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Isotopes of silicon

  (Redirected from Silicon-34)

Silicon (14Si) has 23 known isotopes, with mass numbers ranging from 22 to 44. 28Si (the most abundant isotope, at 92.23%), 29Si (4.67%), and 30Si (3.1%) are stable. The longest-lived radioisotope is 32Si, which is produced by cosmic ray spallation of argon. Its half-life has been determined to be approximately 150 years (0.21 MeV), and it decays by beta emission to 32P (which has a 14.28-day half-life)[2] and then to 32S. After 32Si, 31Si has the second longest half-life at 157.3 minutes. All others have half-lives under 7 seconds.

Main isotopes of silicon (14Si)
Iso­tope Decay
abun­dance half-life (t1/2) mode pro­duct
28Si 92.2% stable
29Si 4.7% stable
30Si 3.1% stable
31Si trace 2.62 h β 31P
32Si trace 153 y β 32P
Standard atomic weight Ar, standard(Si)
  • [28.084, 28.086][1]
  • Conventional: 28.085
A chart showing the relative abundances of the naturally occurring isotopes of silicon.

List of isotopesEdit

Nuclide[3]
[n 1]
Z N Isotopic mass (u)[4]
[n 2][n 3]
Half-life
[n 4]
Decay
mode

[n 5]
Daughter
isotope

[n 6]
Spin and
parity
[n 7][n 4]
Natural abundance (mole fraction)
Excitation energy Normal proportion Range of variation
22Si 14 8 22.03579(54)# 29(2) ms β+ (67.6%) 22Al 0+
β+, p (32.4%) 21Mg
23Si 14 9 23.02544(54)# 42.3(4) ms β+ (12%) 23Al 3/2+#
β+, p (88%) 21Mg
24Si 14 10 24.011535(21) 140(8) ms β+ (62.4%) 24Al 0+
β+, p (37.6%) 23Mg
25Si 14 11 25.004109(11) 220(3) ms β+ (64.8%) 25Al 5/2+
β+, p (35.2%) 24Mg
26Si 14 12 25.9923338(12) 2.2453(7) s β+ 26Al 0+
27Si 14 13 26.98670469(12) 4.15(4) s β+ 27Al 5/2+
28Si 14 14 27.9769265350(5) Stable 0+ 0.92223(19) 0.92205–0.92241
29Si 14 15 28.9764946653(6) Stable 1/2+ 0.04685(8) 0.04678–0.04692
30Si 14 16 29.973770137(23) Stable 0+ 0.03092(11) 0.03082–0.03102
31Si 14 17 30.97536319(5) 157.36(26) min β 31P 3/2+
32Si 14 18 31.9741515(3) 153(19) y β 32P 0+ trace cosmogenic
33Si 14 19 32.9779770(8) 6.18(18) s β 33P (3/2+)
34Si 14 20 33.978575(15) 2.77(20) s β 34P 0+
34mSi 4256.1(4) keV <210 ns IT 34Si (3−)
35Si 14 21 34.98455(4) 780(120) ms β (94.74%) 35P 7/2−#
36Si 14 22 35.98665(8) 450(60) ms β (87.5%) 36P 0+
β, n (12.5%) 35P
37Si 14 23 36.99295(12) 90(60) ms β (83%) 37P (7/2−)#
β, n (17%) 36P
38Si 14 24 37.99552(11) 90# ms [>1 µs] β, n 37P 0+
β 38P
39Si 14 25 39.00249(15) 47.5(20) ms β 39P 7/2−#
40Si 14 26 40.00583(37) 33.0(10) ms β 40P 0+
41Si 14 27 41.01301(60) 20.0(25) ms β 41P 7/2−#
42Si 14 28 42.01768(54)# 12.5(35) ms β 42P 0+
43Si 14 29 43.02480(64)# 15# ms [>260 ns] 3/2−#
44Si 14 30 44.03061(64)# 10# ms 0+
  1. ^ mSi – Excited nuclear isomer.
  2. ^ ( ) – Uncertainty (1σ) is given in concise form in parentheses after the corresponding last digits.
  3. ^ # – Atomic mass marked #: value and uncertainty derived not from purely experimental data, but at least partly from trends from the Mass Surface (TMS).
  4. ^ a b # – Values marked # are not purely derived from experimental data, but at least partly from trends of neighboring nuclides (TNN).
  5. ^ Modes of decay:
    IT: Isomeric transition
    n: Neutron emission
    p: Proton emission
  6. ^ Bold symbol as daughter – Daughter product is stable.
  7. ^ ( ) spin value – Indicates spin with weak assignment arguments.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Meija, Juris; et al. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure and Applied Chemistry. 88 (3): 265–91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305.
  2. ^ Audi, Georges; Kondev, Filip G.; Wang, Meng; Huang, Wen Jia; Naimi, Sarah (2017), "The NUBASE2016 evaluation of nuclear properties" (PDF), Chinese Physics C, 41 (3): 030001–1—030001–138, Bibcode:2017ChPhC..41c0001A, doi:10.1088/1674-1137/41/3/030001
  3. ^ Half-life, decay mode, nuclear spin, and isotopic composition is sourced in:
    Audi, Georges; Kondev, Filip G.; Wang, Meng; Huang, Wen Jia; Naimi, Sarah (2017), "The NUBASE2016 evaluation of nuclear properties" (PDF), Chinese Physics C, 41 (3): 030001–1—030001–138, Bibcode:2017ChPhC..41c0001A, doi:10.1088/1674-1137/41/3/030001
  4. ^ Wang, Meng; Audi, Georges; Kondev, Filip G.; Huang, Wen Jian; Naimi, Sarah; Xu, Xing (2017), "The AME2016 atomic mass evaluation (II). Tables, graphs, and references" (PDF), Chinese Physics C, 41 (3): 030003–1—030003–442, doi:10.1088/1674-1137/41/3/030003

External linksEdit