ISSN 0301-9268.
  52. ^ Card, K D; Poulsen, K H (1998). "Geology and mineral deposits of the Superior Province of the Canadian Shield". In Lucas, S B; St-Onge, M R (eds.). Geology of the Precambrian Superior and Grenville provinces and Precambrian fossils in North America. Geology of Canada Series no. 7. Geological Survey of Canada. p. 15–204. doi:10.4095/210102 – via GEOSCAN.
  53. ^ a b Mortensen, J. K.; Card, K. D. (September 1993). "U–Pb age constraints for the magmatic and tectonic evolution of the Pontiac Subprovince, Quebec". Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. 30 (9): 1970–1980. Bibcode:1993CaJES..30.1970M. doi:10.1139/e93-173. ISSN 0008-4077.
  54. ^ Benn, Keith; Miles, Warner; Ghassemi, Mohammad R.; Gillett, John (February 1994). "Crustal structure and kinematic framework of the northwestern Pontiac Subprovince, Quebec: an integrated structural and geophysical study". Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. 31 (2): 271–281. Bibcode:1994CaJES..31..271B. doi:10.1139/e94-026. ISSN 0008-4077.
  55. ^ Benn, Keith; Sawyer, Edward W.; Bouchez, Jean-Luc (November 1992). "Orogen parallel and transverse shearing in the Opatica belt, Quebec: implications for the structure of the Abitibi Subprovince". Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. 29 (11): 2429–2444. Bibcode:1992CaJES..29.2429B. doi:10.1139/e92-191. ISSN 0008-4077.
  56. ^ Davis, W.J.; Machado, N.; Gariépy, C.; Sawyer, E. W.; Benn, K. (February 1995). "U–Pb geochronology of the Opatica tonalite-gneiss belt and its relationship to the Abitibi greenstone belt, Superior Province, Quebec". Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. 32 (2): 113–127. Bibcode:1995CaJES..32..113D. doi:10.1139/e95-010. ISSN 0008-4077.
  57. ^ a b Sawyer, E.W.; Benn, K. (December 1993). "Structure of the high-grade Opatica Belt and adjacent low-grade Abitibi Subprovince, Canada: an Archaean mountain front". Journal of Structural Geology. 15 (12): 1443–1458. Bibcode:1993JSG....15.1443S. doi:10.1016/0191-8141(93)90005-u. ISSN 0191-8141.
  58. ^ Guernina, S.; Sawyer, E. W. (2003). "Large-scale melt-depletion in granulite terranes: an example from the Archean Ashuanipi Subprovince of Quebec". Journal of Metamorphic Geology. 21 (2): 181–201. Bibcode:2003JMetG..21..181G. doi:10.1046/j.1525-1314.2003.00436.x. ISSN 1525-1314.
  59. ^ Morfin, Samuel; Sawyer, Edward W.; Bandyayera, Daniel (2014-05-01). "The geochemical signature of a felsic injection complex in the continental crust: Opinaca Subprovince, Quebec". Lithos. 196–197: 339–355. Bibcode:2014Litho.196..339M. doi:10.1016/j.lithos.2014.03.004. ISSN 0024-4937.
  60. ^ Percival, John A.; Stern, Richard A.; Rayner, Nicole (2003-06-01). "Archean adakites from the Ashuanipi complex, eastern Superior Province, Canada: geochemistry, geochronology and tectonic significance". Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology. 145 (3): 265–280. Bibcode:2003CoMP..145..265P. doi:10.1007/s00410-003-0450-5. ISSN 0010-7999.
  61. ^ a b PERCIVAL, J. A. (1991-12-01). "Granulite-Facies Metamorphism and Crustal Magmatism in the Ashuanipi Complex, Quebec--Labrador, Canada". Journal of Petrology. 32 (6): 1261–1297. Bibcode:1991JPet...32.1261P. doi:10.1093/petrology/32.6.1261. ISSN 0022-3530.
  62. ^ Percival, J. A.; Mortensen, J. K.; Stern, R. A.; Card, K. D.; Bégin, N. J. (October 1992). "Giant granulite terranes of northeastern Superior Province: the Ashuanipi complex and Minto block". Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. 29 (10): 2287–2308. Bibcode:1992CaJES..29.2287P. doi:10.1139/e92-179. ISSN 0008-4077.
  63. ^ Isnard, Hélène; Gariépy, Clément (2004-03-01). "Sm–Nd, Lu–Hf and Pb–Pb signatures of gneisses and granitoids from the La Grande belt: extent of late Archean crustal recycling in the northeastern Superior Province, Canada2 2Associate editor: R. J. Walker". Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. 68 (5): 1099–1113. doi:10.1016/j.gca.2003.08.004. ISSN 0016-7037.
  64. ^ a b "Bienville Domain". Géologie Québec (in French). Retrieved 2019-10-07.
  65. ^ Ciesielski, A (2000). Géologie et lithogéochimie de la partie occidentale de la sous-province de Bienville et des zones adjacentes dans l'est de la Province du Supérieur, Québec (Report). Geological Survey of Canada. doi:10.4095/211536. Open File 3550 – via GEOSCAN.
  66. ^ PERCIVAL, J. A. (2002-09-01). "Water-deficient Calc-alkaline Plutonic Rocks of Northeastern Superior Province, Canada: Significance of Charnockitic Magmatism". Journal of Petrology. 43 (9): 1617–1650. Bibcode:2002JPet...43.1617P. doi:10.1093/petrology/43.9.1617. ISSN 1460-2415.
  67. ^ Pilkington, Mark; Percival, John A. (1999-04-10). "Crustal magnetization and long-wavelength aeromagnetic anomalies of the Minto block, Quebec". Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth. 104 (B4): 7513–7526. Bibcode:1999JGR...104.7513P. doi:10.1029/1998jb900121. ISSN 0148-0227.
  68. ^ a b Jaupart, C.; Mareschal, J.-C.; Bouquerel, H.; Phaneuf, C. (2014). "The building and stabilization of an Archean Craton in the Superior Province, Canada, from a heat flow perspective". Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth. 119 (12): 9130–9155. Bibcode:2014JGRB..119.9130J. doi:10.1002/2014JB011018. ISSN 2169-9356.
  69. ^ Card, K.D. (August 1990). "A review of the Superior Province of the Canadian Shield, a product of Archean accretion". Precambrian Research. 48 (1–2): 99–156. Bibcode:1990PreR...48...99C. doi:10.1016/0301-9268(90)90059-y. ISSN 0301-9268.
  70. ^ a b c d e f g h Percival, J A; Sanborn-Barrie, M; Skulski, T; Stott, G M; Helmstaedt, H; White, D J (July 2006). "Tectonic evolution of the western Superior Province from NATMAP and Lithoprobe studies". Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. 43 (7): 1085–1117. Bibcode:2006CaJES..43.1085P. doi:10.1139/e06-062. ISSN 0008-4077.
  71. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa Percival, J. A.; Clowes, Ron; Cook, Frederick A. Tectonic styles in Canada : the Lithoprobe perspective. St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada: Geological Association of Canada. ISBN 9781897095607. OCLC 805879920.
  72. ^ Lin, S; Davis, D W; Rotenberg, E; Corkery, M T; Bailes, A H (July 2006). "Geological evolution of the northwestern Superior Province: Clues from geology, kinematics, and geochronology in the Gods Lake Narrows area, Oxford–Stull terrane, Manitoba". Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. 43 (7): 749–765. Bibcode:2006CaJES..43..749L. doi:10.1139/e06-068. ISSN 0008-4077.
  73. ^ a b Sanborn-Barrie, M; Skulski, T (July 2006). "Sedimentary and structural evidence for 2.7 Ga continental arc–oceanic-arc collision in the Savant–Sturgeon greenstone belt, western Superior Province, Canada". Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. 43 (7): 995–1030. Bibcode:2006CaJES..43..995S. doi:10.1139/e06-060. ISSN 0008-4077.
  74. ^ a b Davis, D. W.; Smith, P. M. (May 1991). "Archean Gold Mineralization in the Wabigoon Subprovince, a Product of Crustal Accretion: Evidence from U–Pb Geochronology in the Lake of the Woods Area, Superior Province, Canada". The Journal of Geology. 99 (3): 337–353. Bibcode:1991JG.....99..337D. doi:10.1086/629499. ISSN 0022-1376.
  75. ^ a b Percival, J.A.; Bleeker, W.; Cook, F.A.; Rivers, T.; Ross, G.; van Staal, C.R. (2004). "PanLITHOPROBE workshop IV: Intra-orogen correlations and comparative orogenic anatomy". Geoscience Canada. 1 (31): 23–39.
  76. ^ Ellis, Susan; Beaumont, Christopher; Jamieson, Rebecca A.; Quinlan, Garry (1998). "Continental collision including a weak zone: the vise model and its application to the Newfoundland Appalachians". Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. 35 (11): 1323–1346. Bibcode:1998CaJES..35.1323E. doi:10.1139/cjes-35-11-1323. ISSN 1480-3313.
  77. ^ Bédard, Jean H. (March 2003). "Evidence for Regional‐Scale, Pluton‐Driven, High‐Grade Metamorphism in the Archaean Minto Block, Northern Superior Province, Canada". The Journal of Geology. 111 (2): 183–205. Bibcode:2003JG....111..183B. doi:10.1086/345842. ISSN 0022-1376.
  78. ^ Bedard, J.H (June 2004). "Erratum to "Archaean cratonization and deformation in the northern Superior Province, Canada: an evaluation of plate tectonic versus vertical tectonic models"". Precambrian Research. 131 (3–4): 373–374. Bibcode:2004PreR..131..373B. doi:10.1016/j.precamres.2004.02.001. ISSN 0301-9268.