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Squinch

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Squinches supporting a dome in Odzun Basilica, Armenia, early 8th century

A squinch in architecture is a construction filling in the upper angles of a square room so as to form a base to receive an octagonal or spherical dome. Another solution to this structural problem was provided by the pendentive.

Contents

ConstructionEdit

Squinches may be formed by masonry built out from the angle in corbelled courses, by filling the corner with a vise placed diagonally, or by building an arch or a number of corbelled arches diagonally across the corner.

History in the Middle EastEdit

 
Squinch in the Palace of Ardashir the Sassanian king

The dome chamber in the palace of Ardashir, the Sassanid king, in Firuzabad, Iran is the earliest surviving example of the use of the squinch, suggesting that the squinch may have been invented in Persia.[1] After the rise of Islam, it was used in the Middle East in both eastern Romanesque and Islamic architecture. It remained a feature of Islamic architecture, especially in Iran, and was often covered by corbelled stalactite-like structures known as muqarnas.

History in Western EuropeEdit

It spread to the Romanesque architecture of western Europe, one example being the Normans' 12th-century church of San Cataldo, Palermo in Sicily. This has three domes, each supported by four doubled squinches.

EtymologyEdit

The word may possibly originate from, as the Oxford English Dictionary says, it comes from the French word "escoinson," meaning "from an angle" which became the English word "scuncheon" and then "scunch" [2].[3]

In popular cultureEdit

The science fiction novel Implied Spaces by Walter Jon Williams uses squinches as an example of parts of a structure whose construction is implied and made necessary to facilitate the construction of other parts; areas of a created world or universe which are implied (and thus created) as a by-product of the creation of other areas.[4][not in citation given]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Robert Byron, The Road to Oxiana
  2. ^ "definition of Squinch". Oxford Living Dictionaries. Retrieved 11 March 2018.
  3. ^ "The definition of squinch". Dictionary.com. 2015. Retrieved 2015-10-24.
  4. ^ Williams, Walter John. "Implied Spaces. Chapter 1". Baene Books. Retrieved 2015-10-24.

External linksEdit