Sir Godfrey Kneller, 1st Baronet (born Gottfried Kniller; 8 August 1646 – 19 October 1723), was the leading portrait painter in England during the late 17th and early 18th centuries, and was court painter to English and British monarchs from Charles II to George I. His major works include The Chinese Convert (1687; Royal Collection, London); a series of four portraits of Isaac Newton painted at various junctures of the latter's life; a series of ten reigning European monarchs, including King Louis XIV of France; over 40 "kit-cat portraits" of members of the Kit-Cat Club; and ten "beauties" of the court of William III, to match a similar series of ten of Charles II's mistresses painted by Kneller's predecessor as court painter, Sir Peter Lely.
8 August 1646
|Died||19 October 1723 (aged 77)|
|Nationality||German, later British|
|Known for||Leading portrait painter of England|
Kneller was born Gottfried Kniller in the Free City of Lübeck, the son of Zacharias Kniller, a portrait painter. Kneller studied in Leiden, but became a pupil of Ferdinand Bol and Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn in Amsterdam. He then travelled with his brother John Zacharias Kneller, who was an ornamental painter, to Rome and Venice in the early 1670s, painting historical subjects and portraits in the studio of Carlo Maratti, and later moved to Hamburg.
In England, Kneller concentrated almost entirely on portraiture. In the spirit of enterprise, he founded a studio which churned out portraits on an almost industrial scale, relying on a brief sketch of the face with details added to a formulaic model, aided by the fashion for gentlemen to wear full wigs. His portraits set a pattern that was followed until William Hogarth and Joshua Reynolds.
Nevertheless, he established himself as a leading portrait artist in England. When Sir Peter Lely died in 1680, Kneller was appointed Principal Painter in Ordinary to the Crown by Charles II.
In the 1690s, Kneller painted the Hampton Court Beauties depicting the most glamorous ladies-in-waiting of the Royal Court for which he received, in 1692, his knighthood from William III. In 1695, he received, in the presence of the king, an honorary Doctorate of Law from the University of Oxford. In 1700, he was created a Knight of the Holy Roman Empire by Emperor Leopold I. He produced a series of "Kit-cat" portraits of 48 leading politicians and men of letters, members of the Kit-Cat Club.
Created a baronet by King George I on 24 May 1715, he was also head of the Kneller Academy of Painting and Drawing from 1711 until 1716 in Great Queen Street, London, which counted such artists as Thomas Gibson amongst its founding directors. His paintings were praised by Whig members including John Dryden, Joseph Addison, Richard Steele, and Alexander Pope.
On the landing in Horsham Museum in West Sussex hang works of art from the Museum's extensive painting collection, featuring a large 18th-century portrait of Charles Eversfield and his wife, of Denne Park House.
He married a widow, Susanna Grave, on 23 January 1704 at St Bride's Church, London. She was the daughter of the Reverend John Cawley, Archdeacon of Lincoln and Rector of Henley-on-Thames, and the granddaughter of regicide William Cawley. The couple had no children.
Kneller died of fever in 1723 at Great Queen Street and his remains were interred at Twickenham. He had been a churchwarden at St Mary's, Twickenham, when the 14th-century nave collapsed in 1713 and was active in the plans for the church's reconstruction by John James. His widow was buried at Twickenham on 11 December 1729.
A memorial was erected in Westminster Abbey. Kneller's will gave a pension of £100 a year to his assistant Edward Byng and entrusted Byng with seeing that all unfinished work was completed. Byng also inherited the drawings in Kneller's studio. Kneller and his wife had no children together. Most of his fortune was inherited by his grandson, Godfrey Kneller Huckle, who was the son of Agnes Huckle, Kneller's illegitimate daughter by Mrs Voss, and who took his grandfather's surname (Kneller) as a condition of his inheritance.
As to thinking better or worse of mankind from experience, some cunning people will not be satisfied unless they have put men to the test, as they think. There is a very good story told of Sir Godfrey Kneller, in his character of a Justice of the peace. A gentleman brought his servant before him, upon an accusation of having stolen some money from him; but it having come out that he had laid it purposely in the servant's way, in order to try his honesty, Sir Godfrey sent the master to prison.
In his hometown Lübeck there are works to be seen in the St. Annen Museum and in Saint Catherine Church. His former works at St. Mary's Church were destroyed by the Bombing of Lübeck 1942. A large oil portrait (84" x 55") of James VII of Scotland (King James II of England) hangs on the main staircase of private members' Club, The Caledonian Club, in Belgravia, London.
A portrait of Queen Anne that belongs to Trinity Hospital in Retford, Nottinghamshire has been attributed to Kneller by the auctioneers Phillips – though it is unsigned. The hospital has a strong connection with Queen Anne, the founder being a first cousin of her grandmother. The portrait was restored and cleaned in 1999.
- Cokayne, George Edward (1906) Complete Baronetage. Volume V. Exeter: W. Pollard & Co. LCCN 06-23564. pp. 27–28
- Stewart, J. Douglas (2004). "Kneller, Sir Godfrey, baronet (1646–1723)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/15710. Retrieved 23 May 2012. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
- Chambers's Encyclopedia. Chambers's Encyclopedia. Pergamon Press. 1967. p. 246. Retrieved 1 May 2019.
... (1646–1723), portrait painter, was born in Lubeck on 8 Aug. 1646 and first ... On Lely's death in 1680, Kneller came to share the royal patronage with Riley (died 1691).
- Winn, J.A. (1992). "When beauty fires the blood": love and the arts in the age of Dryden. University of Michigan Press. p. 347. ISBN 978-0-472-10339-3. Retrieved 1 May 2019.
... as Principal Painter to the King, first in a joint appointment with Riley (1689), then on his own (1691); King William had ...
- Chilvers, I. (2017). The Oxford Dictionary of Art and Artists. Oxford Quick Reference. OUP Oxford. p. 726. ISBN 978-0-19-102417-7. Retrieved 1 May 2019.
- "The Piazza: Notable private residents in the Piazza". British History Online. Institute of Historical Reseacrh, University of London. Retrieved 10 November 2018.
- Godfrey Kneller biography, tate.org.uk. Accessed 7 January 2023.
- See e.g. Addison's poem "To Sir GODFREY KNELLER, on his PICTURE of the KING", eighteenthcenturypoetry.org. Accessed 7 January 2023.
- Horsham Museum Guidebook. Horsham District Council. May 2010.
- Memorials of Twickenham Parochial and Topographical, R.S. Cobbett, Smith, Elder & Co., London, 1872
- Edward Byng at britishmuseum.org, accessed 24 November 2012
- "Miss Agnes Voss, daughter of Mrs Voss and Sir Godfrey Kneller, afterwards Mrs Huckle". Royal Collection Trust. Inventory no. 663234.
- Deed Poll Office: Private Act of Parliament 1730 (4 Geo. 2). c. 32
- Boswell, James (1791). The Life of Samuel Johnson, LL.D.: Comprehending an Account of His Studies and Numerous Works, in Chronological Order; a Series of His Epistolary Correspondence and Conversations with Many Eminent Persons; and Various Original Pieces of His Composition, Never Before Published. The Whole Exhibiting a View of Literature and Literary Men in Great-Britain, for Near Half a Century, During which He Flourished. Vol. II (1 ed.). London: Printed by Henry Baldwin for Charles Dilly. p. 194. Retrieved 25 June 2016 – via Google Books.
- Primary studies
Adapted from a following source: Freitag, Wolfgang M. (1997) . Art Books: A Basic Bibliography of Monographs on Artists (2nd ed.). New York, London: Garland. p. 203, entries nos. 6184–6186. ISBN 0-8240-3326-4. LCCN 96028425.
- Ackermann, Wilhelm A. (1845). Der Portraitmaler Sir Godfrey Kniller, im Verhältniss zur Kunstbildung seiner Zeit (in German). Lübeck: Borschers. OCLC 84564667 – via Google Books.
- Collins Baker, C. H. (1922). Lely and Kneller. British Artists. Vol. 5. New York: F. A. Stokes. LCCN 23007185. OCLC 671555512 – via the Internet Archive.
- Killanin, Michael Morris, Baron (1948). Sir Godfrey Kneller and His Times, 1646–1723. London: Batsford. LCCN 48009603. OCLC 1263366 – via Google Books.
- Stewart, John Douglas (1971). Sir Godfrey Kneller (exhibition catalogue). London, Bell: National Portrait Gallery. ISBN 0-7135-1682-8. LCCN 72175245. OCLC 928238240.
- Stewart, John Douglas (1983). Sir Godfrey Kneller and the English Baroque Portrait. Oxford Studies in the History of Art and Architecture. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-19-817356-3. LCCN 82014249. OCLC 461761506.
- Reference books
- Bénézit, Emmanuel (2006) [first published in French in 1911–1923]. Benezit Dictionary of Artists. Vol. 7. Paris: Gründ. pp. 1356–1358. ISBN 2-7000-3077-X – via the Internet Archive.
- Cast, David (1996). "Kneller, Sir Godfrey [Kniller, Gottfried]". In Turner, Jane (ed.). The Dictionary of Art. Vol. 18. New York: Grove's Dictionaries. pp. 144–147. ISBN 1-884446-00-0. LCCN 96013628. OCLC 1033666240 – via the Internet Archive.
- Collins Baker, C. H. (1927). "Knillier (Kneller), Gottfried (Godfrey)". In Vollmer, Hans (ed.). Allgemeines Lexikon der bildenden Künstler (in German). Vol. 20. Leipzig: E. A. Seemann. pp. 596–600. OCLC 873748586.
- Stewart, John Douglas (2004). "Kneller, Sir Godfrey [formerly Gottfried Kneller], baronet". In Matthew, H. C. G. & Harrison, Brian (eds.). Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Vol. 31. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 877–885. ISBN 0-19-861381-4. LCCN 2004005444. OCLC 1035757202 – via the Internet Archive.
Media related to Godfrey Kneller at Wikimedia Commons
- Rossetti, William Michael (1911). . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 15 (11th ed.). p. 850.
- King Charles II (1685) at the Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool
- Artcyclopedia: Sir Godfrey Kneller
- Godfrey Kneller at PubHist
- Portraits by Kneller Archived 12 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine at the National Portrait Gallery
- Self-portrait Archived 30 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine at the National Portrait Gallery
- Horsham Museum