Open main menu

Wikipedia β

A baby breastfeeding

Breastfeeding, also known as nursing, is the feeding of babies and young children with milk from a woman's breast.[1] Health professionals recommend that breastfeeding begin within the first hour of a baby's life and continue as often and as much as the baby wants.[2][3] During the first few weeks of life babies may nurse roughly every two to three hours.[4] The duration of a feeding is usually ten to fifteen minutes on each breast.[4] Older children feed less often.[5] Mothers may pump milk so that it can be used later when breastfeeding is not possible.[1] Breastfeeding has a number of benefits to both mother and baby, which infant formula lacks.[3][6]

Deaths of an estimated 820,000 children under the age of five could be prevented globally every year with increased breastfeeding.[7] Breastfeeding decreases the risk of respiratory tract infections and diarrhea, both in developing and developed countries.[2][3] Other benefits include lower risks of asthma, food allergies, celiac disease, type 1 diabetes, and leukemia.[3] Breastfeeding may also improve cognitive development and decrease the risk of obesity in adulthood.[2] Mothers may feel pressure to breastfeed, but in the developed world children generally grow up normally when bottle fed.[8]

Benefits for the mother include less blood loss following delivery, better uterus shrinkage, and less postpartum depression.[3] Breastfeeding delays the return of menstruation and fertility, a phenomenon known as lactational amenorrhea.[3] Long term benefits for the mother include decreased risk of breast cancer, cardiovascular disease, and rheumatoid arthritis.[3][7] Breastfeeding is less expensive than infant formula.[9][10]

Health organizations, including the World Health Organization (WHO), recommend breastfeeding exclusively for six months.[2][11][3] This means that no other foods or drinks other than possibly vitamin D are typically given.[12] After the introduction of foods at six months of age, recommendations include continued breastfeeding until at least one to two years of age.[2][3] Globally about 38% of infants are only breastfed during their first six months of life.[2] In the United States, about 75% of women begin breastfeeding and about 13% only breastfeed until the age of six months.[3] Medical conditions that do not allow breastfeeding are rare.[3] Mothers who take certain recreational drugs and medications should not breastfeed.[13] Smoking, limited amounts of alcohol, or coffee are not reasons to avoid breastfeeding.[14][15][16]

Video explanation



Changes early in pregnancy prepare the breast for lactation. Pre-birth hormone levels become altered after the birth and stimulate the production of milk. From around halfway through pregnancy, the breasts begin to produce colostrum.[17] Colostrum, a thick yellowish fluid rich in protein, continues to be produced for the first few days after delivery. Around 30 to 40 hours after delivery, the composition of milk changes to mature milk and milk volume becomes copious, an event known as the milk "coming in".[18] Sucking causes the pituitary to release oxytocin that causes to the contraction of the uterus.[19][20] Progesterone is the hormone that influences the growth of breast tissue before the birth. The postpartum changes that occur in the endocrine system after the birth shift from hormones that prevent lactation to hormones that trigger milk production.[citation needed] This can be felt by the mother in the breasts. The crying of the infant can induce the release of oxytocin from the pituitary gland.[21]

Breast milkEdit

Two 25 ml samples of human breast milk. The sample on the left is foremilk, the watery milk coming from a full breast. To the right is hindmilk, the creamy milk coming from a nearly empty breast.[22]
Himba woman and child

Not all of breast milk's properties are understood, but its nutrient content is relatively consistent. Breast milk is made from nutrients in the mother's bloodstream and bodily stores. Breast milk has an optimal balance of fat, sugar, water, and protein that is needed for a baby's growth and development.[23] Breastfeeding triggers biochemical reactions which allows for the enzymes, hormones, growth factors and immunologic substances to effectively defend against infectious diseases for the infant. The breastmilk also has long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids which help with normal retinal and neural development.[24]

The composition of breast milk changes depending on how long the baby nurses at each session, as well as on the child's age.[25] The first type, produced during the first days after childbirth, is called colostrum. Colostrum is easy to digest although it is more concentrated than mature milk. It has a laxative effect that helps the infant to pass early stools, aiding in the excretion of excess bilirubin, which helps to prevent jaundice. It also helps to seal the infants gastrointestional tract from foreign substances, which may sensitize the baby to foods that the mother has eaten. Although the baby has received some antibodies through the placenta, colostrum contains a substance which is new to the newborn, secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA). IgA works to attack germs in the mucous membranes of the throat, lungs, and intestines, which are most likely to come under attack from germs.[26]

Breasts begin producing mature milk around the third or fourth day after birth. Early in a nursing session, the breasts produce foremilk, a thinner milk containing many proteins and vitamins. If the baby keeps nursing, then hindmilk is produced. Hindmilk has a creamier color and texture because it contains more fat.[27]



Newborn rests as caregiver checks breath sounds

Breastfeeding can begin immediately after birth. The baby is placed on the mother and feeding starts as soon as the baby shows interest.

According to some authorities, increasing evidence suggests that early skin-to-skin contact (also called kangaroo care) between mother and baby stimulates breastfeeding behavior in the baby.[28] Newborns who are immediately placed on their mother’s skin have a natural instinct to latch on to the breast and start nursing, typically within one hour of birth. Immediate skin-to-skin contact may provide a form of imprinting that makes subsequent feeding significantly easier. In addition to more successful breastfeeding and bonding, immediate skin-to-skin contact reduces crying and warms the baby.

According to studies cited by UNICEF, babies naturally follow a process which leads to a first breastfeed. Initially after birth the baby cries with its first breaths. Shortly after, it relaxes and makes small movements of the arms, shoulders and head. The baby crawls towards the breast and begins to feed. After feeding, it is normal for a baby to remain latched to the breast while resting. This is sometimes mistaken for lack of appetite. Absent interruptions, all babies follow this process. Rushing or interrupting the process, such as removing the baby to weigh him/her, may complicate subsequent feeding.[29] Activities such as weighing, measuring, bathing, needle-sticks, and eye prophylaxis wait until after the first feeding."[30]

Children who are born preterm have difficulty in initiating breast feeds immediately after birth. By convention, such children are often fed on expressed breast milk or other supplementary feeds through tubes or bottles until they develop satisfactory ability to suck breast milk. Tube feeding, though commonly used, is not supported by scientific evidence as of October 2016.[31] It has also been reported in the same systematic review that by avoiding bottles and using cups instead to provide supplementary feeds to preterm children, a greater extent of breast feeding for a longer duration can subsequently be achieved.[31]


Newborn babies typically express demand for feeding every one to three hours (8–12 times in 24 hours) for the first two to four weeks.[32] A newborn has a very small stomach capacity. At one-day old it is 5–7 ml, about the size of a marble; at day three it is 22–30 ml, about the size of a "shooter" marble; and at day seven it is 45–60 ml, or about the size of a ping-pong ball. The amount of breast milk that is produced is timed to meet the infant's needs in that the first milk, colostrum, is concentrated but produced in only very small amounts, gradually increasing in volume to meet the expanding size of the infant's stomach capacity.[26]

According to La Leche League International, "Experienced breastfeeding mothers learn that the sucking patterns and needs of babies vary. While some infants' sucking needs are met primarily during feedings, other babies may need additional sucking at the breast soon after a feeding even though they are not really hungry. Babies may also nurse when they are lonely, frightened or in pain....Comforting and meeting sucking needs at the breast is nature's original design. Pacifiers (dummies, soothers) are a substitute for the mother when she cannot be available. Other reasons to pacify a baby primarily at the breast include superior oral-facial development, prolonged lactational amenorrhea, avoidance of nipple confusion, and stimulation of an adequate milk supply to ensure higher rates of breastfeeding success."[33]

During the newborn period, most breastfeeding sessions take from 20 to 45 minutes.[32] After one breast is empty, the mother may offer the other breast.

Duration and exclusivityEdit

Health organization recommend exclusive breastfeeding for six months following birth.[2][34][35][36][37][3][38][39][40] Exclusive breastfeeding is defined as "an infant's consumption of human milk with no supplementation of any type (no water, no juice, no nonhuman milk and no foods) except for vitamins, minerals and medications."[30] In some countries, including the United States, UK, and Canada, daily vitamin D supplementation is recommended for all breastfed infants.[41][42][43]

After solids are introduced at around six months of age, continued breastfeeding is recommended. The AAP recommends that babies be breastfed at least until 12 months, or longer if both the mother and child wish.[3] WHO's guidelines recommend "continue[d] frequent, on-demand breastfeeding until two years of age or beyond."[44][45]

The vast majority of mothers can produce enough milk to fully meet the nutritional needs of their baby for six months. Breast milk supply augments in response to the baby's demand for milk, and decreases when milk is allowed to remain in the breasts.[46] Low milk supply is usually caused by allowing milk to remain in the breasts for long periods of time, or insufficiently draining the breasts during feeds. It is usually preventable, unless caused by medical conditions that have been estimated to affect up to five percent of women.[47] If the baby is latching and swallowing well, but is not gaining weight as expected or is showing signs of dehydration, low milk supply in the mother can be suspected.[47]


Rooming-in bassinet

Most US states now have laws that allow a mother to breastfeed her baby anywhere. In hospitals, rooming-in care permits the baby to stay with the mother and simplifies the process. Some commercial establishments provide breastfeeding rooms, although laws generally specify that mothers may breastfeed anywhere, without requiring a special area. Breastfeeding in public remains controversial in many developed countries.

In 2014, newly elected Pope Francis drew worldwide commentary when he encouraged mothers to breastfeed babies in church. During a papal baptism, he said that mothers "should not stand on ceremony" if their children were hungry. "If they are hungry, mothers, feed them, without thinking twice," he said, smiling. "Because they are the most important people here."[48]


Correct positioning and technique for latching on are necessary to prevent nipple soreness and allow the baby to obtain enough milk.[49]

Babies can successfully latch on to the breast from multiple positions. Each baby may prefer a particular position. The "football" hold places the baby's legs next to the mother's side with the baby facing the mother. Using the "cradle" or "cross-body" hold, the mother supports the baby's head in the crook of her arm. The "cross-over" hold is similar to the cradle hold, except that the mother supports the baby's head with the opposite hand. The mother may choose a reclining position on her back or side with the baby laying next to her.[50]

Standing mother breastfeeding her baby, Canjambari, Guinea-Bissau, 1973

Latching onEdit

Latching on refers to how the baby fastens onto the breast while breastfeeding. A good latch means that the bottom of the areola (the area around the nipple) is in the baby's mouth and the nipple is back inside his or her mouth. A poor latch happens when the baby does not have enough of the breast in his/her mouth or is too close to the tip. This can cause cracked nipples and a reluctance to continue to breastfeed.[51][52]


Weaning is the process of replacing breast milk with other foods; the infant is fully weaned after the replacement is complete. Psychological factors affect the weaning process for both mother and infant, as issues of closeness and separation are very prominent.[53] If the baby is less than a year old substitute bottles are necessary; an older baby may accept milk from a cup. Unless a medical emergency necessitates abruptly stopping breastfeeding, it is best to gradually cut back on feedings to allow the breasts to adjust to the decreased demands without becoming engorged. La Leche League advises: "The nighttime feeding is usually the last to go. Make a bedtime routine not centered around breastfeeding. A good book or two will eventually become more important than a long session at the breast."[54]

If breastfeeding is suddenly stopped a woman's breasts are likely to become engorged with milk. Pumping small amounts to relieve discomfort helps to gradually train the breasts to produce less milk. There is presently no safe medication to prevent engorgement, but cold compresses and ibuprofen may help to relieve pain and swelling. Pain should go away in one to five days. If symptoms continue and comfort measures are not helpful a woman should consider the possibility that a blocked milk duct or infection may be present and seek medical intervention.[55]

When weaning is complete the mother's breasts return to their previous size after several menstrual cycles. If the mother was experiencing lactational amenorrhea her periods will return along with the return of her fertility. When no longer breastfeeding she will need to adjust her diet to avoid weight gain.[56]


Almost all medicines pass into breastmilk in small amounts. Some have no effect on the baby and can be used while breastfeeding.[57] Many medications are known to significantly suppress milk production, including pseudoephedrine, diuretics, and contraceptives that contain estrogen.[58]

The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) states that "tobacco smoking by mothers is not a contraindication to breastfeeding."[30] Breastfeeding is actually especially recommended for mothers who smoke, because of its protective effects against SIDS.[59]

With respect to alcohol, the AAP states that when breastfeeding, "moderation is definitely advised" and recommends waiting for 2 hours after drinking before nursing or pumping.[60] A 2014 review found that "even in a theoretical case of binge drinking, the children would not be subjected to clinically relevant amounts of alcohol [through breastmilk]", and would have no adverse effects on children as long as drinking is "occasional".[61]


Formula and pumped breastmilk, side-by-side. Note that the formula is of uniform consistency and color, while the milk exhibits properties of an organic solution, separating into the creamline layer of fat at the top, milk and a watery blue layer at the bottom.

Expressed milkEdit

Manual breast pump

A mother can express (produce) her milk for storage and later use. Expression occurs with massage or a breast pump. It can be stored in freezer storage bags, containers made specifically for breastmilk, a supplemental nursing system, or a bottle ready for use. Using someone other than the mother/wet nurse to deliver the bottle maintains the baby's association of nursing with the mother/wet nurse and bottle feeding with other people.

Breast milk may be kept at room temperature for up to six hours, refrigerated for up to eight days or frozen for six to twelve months.[62] Research suggests that the antioxidant activity in expressed breast milk decreases over time, but remains at higher levels than in infant formula.[63]

Mothers express milk for multiple reasons. Expressing breast milk can maintain a mother's milk supply when she and her child are apart. A sick baby who is unable to nurse can take expressed milk through a nasogastric tube. Some babies are unable or unwilling to nurse. Expressed milk is the feeding method of choice for premature babies.[64] Viral disease transmission can be prevented by expressing breast milk and subjecting it to Holder pasteurisation.[65] Some women donate expressed breast milk (EBM) to others, either directly or through a milk bank. This allows mothers who cannot breastfeed to give their baby the benefits of breast milk.

Babies feed differently with artificial nipples than from a breast. With the breast, the infant's tongue massages the milk out rather than sucking, and the nipple does not go as far into the mouth. Drinking from a bottle takes less effort and the milk may come more rapidly, potentially causing the baby to lose desire for the breast. This is called nursing strike, nipple strike or nipple confusion. To avoid this, expressed milk can be given by means such as spoons or cups.

"Exclusively expressing", "exclusively pumping", and "EPing" are terms for a mother who exclusively feeds her baby expressed milk. With good pumping habits, particularly in the first 12 weeks while establishing the milk supply, it is possible to express enough milk to feed the baby indefinitely. With the improvements in breast pumps, many women exclusively feed expressed milk, expressing milk at work. Women can leave their infants in the care of others while traveling, while maintaining a supply of breast milk.[66]

Expressed breast milk or infant formula can be fed by bottle

Shared nursingEdit

It is not only the mother who may breastfeed her child. She may hire another woman to do so (a wet nurse), or she may share childcare with another mother (cross-nursing). Both of these were common throughout history. It remains popular in some developing nations, including those in Africa, for more than one woman to breastfeed a child. Shared breastfeeding is a risk factor for HIV infection in infants.[67] Shared nursing can sometimes provoke negative reactions in the English-speaking world.[68][69]

Tandem nursingEdit

It is possible for a mother to continue breastfeeding an older sibling while also breastfeeding a new baby; this is called tandem nursing. During the late stages of pregnancy, the milk changes to colostrum. While some children continue to breastfeed even with this change, others may wean. Most mothers can produce enough milk for tandem nursing, but the new baby should be nursed first for at least the first few days after delivery to ensure that it receives enough colostrum.[70]

Breastfeeding triplets or larger broods is a challenge given babies' varying appetites. Breasts can respond to the demand and produce larger milk quantities; mothers have breastfed triplets successfully.[71][72][73]

Induced lactationEdit

Induced lactation, also called adoptive lactation, is the process of starting breastfeeding in a woman who did not give birth.[74] This usually requires the adoptive mother to take hormones and other drugs to stimulate breast development and promote milk production. In some cultures, breastfeeding an adoptive child creates milk kinship that built community bonds across class and other hierarchal bonds.[74]


Re-lactation is the process of restarting breastfeeding.[74] In developing countries, mothers may restart breastfeeding after a weaning as part of an oral rehydration treatment for diarrhea. In developed countries, re-lactation is common after early medical problems are resolved, or because a mother changes her mind about breastfeeding.

Re-lactation is most easily accomplished with a newborn or with a baby that was previously breastfeeding; if the baby was initially bottle-fed, the baby may refuse to suckle. If the mother has recently stopped breastfeeding, she is more likely to be able to re-establish her milk supply, and more likely to have an adequate supply. Although some women successfully re-lactate after months-long interruptions, success is higher for shorter interruptions.[74]

Techniques to promote lactation use frequent attempts to breastfeed, extensive skin-to-skin contact with the baby, and frequent, long pumping sessions.[74] Suckling may be encouraged with a tube filled with infant formula, so that the baby associates suckling at the breast with food. A dropper or syringe without the needle may be used to place milk onto the breast while the baby suckles. The mother should allow the infant to suckle at least ten times during 24 hours, and more times if he or she is interested. These times can include every two hours, whenever the baby seems interested, longer at each breast, and when the baby is sleepy when he or she might suckle more readily. In keeping with increasing contact between mother and child, including increasing skin-to-skin contact, grandmothers should pull back and help in other ways. Later on, grandmothers can again provide more direct care for the infant.[75]

These techniques require the mother's commitment over a period of weeks or months. However, even when lactation is established, the supply may not be large enough to breastfeed exclusively. A supportive social environment improves the likelihood of success.[74] As the mother's milk production increases, other feeding can decrease. Parents and other family members should watch the baby's weight gain and urine output to assess nutritional adequacy.[75]

A WHO manual for physicians and senior health workers citing a 1992 source states: "If a baby has been breastfeeding sometimes, the breastmilk supply increases in a few days. If a baby has stopped breastfeeding, it may take 1-2 weeks or more before much breastmilk comes."[75]


Extended breastfeeding means breastfeeding after the age of 12 or 24 months, depending on the source. In Western countries such as the United States, Canada, and Great Britain, extended breastfeeding is relatively uncommon and can provoke criticism.[76][77]

In the United States, 22.4% of babies are breastfed for 12 months, the minimum amount of time advised by the American Academy of Pediatrics. In India, mothers commonly breastfeed for 2 to 3 years.[78]

Health effectsEdit

Support for breastfeeding is universal among major health and children's organizations. WHO states, "Breast milk is the ideal food for the healthy growth and development of infants; breastfeeding is also an integral part of the reproductive process with important implications for the health of mothers.".[79]

Breastfeeding decreases the risk of a number of diseases in both mothers and babies.[80] The US Preventive Services Task Force recommends efforts to promote breastfeeding.[81]


Early breastfeeding is associated with fewer nighttime feeding problems.[82] Early skin-to-skin contact between mother and baby improves breastfeeding outcomes and increases cardio-respiratory stability.[83] Reviews from 2007 found numerous benefits. Breastfeeding aids general health, growth and development in the infant. Infants who are not breastfed are at mildly increased risk of developing acute and chronic diseases, including lower respiratory infection, ear infections, bacteremia, bacterial meningitis, botulism, urinary tract infection and necrotizing enterocolitis.[84][85] Breastfeeding may protect against sudden infant death syndrome,[86] insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, lymphoma, allergic diseases, digestive diseases,[30] obesity, develop diabetes, or childhood leukemia later in life.[87] and may enhance cognitive development.[30]


The average breastfed baby doubles its birth weight in 5–6 months. By one year, a typical breastfed baby weighs about 2-1/2 times its birth weight. At one year, breastfed babies tend to be leaner than formula-fed babies, which improves long-run health.[88]

The Davis Area Research on Lactation, Infant Nutrition and Growth (DARLING) study reported that breastfed and formula-fed groups had similar weight gain during the first 3 months, but the breastfed babies began to drop below the median beginning at 6 to 8 months and were significantly lower weight than the formula-fed group between 6 and 18 months. Length gain and head circumference values were similar between groups, suggesting that the breastfed babies were leaner.[89]


Breast milk contains several anti-infective factors such as bile salt stimulated lipase (protecting against amoebic infections) and lactoferrin (which binds to iron and inhibits the growth of intestinal bacteria).[90][91]

Exclusive breastfeeding till six months of age helps to protect an infant from gastrointestinal infections in both developing and industrialized countries. The risk of death due to diarrhea and other infections increases when babies are either partially breastfed or not breastfed at all.[2] Infants who are exclusively breastfed for the first six months are less likely to die of gastrointestinal infections than infants who switched from exclusive to partial breastfeeding at three to four months.[92]

During breastfeeding, approximately 0.25–0.5 grams per day of secretory IgA antibodies pass to the baby via milk.[93][94] This is one of the important features of colostrum.[95] The main target for these antibodies are probably microorganisms in the baby's intestine. The rest of the body displays some uptake of IgA,[96] but this amount is relatively small.[97]

Maternal vaccinations while breastfeeding is safe for almost all vaccines. Additionally, the mother's immunity obtained by vaccination against tetanus, diphtheria, whooping cough and influenza can protect the baby from these diseases, and breastfeeding can reduce fever rate after infant immunization. However, smallpox and yellow fever vaccines increase the risk of infants developing vaccinia and encephalitis.[98][99]


Babies who receive no breast milk are almost six times more likely to die by the age of one month than those who are partially or fully breastfed.[100]

Childhood obesityEdit

The protective effect of breastfeeding against obesity is consistent, though small, across many studies.[84][85][101] A 2013 longitudinal study reported less obesity at ages two and four years among infants who were breastfed for at least four months.[102]

Allergic diseasesEdit

In children who are at risk for developing allergic diseases (defined as at least one parent or sibling having atopy), atopic syndrome can be prevented or delayed through 4-month exclusive breastfeeding, though these benefits may not persist.[103]

Other health effectsEdit

Breastfeeding may reduce the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC).[85]

Breastfeeding or introduction of gluten while breastfeeding don't protect against celiac disease among at-risk children. Breast milk of healthy human mothers who eat gluten-containing foods presents high levels of non-degraded gliadin (the main gluten protein). Early introduction of traces of gluten in babies to potentially induce tolerance doesn't reduce the risk of developing celiac disease. Delaying the introduction of gluten does not prevent, but is associated with a delayed onset of the disease.[104][105]

About 19% of leukemia cases may be prevented by breastfeeding for six months or longer.[106]

Breastfeeding may decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease in later life, as indicated by lower cholesterol and C-reactive protein levels in breastfed adult women.[84] Breastfed infants have somewhat lower blood pressure later in life, but it is unclear how much practical benefit this provides.[84][85]

A 1998 study suggested that breastfed babies have a better chance of good dental health than formula-fed infants because of the developmental effects of breastfeeding on the oral cavity and airway. It was thought that with fewer malocclusions, breastfed children may have a reduced need for orthodontic intervention. The report suggested that children with a well rounded, "U-shaped" dental arch, which is found more commonly in breastfed children, may have fewer problems with snoring and sleep apnea in later life.[107] A 2016 review found that breastfeeding protected against malocclusions.[7]


It is unclear whether breastfeeding improves intelligence later in life. Several studies found no relationship after controlling for confounding factors like maternal intelligence (smarter mothers were more likely to breastfeed their babies).[85][108] However, other studies concluded that breastfeeding was associated with increased cognitive development in childhood, although the cause may be increased mother–child interaction rather than nutrition.[84]


Breastfeeding may improve a mothers physical and emotional health.

Maternal bondEdit

Hormones released during breastfeeding help to strengthen the maternal bond.[23] Teaching partners how to manage common difficulties is associated with higher breastfeeding rates.[109] Support for a breastfeeding mother can strengthen familial bonds and help build a paternal bond.[23][110]


Exclusive breastfeeding usually delays the return of fertility through lactational amenorrhea, although it does not provide reliable birth control. Breastfeeding may delay the return to fertility for some women by suppressing ovulation. Mothers may not ovulate, or have regular periods, during the entire lactation period. The non-ovulating period varies by individual. This has been used as natural contraception, with greater than 98% effectiveness during the first six months after birth if specific nursing behaviors are followed.[111]


While breastfeeding soon after birth is believed to increases uterus contraction and reducing bleeding high quality evidence to support this is lacking.[112]


It is unclear whether breastfeeding causes mothers to lose weight after giving birth.[85][113][114] The National Institutes of Health states that it may help with weight loss.[115]

For breastfeeding women, long-term health benefits include reduced risk of breast cancer, ovarian cancer, and endometrial cancer.[30][85][116]

A 2011 review found unclear if breastfeeding affects the risk of postpartum depression.[117] Other reviews found tentative evidence of a lower risk among mothers who successfully breastfeed.[118][119]


Breastfeeding of babies is associated with a lower chance of developing diabetes mellitus type 1.[85] Breastfed babies also appear to have a lower likelihood of developing diabetes mellitus type 2 later in life.[84][85][120] Breastfeeding is also associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes among mothers who practice it.[121]

Social factorsEdit

The majority of mothers intend to breastfeed at birth. Many factors can disrupt this intent. Research done in the US shows that information about breastfeeding is rarely provided by a women's obstetricians during their prenatal visits and some health professionals incorrectly believe that commercially prepared formula is nutritionally equivalent to breast milk.[122] Many hospitals have instituted practices that encourage breastfeeding, however a 2012 survey in the US found that 24% of maternity services were still providing supplements of commercial infant formula as a general practice in the first 48 hours after birth.[3] The Surgeon General’s Call to Action to Support Breastfeeding attempts to educate practitioners.[123]

Social supportEdit

Positive social support in essential relationships of new mothers plays a central role in the promotion of breastfeeding outside of the confines of medical centers. Social support can come in many incarnations, including tangible, affectionate, social interaction, and emotional and informational support. An increase in these capacities of support has shown to greatly positively effect breastfeeding rates, especially among women with education below a high school level.[124] In the social circles surrounding the mother, support is most crucial from the male partner, the mother's mother, and her family and friends.[125] Research has shown that the closest relationships to the mother have the strongest impact on breastfeeding rates, while negative perspectives on breastfeeding from close relatives hinder its prevalence.[124]

Work is the most commonly cited reason for not breastfeeding.[126] In 2012 Save the Children examined maternity leave laws, ranking 36 industrialized countries according to their support for breastfeeding. Norway ranked first, while the United States came in last.[127] Maternity leave in the US varies widely, including by state, despite the Family Medical Leave Act (FMLA), which guarantees most mothers up to 12 weeks unpaid leave. The majority of US mothers resume work earlier.

  • Mother – Adolescence is a risk factor for low breastfeeding rates, although classes, books and personal counseling (professional or lay) can help compensate.[128] Some women fear that breastfeeding will negatively impact the look of their breasts. However, a 2008 study found that breastfeeding had no effect on a woman's breasts, other factors did contribute to "drooping" of the breasts, such as advanced age, number of pregnancies and smoking behavior.[129]
  • Partner – Partners may lack knowledge of breastfeeding and their role in the practice.
  • Wet nursing – Social and cultural attitudes towards breastfeeding in the African-American community are also influenced by the legacy of forced wet-nursing during slavery.[130]


Famille d’un Chef Camacan se préparant pour une Fête ("Family of a Camacan chief preparing for a celebration") by Jean-Baptiste Debret shows a woman breastfeeding a child in the background

Infants that are otherwise healthy uniformly benefit from breastfeeding. "No known disadvantages" stem from breastfeeding.[131] However, extra precautions should be taken or breastfeeding be avoided in circumstances including certain infectious diseases, or use of certain medications.[131] In some cases it may not be feasible for the mother to continue breastfeeding.[131]

A number of hospital-employed procedures have been found to interfere with breastfeeding, including routine mother/baby separation, delayed initiation, vigorous routine suctioning, medications and mode of delivery.[132] There are also racial disparities in access to maternity care practices that support breastfeeding. In the US, primarily African-American neighborhoods are more likely to have facilities (such as hospitals and female healthcare clinics) that do not support breastfeeding, contributing to the low rate of breastfeeding in the African-American community. Comparing facilities in primarily African American neighborhoods to ones in primarily White neighborhoods, the rates of practices that support or discourage breastfeeding were: limited use of supplements (13.1% compared with 25.8%) and rooming-in (27.7–39.4%)[133]

Pain caused from mis-positioning the baby on the breast or a tongue-tie in the infant can cause pain in the mother and discourage her. These problems are generally easy to correct (by re-positioning or clipping the tongue-tie).[134]

Breast surgery, including breast implants or breast reduction surgery, reduces the chances that a woman will have sufficient milk to breastfeed.[135]

Women whose pregnancies are unintended are less likely to breast feed their babies.[136]

International board certified lactation consultants (IBCLCs) are health care professionals certified in lactation management. They work with mothers to solve breastfeeding problems and educate families and health professionals. Exclusive and partial breastfeeding are more common among mothers who gave birth in IBCLC-equipped hospitals.[137]

Maternal infectionsEdit

A breastfeeding child can become infected with HIV. Factors such as the viral load in the mother’s milk complicate breastfeeding recommendations for HIV-positive mothers.[138][139]

In mothers who are treated with antiretroviral drugs the risk of HIV transmission with breastfeeding is 1–2%.[2] Therefore, of breastfeeding is still recommended in areas of the world with death from infectious diseases is common.[2] Infant formula should only be given if this can be safely done.[2]

WHO recommends that national authorities in each country decide which infant feeding practice should be promoted by their maternal and child health services to best avoid HIV transmission from mother to child.[140] Other maternal infection of concern include active untreated tuberculosis or human T-lymphotropic virus.


Breastfeeding mothers should inform their healthcare provider about all of the medications they are taking, including herbal products. Nursing mothers can safely take many over-the-counter drugs and prescription drugs and receive immunizations, but certain drugs, including painkillers and psychiatric drugs, may pose a risk.

The US National Library of Medicine publishes "LactMed", an up-to-date online database of information on drugs and lactation. Geared to both healthcare practitioners and nursing mothers, LactMed contains over 450 drug records with information such as potential drug effects and alternate drugs to consider.[99][141]

Some substances in the mother's food and drink are passed to the baby through breast milk, including mercury (found in some carnivorous fish),[142] caffeine,[143] and bisphenol A.[144][145]

Medical conditionsEdit

Undiagnosed maternal celiac disease may cause a short duration of the breastfeeding period. Treatment with the gluten-free diet can increase its duration and restore it to the average value of the healthy women.[146]

Mothers with all types of diabetes mellitus normally use insulin to control their blood sugar, as the safety of other antidiabetic drugs while breastfeeding is unknown.[147]

Women with polycystic ovary syndrome, which is associated with some hormonal differences and obesity, may have greater difficulty with producing a sufficient supply to support exclusive breastfeeding, especially during the first weeks.[148]

Socioeconomic statusEdit

Race, ethnicity and socioeconomic status affect choice and duration in the United States. A 2011 study found that on average, US women who breastfed had higher levels of education, were older and were more likely to be white.[149]

The rates of breastfeeding in the African-American community remain much lower than any other race, for a variety of reasons. These include the legacy of Wet nursing during slavery, as well as systemic racism in the American healthcare system that does not offer adequate support to African-American breastfeeding mothers. While for other races as socio-economic class raises rates of breastfeeding also go up, for the African-American community breastfeeding rates remain consistently low regardless of socio-economic class.[150] Within the African-American community, social stigma exists because of the association of breastfeeding with the legacy of wet-nursing during slavery. Because of breastfeeding’s well-documented benefits to both baby and mother, many blactavists – Black Lactation Activists, such as Kimberly Seals Allers[151] advocate and support breastfeeding in the African-American community.

Although return to work is associated with early discontinuation, a supportive work environment may encourage mothers to continue.

Low-income mothers are more likely to have unintended pregnancies.[149] Mothers whose pregnancies are unintended are less likely to breastfeed.[136]

Social acceptanceEdit

Sign for a private nursing area at a museum using the international breastfeeding symbol

Some women feel discomfort when breastfeeding in public.[152] Public breastfeeding may be forbidden in some places, not addressed by law in others, and a legal right in others. Even given a legal right, some mothers are reluctant to breastfeed,[153][154] while others may object to the practice.[155]

The use of infant formula was thought to be a way for western culture to adapt to negative perceptions of breastfeeding.[156] The breast pump offered a way for mothers to supply breast milk with most of formula feeding's convenience and without enduring possible disapproval of nursing.[157] Some may object to breastfeeding because of the implicit association between infant feeding and sex.[158] These negative cultural connotations may reduce breastfeeding duration.[153][159][160][161] Maternal guilt and shame is often affected by how a mother feeds her infant. These emotions occur in both bottle- and breast- feeding mothers, although for different reasons. Bottle feeding mothers may feel that they should be breastfeeding.[162] Conversely, breastfeeding mothers may feel forced to feed in uncomfortable circumstances. Some may see breastfeeding as, “indecent, disgusting, animalistic, sexual, and even possibly a perverse act."[163] Advocates use "nurse-ins" to show support for breastfeeding in public.[152] Some advocates emphasize providing women with education on breastfeeding's benefits as well as problem-solving skills.[162]


Percentage of babies exclusively breastfed for the first six months of life. Data from 2004 to 2011.[164]
Percentage of US infants breastfeeding by month since birth in 2008.
Dotted line: Exclusive breastfeeding
Dashed line Any breastfeeding
* Estimated at 7 days after birth

Globally about 38% of babies are just breastfeed during their first six months of life.[2] In the United States as of 2012, 75% of women started breastfeeding, 43% breastfeed for six months though only 13% exclusively breastfed, and 23% breastfeed for twelve months.[3][165] In the United States African-American women have persistently low rates of breastfeeding compared to White and Hispanic American women. 58.1% of African-American women breastfeed in the early postpartum period, compared to 77.7% of White women and 80.6% of Hispanic women.[150]

Breastfeeding rates in different parts of China vary considerably.[166]

Breastfeeding rates in the United Kingdom were the lowest in the world in 2015 with only 0.5% of mothers still breastfeeding at a year, while in Germany 23% are doing so, 56% in Brazil and 99% in Senegal.[167]

In Australia for children born in 2004, more than 90% were initially breastfed.[168] In Canada for children born in 2005-06, more than 50% were only breastfed and more than 15% received both breastmilk and other liquids, by the age of 3 months.[169]


In the Egyptian, Greek and Roman empires, women usually fed only their own children.[citation needed] However, breastfeeding began to be seen as something too common to be done by royalty, and wet nurses were employed to breastfeed the children of the royal families. This extended over time, particularly in western Europe, where noble women often made use of wet nurses. Lower-class women breastfed their infants and used a wet nurse only if they were unable to feed their own infant. Attempts were made in 15th-century Europe to use cow or goat milk, but these attempts were not successful. In the 18th century, flour or cereal mixed with broth were introduced as substitutes for breastfeeding, but this was also unsuccessful.[citation needed]

The history of breastfeeding in Canada includes the description that societies considered it a low class and uncultured practice. This coincided with the appearance of improved infant formulas in the mid 19th century and its increased use, which accelerated after World War II. From the 1960s onwards, breastfeeding experienced a revival which continued into the 2000s, though negative attitudes towards the practice were still entrenched up to 1990s.[170]

Society and cultureEdit

Macierzyństwo ("Maternity"), a 1902 painting by Stanisław Wyspiański


In languages around the world, the word for "mother" is something like "mama". The linguist Roman Jakobson hypothesized that the nasal sound in "mama" comes from the nasal murmur that babies produce when breastfeeding.

Milk kinshipEdit

Ilkhanate prince Ghazan being breastfed

In some cultures, people who have been breastfed by the same woman are milk-siblings who are equal in legal and social standing to a consanguineous sibling.[171] Islam has a complex system of rules regarding this, known as Rada (fiqh). Like the Christian practice of godparenting, milk kinship established a second family that could take responsibility for a child whose biological parents came to harm. "Milk kinship in Islam thus appears to be a culturally distinctive, but by no means unique, institutional form of adoptive kinship.[172]

Financial considerationsEdit

Breastfeeding is less costly than alternatives, but the mother generally must eat more food than she would otherwise. In the US, the extra money spent on food (about US$14 each week) is usually about half as much money as the cost of infant formula.[173]

Breastfeeding represents an opportunity cost. This is the cost of the mother having to spend hours each day breastfeeding instead of other activities, such as paid work or home production (such as growing food). In general, the higher the mother's earning power, the less likely she is to save money by breastfeeding.[174]

Breastfeeding reduces health care costs and the cost of caring for sick babies. Parents of breastfed babies are less likely to miss work and lose income because their babies are sick.[173] Looking at three of the most common infant illnesses, lower respiratory tract illnesses, otitis media, and gastrointestinal illness, one study compared infants that had been exclusively breastfed for at least three months to those who had not. It found that in the first year of life there were 2033 excess office visits, 212 excess days of hospitalization, and 609 excess prescriptions for these three illnesses per 1000 never-breastfed infants compared with 1000 infants exclusively breastfed for at least 3 months.[175]


"See It", a project dedicated to promoting the awareness of breastfeeding in the capital city of Iceland in 2011, by Fiann Paul.[176]

There are also controversies and ethical considerations surrounding the means used by public campaigns which attempt to increase breastfeeding rates, relating to pressure put on women, and potential feeling of guilt and shame of women who fail to breastfeed; and social condemnation of women who use formula.[177][178] [179][180] In addition to this, there is also the moral question as to what degree the state or medical community can interfere with the self-determination of a woman: for example in the United Arab Emirates the law requires a woman to breastfeed her baby for at least 2 years and allows her husband to sue her if she does not do so.[181][182]

Social marketingEdit

Social marketing is a marketing approach intended to change people's behavior to benefit both individuals and society.[183] When applied to breastfeeding promotion, social marketing works to provide positive messages and images of breastfeeding to increase visibility. Social marketing in the context of breastfeeding has shown efficacy in media campaigns.[184][185][186][187][188][189] Some oppose the marketing of infant formula, especially in developing countries. They are concerned that mothers who use formula will stop breastfeeding and become dependent upon substitutes that are unaffordable or less safe.[190][191] Through efforts including the Nestlé boycott, they have advocated for bans on free samples of infant formula and for the adoption of pro-breastfeeding codes such as the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes by the World Health Assembly in 1981 and the Innocenti Declaration by WHO and UNICEF policy-makers in August 1990.[190] Additionally, formula companies have spent millions internationally on campaigns to promote the use of formula as an alternative to mother's milk.[192]

Baby Friendly Hospital InitiativeEdit

The Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative is a program launched by WHO in conjunction with UNICEF in order to promote infant feeding and maternal bonding through certified hospitals and birthing centers. BFHI was developed as a response to the influence held by formula companies in private and public maternal health care.[193] The initiative has two core tenets: the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding and the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes.[193] These methods are intended to reduce practices detrimental to breastfeeding such as early mixed feeding, use of pacifiers, and separation of mother and child in the clinical setting.The BFHI has especially targeted hospitals and birthing centers in the developing world, as these facilities are most at risk to the detrimental effects of reduced breastfeeding rates. Currently, 468 hospitals in the United States hold the "Baby-Friendly" title in all 50 states. Globally, there are more than 20,000 "Baby-Friendly" hospitals worldwide in over 150 countries.[194]

Studies have also shown a positive correlation of breastfeeding with increased professional education of care providers.[188] 86% of Americans rely on professional healthcare providers like doctors, midwives, and nurses for medical advice and recommendations.[195] Classes are then offered in group and individual settings as "low-intensity intervention" directed by trained medical professionals.[196] Research conducted at large healthcare institutions in Massachusetts has demonstrated a statistically significant increase in breastfeeding rates for mothers who participate in breastfeeding and lactation training.[197]

Representation on televisionEdit

The first depiction of breastfeeding on television was in the children's program, Sesame Street, in 1977.[198] With few exceptions since that time, mostly involving other children's shows, breastfeeding on television has either been portrayed as strange, disgusting, or a source of comedy, or it has been omitted entirely in favor of bottle feeding.[198]


Breastfeeding research continues to assess prevalence, HIV transmission, pharmacology, costs, benefits, immunology, contraindications, and comparisons to synthetic breast milk substitutes.[199][200] Factors related to the mental health of the nursing mother in the perinatal period have been studied. While cognitive behavior therapy may be the treatment of choice, medications are sometimes used. The use of therapy rather than medication reduces the infant's exposure to medication that may be transmitted through the milk.[201] In coordination with institutional organisms, researchers are also studying the social impact of brestfeeding throughout history. Accordingly, strategies have been developed to foster the increase of the breastfeeding rates in the different countries.[202]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ a b "Breastfeeding and Breast Milk: Condition Information". 19 December 2013. Archived from the original on 27 July 2015. Retrieved 27 July 2015. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "Infant and young child feeding Fact sheet N°342". WHO. February 2014. Archived from the original on 8 February 2015. Retrieved 8 February 2015. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Breastfeeding. (March 2012). "Breastfeeding and the use of human milk". Pediatrics. 129 (3): e827–41. doi:10.1542/peds.2011-3552. PMID 22371471. Archived from the original on 5 August 2015. 
  4. ^ a b "How do I breastfeed? Skip sharing on social media links". 14 April 2014. Archived from the original on 27 July 2015. Retrieved 27 July 2015. 
  5. ^ "What is weaning and how do I do it?". 19 December 2013. Archived from the original on 8 July 2015. Retrieved 27 July 2015. 
  6. ^ Ip S, Chung M, Raman G, Trikalinos TA, Lau J (October 2009). "A summary of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's evidence report on breastfeeding in developed countries". Breastfeeding Medicine. 4 Suppl 1: S17–30. doi:10.1089/bfm.2009.0050. PMID 19827919. 
  7. ^ a b c Victora CG, Bahl R, Barros AJ, França GV, Horton S, Krasevec J, Murch S, Sankar MJ, Walker N, Rollins NC (January 2016). "Breastfeeding in the 21st century: epidemiology, mechanisms, and lifelong effect". Lancet. 387 (10017): 475–90. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(15)01024-7. PMID 26869575. 
  8. ^ Lawrence RA, Lawrence RM (1 January 2011). Breastfeeding: A Guide for the Medical Profession. Elsevier Health Sciences. pp. 227–228. ISBN 1-4377-0788-2. 
  9. ^ "Breastfeeding and the use of human milk. American Academy of Pediatrics. Work Group on Breastfeeding". Pediatrics. 100 (6): 1035–9. December 1997. doi:10.1542/peds.100.6.1035. PMID 9411381. Archived from the original on 23 October 2012. 
  10. ^ "What are the benefits of breastfeeding?". 14 April 2014. Archived from the original on 10 August 2015. Retrieved 27 July 2015. 
  11. ^ Kramer MS, Kakuma R (August 2012). "Optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 8 (8): CD003517. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003517.pub2. PMID 22895934. 
  12. ^ "What are the recommendations for breastfeeding?". 14 April 2014. Archived from the original on 14 August 2015. Retrieved 27 July 2015. 
  13. ^ "Are there any special conditions or situations in which I should not breastfeed?". 19 December 2013. Archived from the original on 8 July 2015. Retrieved 27 July 2015. 
  14. ^ "Breastfeeding and alcohol". NHS Choices. NHS. Archived from the original on 1 August 2016. 
  15. ^ "Breastfeeding and diet". NHS Choices. NHS. Archived from the original on 7 August 2016. 
  16. ^ "Tobacco Use | Breastfeeding | CDC". Archived from the original on 9 August 2016. Retrieved 4 August 2016. 
  17. ^ Lawrence 2016, pp. 57—58.
  18. ^ Hurst NM (2007). "Recognizing and treating delayed or failed lactogenesis II". Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health. Wiley-Blackwell. 52 (6): 588–94. doi:10.1016/j.jmwh.2007.05.005. PMID 17983996. 
  19. ^ Henry, p. 117.
  20. ^ Dodson, p. 310.
  21. ^ Henry, p. 120.
  22. ^ Dobransky P. "Colostrum, Foremilk and Hindmilk". Archived from the original on 3 July 2017. 
  23. ^ a b c "Mothers and Children Benefit from Breastfeeding". 27 February 2009. Archived from the original on 16 March 2009. 
  24. ^ Colen CG, Ramey DM (2014). "Is breast truly best? Estimating the effects of breastfeeding on long-term child health and wellbeing in the United States using sibling comparisons". Social Science & Medicine. 109: 55–65. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2014.01.027. PMC 4077166 . PMID 24698713. 
  25. ^ Hendrickson RG, McKeown NJ (January 2012). "Is maternal opioid use hazardous to breast-fed infants?". Clinical Toxicology. 50 (1): 1–14. doi:10.3109/15563650.2011.635147. PMID 22148986. 
  26. ^ a b "What is colostrum? How does it benefit my baby?". La Leche League. Archived from the original on 27 November 2015. Retrieved 28 November 2015. 
  27. ^ Northeastern University (2011). "Benefits of Breastfeeding: For Society". Boston, MA: The Educational Technology Center. Archived from the original on 7 December 2012. 
  28. ^ Cornall D (June 2011). "A review of the breastfeeding literature relevant to osteopathic practice". International Journal of Osteopathic Medicine. 14 (2): 61–66. doi:10.1016/j.ijosm.2010.12.003. 
  29. ^ "The Baby Friendly Initiative". Archived from the original on 6 May 2013. 
  30. ^ a b c d e f Gartner LM, Morton J, Lawrence RA, Naylor AJ, O'Hare D, Schanler RJ, Eidelman AI (February 2005). "Breastfeeding and the use of human milk". Pediatrics. 115 (2): 496–506. doi:10.1542/peds.2004-2491. PMID 15687461. 
  31. ^ a b Collins CT, Gillis J, McPhee AJ, Suganuma H, Makrides M (October 2016). "Avoidance of bottles during the establishment of breast feeds in preterm infants". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 10: CD005252. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005252.pub4. PMID 27756113. 
  32. ^ a b "Breastfeeding Frequency". California Pacific Medical Center. Archived from the original on 28 June 2012. 
  33. ^ Marasco L (Apr–May 1998). "Common breastfeeding myths". Leaven. 34 (2): 21–24. Archived from the original on 6 July 2009. Retrieved 21 September 2009. 
  34. ^ "Breastfeeding: Data: Report Card 2012: Outcome Indicators – DNPAO – CDC". Archived from the original on 7 July 2017. 
  35. ^ "Nutrition for Healthy Term Infants: Recommendations from Birth to Six Months". A joint statement of Health Canada, Canadian Paediatric Society, Dietitians of Canada, and Breastfeeding Committee for Canada. Health Canada. 18 August 2015. Archived from the original on 23 December 2016. Retrieved 31 January 2017. 
  36. ^ "Breastfeeding". Australian Government. 27 May 2014. Archived from the original on 8 February 2015. Retrieved 8 February 2015. 
  37. ^ "Why breastfeed? | National Health Service". Archived from the original on 1 August 2013. 
  38. ^ "Breastfeeding: Promotion & Support". CDC. 2 August 2011. Archived from the original on 29 July 2017. 
  39. ^ "Protection, promotion and support of breastfeeding in Europe: a blueprint for action" (PDF). Unit for Health Services Research and International Health. 2008. Archived (PDF) from the original on 11 June 2014. Retrieved 15 February 2015. 
  40. ^ Cattaneo A, Burmaz T, Arendt M, Nilsson I, Mikiel-Kostyra K, Kondrate I, Communal MJ, Massart C, Chapin E, Fallon M (June 2010). "Protection, promotion and support of breast-feeding in Europe: progress from 2002 to 2007". Public Health Nutrition. 13 (6): 751–9. doi:10.1017/S1368980009991844. PMID 19860992. 
  41. ^ "Vitamin D Supplementation - Breastfeeding". CDC. October 20, 2009. Retrieved January 15, 2018. 
  42. ^ Canadian Paediatric Society. "Vitamin D". Caring for Kids. Retrieved January 15, 2018. 
  43. ^ "Vitamins for children - NHS.UK". NHS Choices Home Page. Retrieved January 15, 2018. 
  44. ^ World Health Organization. (2003). Global strategy for infant and young child feeding (PDF). Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization and UNICEF. ISBN 92-4-156221-8. Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 September 2009. Retrieved 20 September 2009. 
  45. ^ "Breastfeeding". Archived from the original on 20 February 2016. 
  46. ^ Lawrence 2016, p. 67.
  47. ^ a b Neifert MR (April 2001). "Prevention of breastfeeding tragedies". Pediatric Clinics of North America. 48 (2): 273–97. doi:10.1016/S0031-3955(08)70026-9. PMID 11339153. 
  48. ^ Davies L (12 January 2014). "Pope Francis encourages mothers to breastfeed – even in the Sistine Chapel". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 13 February 2017. 
  49. ^ Healthwise Staff. "Breast-feeding: Learning how to nurse". Archived from the original on 21 March 2012. Retrieved 17 June 2009. 
  50. ^ "Positions and Tips for Making Breastfeeding Work". Archived from the original on 27 October 2014. Retrieved 27 October 2014. 
  51. ^ "Breastfeeding checklist: How to get a good latch". Archived from the original on 4 August 2017. Retrieved 4 August 2017.   This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  52. ^ "Common questions about breastfeeding and pain". Archived from the original on 4 August 2017. Retrieved 4 August 2017.   This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  53. ^ Daws D (August 1997). "The perils of intimacy: Closeness and distance in feeding and weaning". Journal of Child Psychotherapy. 23 (2): 179–199. doi:10.1080/00754179708254541. 
  54. ^ "How Do I Wean My Baby?". La Leche League International. Archived from the original on 28 April 2016. Retrieved 6 May 2016. 
  55. ^ "Stopping Breastfeeding Suddenly – Topic Overview". WebMed, LLC. Archived from the original on 4 May 2016. Retrieved 6 May 2016. 
  56. ^ "Weaning As A Natural Process". La Leche League International. Archived from the original on 6 May 2016. Retrieved 6 May 2016. 
  57. ^ "Breastfeeding" (PDF). Office on Women’s Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 2014. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 May 2017. Retrieved 20 July 2017.   This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  58. ^ Lawrence 2016, pp. 390—392.
  59. ^ Lawrence 2016, p. 352.
  60. ^ American Academy of Pediatrics. "Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Toolkit Frequently Asked Questions". Retrieved 15 Nov 2017. 
  61. ^ Haastrup MB, Pottegård A, Damkier P (February 2014). "Alcohol and breastfeeding". Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology. 114 (2): 168–73. doi:10.1111/bcpt.12149. PMID 24118767. 
  62. ^ "What are the LLLI guidelines for storing my pumped milk?". Archived from the original on 1 July 2014. 
  63. ^ Hanna N, Ahmed K, Anwar M, Petrova A, Hiatt M, Hegyi T (November 2004). "Effect of storage on breast milk antioxidant activity". Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition. BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. 89 (6): F518–20. doi:10.1136/adc.2004.049247. PMC 1721790 . PMID 15499145. 
  64. ^ Spatz DL (2006). "State of the science: use of human milk and breast-feeding for vulnerable infants". The Journal of Perinatal & Neonatal Nursing. 20 (1): 51–5. doi:10.1097/00005237-200601000-00017. PMID 16508463. 
  65. ^ Tully DB, Jones F, Tully MR (May 2001). "Donor milk: what's in it and what's not". Journal of Human Lactation. 17 (2): 152–5. doi:10.1177/089033440101700212. PMID 11847831. 
  66. ^ Sears W. "Ask Dr. Sears: Leaving Baby for Vacation". Archived from the original on 27 February 2013. 
  67. ^ Alcorn K (24 August 2004). "Shared breastfeeding identified as new risk factor for HIV". aidsmap. Archived from the original on 6 April 2007. Retrieved 10 April 2007. 
  68. ^ Groskop V (5 January 2007). "Not your mother's milk". The Guardian. 
  69. ^ Baumgardner J (24 July 2008). "Breast Friends". Babble. Archived from the original on 27 September 2013. 
  70. ^ Lawrence 2016, pp. 707–708.
  71. ^ Grunberg R (1992). "Breastfeeding multiples: Breastfeeding triplets". New Beginnings. 9 (5): 135–6. Archived from the original on 12 October 2004. 
  72. ^ "Breastfeeding triplets, quads and higher". Australian Breastfeeding Association. Archived from the original on 11 October 2007. 
  73. ^ "Breastfeeding triplets". Association of Radical Midwives. Archived from the original on 20 October 2007. 
  74. ^ a b c d e f Morrison B, Karen W (2014). "Women's Health and Breastfeeding". In Wambach K, Riordan J. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (5th ed.). Jones & Bartlett Publishers. pp. 581–588. ISBN 978-1-4496-9729-7. 
  75. ^ a b c The Treatment Of Diarrhoea, A Manual For Physicians And Other Senior Health Workers (PDF). World Health Organization. 2005. p. 41. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 October 2011. Helping mothers to breastfeed by F. Savage King. Revised edition 1992. African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF), Box 30125, Nairobi, Kenya. Indian adaptation by R.K. Anand, ACASH, P.O. Box 2498, Bombay 400002 
  76. ^ "Breastfeeding: Data: Report Card" (PDF). Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 January 2016. Retrieved 5 November 2015. 
  77. ^ "Infant and toddler health". Mayo Clinic. Archived from the original on 2 May 2016. Retrieved 12 May 2016. 
  78. ^ Stein MT, Boies EG, Snyder D (October 2004). "Parental concerns about extended breastfeeding in a toddler". Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics. 25 (5 Suppl): S107–11. doi:10.1097/00004703-200410001-00022. PMID 15502526. 
  79. ^ "Up to what age can a baby stay well nourished by just being breastfed?". WHO. July 2013. Archived from the original on 8 February 2015. Retrieved 7 February 2015. 
  80. ^ Ip S, Chung M, Raman G, Chew P, Magula N, DeVine D, Trikalinos T, Lau J (April 2007). "Breastfeeding and maternal and infant health outcomes in developed countries". Evidence Report/Technology Assessment (153): 1–186. PMID 17764214. 
  81. ^ Bibbins-Domingo K, Grossman DC, Curry SJ, Davidson KW, Epling JW, García FA, Kemper AR, Krist AH, Kurth AE, Landefeld CS, Mangione CM, Phillips WR, Phipps MG, Pignone MP (October 2016). "Primary Care Interventions to Support Breastfeeding: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement". JAMA. 316 (16): 1688–1693. doi:10.1001/jama.2016.14697. PMID 27784102. 
  82. ^ Renfrew MJ, Lang S, Woolridge MW (2000). "Early versus delayed initiation of breastfeeding". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2): CD000043. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000043. PMID 10796101. 
  83. ^ Moore ER, Bergman N, Anderson GC, Medley N (November 2016). "Early skin-to-skin contact for mothers and their healthy newborn infants". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 11: CD003519. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003519.pub4. PMID 27885658. 
  84. ^ a b c d e f Horta BL, Bahl R, Martines JC, Victora CG (2007). Evidence on the long-term effects of breastfeeding: systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PDF). Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. ISBN 978-92-4-159523-0. Archived (PDF) from the original on 29 December 2009. Retrieved 5 April 2010. 
  85. ^ a b c d e f g h i Ip S, Chung M, Raman G, Chew P, Magula N, DeVine D, Trikalinos T, Lau J (April 2007). "Breastfeeding and maternal and infant health outcomes in developed countries". Evidence Report/Technology Assessment (153): 1–186. ISBN 978-1-58763-242-6. PMID 17764214. 
  86. ^ Hauck FR, Thompson JM, Tanabe KO, Moon RY, Vennemann MM (July 2011). "Breastfeeding and reduced risk of sudden infant death syndrome: a meta-analysis". Pediatrics. 128 (1): 103–10. doi:10.1542/peds.2010-3000. PMID 21669892. 
  87. ^ staff, editorial (1 September 2000). "Breastfeeding: Hints to Help You Get Off to a Good Start -". Retrieved 6 September 2017. 
  88. ^ Ministry of Health Health Promotion Council. "Guideline for Management of Child Screening in Primary Care Settings and Outpatient Clinics in the Kingdom of Bahrain" (PDF). Kingdom of Bahrain Ministry of Health Health Promotion Council. Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 February 2015. Retrieved 23 February 2015. 
  89. ^ Dewey KG, Heinig JM, Nommsen LA, Peerson JM, Lönnerdal B (1991). "Growth of Breast-Fed and Formula-Fed Infants From 0 to 18 Months: The DARLING Study". article. Archived from the original on 4 December 2015. Retrieved 23 February 2015. 
  90. ^ Kunz C, Rodriguez-Palmero M, Koletzko B, Jensen R (June 1999). "Nutritional and biochemical properties of human milk, Part I: General aspects, proteins, and carbohydrates". Clinics in Perinatology. 26 (2): 307–33. PMID 10394490. 
  91. ^ Rodriguez-Palmero M, Koletzko B, Kunz C, Jensen R (June 1999). "Nutritional and biochemical properties of human milk: II. Lipids, micronutrients, and bioactive factors". Clinics in Perinatology. 26 (2): 335–59. PMID 10394491. 
  92. ^ Kramer MS, Kakuma R (August 2012). "Optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 8 (8): CD003517. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003517.pub2. PMID 22895934. 
  93. ^ Hanson LA, Söderström T (1981). "Human milk: Defense against infection". Progress in Clinical and Biological Research. 61: 147–59. PMID 6798576. 
  94. ^ Van de Perre P (July 2003). "Transfer of antibody via mother's milk". Vaccine. 21 (24): 3374–6. doi:10.1016/S0264-410X(03)00336-0. PMID 12850343. 
  95. ^ Jackson KM, Nazar AM (April 2006). "Breastfeeding, the immune response, and long-term health". The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association. 106 (4): 203–7. PMID 16627775. 
  96. ^ Vukavic T (May 1983). "Intestinal absorption of IgA in the newborn". Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition. 2 (2): 248–51. doi:10.1097/00005176-198305000-00006. PMID 6875749. 
  97. ^ Weaver LT, Wadd N, Taylor CE, Greenwell J, Toms GL (1991). "The ontogeny of serum IgA in the newborn". Pediatric Allergy and Immunology. 2 (2): 72–75. doi:10.1111/j.1399-3038.1991.tb00185.x. 
  98. ^ Winslow R (26 August 2013). "Many Drugs Found Safe for Breast-Feeding Mothers". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2 September 2013. 
  99. ^ a b Sachs HC (September 2013). "The Transfer of Drugs and Therapeutics Into Human Breast Milk: An Update on Selected Topics". Pediatrics. The American Academy of Pediatrics. 132 (3): e796–809. doi:10.1542/peds.2013-1985. PMID 23979084. 
  100. ^ WHO "Strategic directions for improving the health and development of children and adolescents", WHO/FCH/CAH/02.21, Geneva: Department of Child and Adolescent Health and Development, World Health Organization.
  101. ^ Arenz S, Rückerl R, Koletzko B, von Kries R (October 2004). "Breast-feeding and childhood obesity--a systematic review". International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders. 28 (10): 1247–56. doi:10.1038/sj.ijo.0802758. PMID 15314625. 
  102. ^ Moss BG, Yeaton WH (July 2014). "Early childhood healthy and obese weight status: potentially protective benefits of breastfeeding and delaying solid foods". Maternal and Child Health Journal. 18 (5): 1224–32. doi:10.1007/s10995-013-1357-z. PMID 24057991. 
  103. ^ Greer FR, Sicherer SH, Burks AW (January 2008). "Effects of early nutritional interventions on the development of atopic disease in infants and children: the role of maternal dietary restriction, breastfeeding, timing of introduction of complementary foods, and hydrolyzed formulas". Pediatrics. 121 (1): 183–91. doi:10.1542/peds.2007-3022. PMID 18166574. 
  104. ^ Szajewska H, Shamir R, Chmielewska A, Pieścik-Lech M, Auricchio R, Ivarsson A, Kolacek S, Koletzko S, Korponay-Szabo I, Mearin ML, Ribes-Koninckx C, Troncone R (June 2015). "Systematic review with meta-analysis: early infant feeding and coeliac disease--update 2015". Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 41 (11): 1038–54. doi:10.1111/apt.13163. PMID 25819114. 
  105. ^ Bethune MT, Khosla C (February 2008). "Parallels between pathogens and gluten peptides in celiac sprue". PLoS Pathogens. 4 (2): e34. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.0040034. PMC 2323203 . PMID 18425213. 
  106. ^ Amitay EL, Keinan-Boker L (June 2015). "Breastfeeding and Childhood Leukemia Incidence: A Meta-analysis and Systematic Review". JAMA Pediatrics. 169 (6): e151025. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2015.1025. PMID 26030516. 
  107. ^ Palmer B (June 1998). "The influence of breastfeeding on the development of the oral cavity: a commentary". Journal of Human Lactation. 14 (2): 93–8. doi:10.1177/089033449801400203. PMID 9775838. Archived from the original on 16 March 2013. 
  108. ^ Der G, Batty GD, Deary IJ (November 2006). "Effect of breast feeding on intelligence in children: prospective study, sibling pairs analysis, and meta-analysis". BMJ. 333 (7575): 945. doi:10.1136/bmj.38978.699583.55. PMC 1633819 . PMID 17020911. 
  109. ^ Pisacane A, Continisio GI, Aldinucci M, D'Amora S, Continisio P (October 2005). "A controlled trial of the father's role in breastfeeding promotion". Pediatrics. 116 (4): e494–8. doi:10.1542/peds.2005-0479. PMID 16199676. 
  110. ^ Van Willigen J (2002). Applied Anthropology: An Introduction. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-89789-833-1. [page needed]
  111. ^ Price C, Robinson S (2004). Birth. Pan Macmillan Australia. ISBN 978-1-74334-890-1. 
  112. ^ Abedi P, Jahanfar S, Namvar F, Lee J (January 2016). "Breastfeeding or nipple stimulation for reducing postpartum haemorrhage in the third stage of labour". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (1): CD010845. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD010845.pub2. PMID 26816300. 
  113. ^ Ip S, Chung M, Raman G, Trikalinos TA, Lau J (October 2009). "A summary of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's evidence report on breastfeeding in developed countries". Breastfeeding Medicine. 4 Suppl 1: S17–30. doi:10.1089/bfm.2009.0050. PMID 19827919. 
  114. ^ He X, Zhu M, Hu C, Tao X, Li Y, Wang Q, Liu Y (December 2015). "Breast-feeding and postpartum weight retention: a systematic review and meta-analysis". Public Health Nutrition. 18 (18): 3308–16. doi:10.1017/S1368980015000828. PMID 25895506. 
  115. ^ "Making the decision to breastfeed |". Retrieved 2017-12-02. 
  116. ^ Krishnamurthy A, Soundara V, Ramshankar V (2016). "Preventive and Risk Reduction Strategies for Women at High Risk of Developing Breast Cancer: a Review". Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention. 17 (3): 895–904. doi:10.7314/apjcp.2016.17.3.895. PMID 27039715. A review of 47 epidemiologic studies comprisingof 50,302 women with invasive breast cancer and 96,973 controls estimated that for every year of breastfeeding, the relative risk of breast cancer decreases by 4.3%. 
  117. ^ Miller LJ, LaRusso EM (March 2011). "Preventing postpartum depression". The Psychiatric Clinics of North America. 34 (1): 53–65. doi:10.1016/j.psc.2010.11.010. PMID 21333839. 
  118. ^ Figueiredo B, Dias CC, Brandão S, Canário C, Nunes-Costa R (2013). "Breastfeeding and postpartum depression: state of the art review". Jornal De Pediatria. 89 (4): 332–8. doi:10.1016/j.jped.2012.12.002. PMID 23791236. 
  119. ^ Dias CC, Figueiredo B (January 2015). "Breastfeeding and depression: a systematic review of the literature". Journal of Affective Disorders. 171: 142–54. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2014.09.022. PMID 25305429. 
  120. ^ Owen CG, Martin RM, Whincup PH, Smith GD, Cook DG (November 2006). "Does breastfeeding influence risk of type 2 diabetes in later life? A quantitative analysis of published evidence". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 84 (5): 1043–54. PMID 17093156. 
  121. ^ Aune D, Norat T, Romundstad P, Vatten LJ (February 2014). "Breastfeeding and the maternal risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of cohort studies". Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases. 24 (2): 107–15. doi:10.1016/j.numecd.2013.10.028. PMID 24439841. 
  122. ^ "The Surgeon General's Call to Action to Support Breastfeeding" (PDF). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 12 December 2015. 
  123. ^ Benjamin RM (2011). "Public health in action: give mothers support for breastfeeding". Public Health Reports. 126 (5): 622–3. doi:10.1177/003335491112600502. PMC 3151176 . PMID 21886320. 
  124. ^ a b Laugen CM, Islam N, Janssen PA (September 2016). "Social Support and Exclusive Breast feeding among Canadian Women". Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology. 30 (5): 430–8. doi:10.1111/ppe.12303. PMID 27271342. 
  125. ^ Raj VK, Plichta SB (March 1998). "The role of social support in breastfeeding promotion: a literature review". Journal of Human Lactation. 14 (1): 41–5. doi:10.1177/089033449801400114. PMID 9543958. 
  126. ^ Galson SK (July 2008). "Mothers and children benefit from breastfeeding" (PDF). Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 108 (7): 1106. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2008.04.028. PMID 18589012. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 August 2012. 
  127. ^ "State of the World's Mothers 2012" (PDF). Save the Children. May 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 May 2012. 
  128. ^ Woods NK, Chesser AK, Wipperman J (October 2013). "Describing adolescent breastfeeding environments through focus groups in an urban community". Journal of Primary Care & Community Health. 4 (4): 307–10. doi:10.1177/2150131913487380. PMID 23799673. 
  129. ^ Ireland J (20 July 2011). "Will My Breasts Be Ruined After Breastfeeding?". Archived from the original on 8 April 2013. Retrieved 27 January 2013. 
  130. ^ Lutenbacher M, Karp SM, Moore ER (2016). "Reflections of Black Women Who Choose to Breastfeed: Influences, Challenges and Supports". Maternal and Child Health Journal. 20 (2): 231–9. doi:10.1007/s10995-015-1822-y. PMID 26496988. 
  131. ^ a b c Lawrence RA, Lawrence RM (2010). "Chapter 7. Facilitating an Informed Decision About Breastfeeding". Breastfeeding: A Guide for the Medical Profession (7th ed.). Saunders. pp. 215–232. ISBN 978-1-4377-0788-5. 
  132. ^ "Breastfeeding-related maternity practices at hospitals and birth centers--United States, 2007". MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 57 (23): 621–5. June 2008. PMID 18551096. Archived from the original on 7 July 2017. 
  133. ^ Lind JN, Perrine CG, Li R, Scanlon KS, Grummer-Strawn LM (August 2014). "Racial disparities in access to maternity care practices that support breastfeeding - United States, 2011". MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 63 (33): 725–8. PMID 25144543. Archived from the original on 27 April 2017. 
  134. ^ Ballard J, Chantry C, Howard CR. "Guidelines for the evaluation and management of neonatal ankyloglossia and its complications in the breastfeeding dyad". ABM Clinical Protocol #11. Archived from the original on 11 August 2006. Retrieved 13 April 2017. 
  135. ^ "Breast Surgery Likely to Cause Breastfeeding Problems". The Implant Information Project of the Nat. Research Center for Women & Families. February 2008. Archived from the original on 14 January 2010. 
  136. ^ a b "Family Planning – Healthy People 2020". Archived from the original on 28 December 2010. Retrieved 18 August 2011. 
  137. ^ "US Surgeon General Breastfeeding Executive Summary" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 May 2017. Retrieved 6 September 2017. 
  138. ^ Moland, K, Blystad A (2009). "Counting on Mother's Love: The Global Politics of Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV in Eastern Africa". In Hahn RA, Inhorn MC. Anthropology and Public Health: Bridging Differences in Culture and Society. Oxford University Press. p. 449. ISBN 978-0-19-537464-3. 
  139. ^ Health, Australian Government Department of. "Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV)". Retrieved 2017-12-16. 
  140. ^ Mead MN (October 2008). "Contaminants in human milk: weighing the risks against the benefits of breastfeeding". Environmental Health Perspectives. 116 (10): A427–34. doi:10.1289/ehp.116-a426. PMC 2569122 . PMID 18941560. Archived from the original on 6 November 2008. 
  141. ^ "AAP Advises Most Medications Are Safe for Breastfeeding Mothers". American Academy of Pediatrics. 26 August 2013. Archived from the original on 12 July 2015. Retrieved 11 July 2015. 
  142. ^ Myers GJ, Thurston SW, Pearson AT, Davidson PW, Cox C, Shamlaye CF, Cernichiari E, Clarkson TW (May 2009). "Postnatal exposure to methyl mercury from fish consumption: a review and new data from the Seychelles Child Development Study". Neurotoxicology. 30 (3): 338–49. doi:10.1016/j.neuro.2009.01.005. PMC 2743883 . PMID 19442817. 
  143. ^ Howard CR, Lawrence RA (March 1998). "Breast-feeding and drug exposure". Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America. 25 (1): 195–217. doi:10.1016/S0889-8545(05)70365-X. PMID 9547767. 
  144. ^ Sun Y, Irie M, Kishikawa N, Wada M, Kuroda N, Nakashima K (October 2004). "Determination of bisphenol A in human breast milk by HPLC with column-switching and fluorescence detection". Biomedical Chromatography. 18 (8): 501–7. doi:10.1002/bmc.345. PMID 15386523. 
  145. ^ Ye X, Kuklenyik Z, Needham LL, Calafat AM (February 2006). "Measuring environmental phenols and chlorinated organic chemicals in breast milk using automated on-line column-switching-high performance liquid chromatography-isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry". Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences. 831 (1–2): 110–5. doi:10.1016/j.jchromb.2005.11.050. PMID 16377264. 
  146. ^ Tersigni C, Castellani R, de Waure C, Fattorossi A, De Spirito M, Gasbarrini A, Scambia G, Di Simone N (2014). "Celiac disease and reproductive disorders: meta-analysis of epidemiologic associations and potential pathogenic mechanisms". Human Reproduction Update. 20 (4): 582–93. doi:10.1093/humupd/dmu007. PMID 24619876. Archived from the original on 2 September 2017.  
  147. ^ Gouveri E, Papanas N, Hatzitolios AI, Maltezos E (March 2011). "Breastfeeding and diabetes". Current Diabetes Reviews. 7 (2): 135–42. doi:10.2174/157339911794940684. PMID 21348815. 
  148. ^ Bever Babendure J, Reifsnider E, Mendias E, Moramarco MW, Davila YR (2015). "Reduced breastfeeding rates among obese mothers: a review of contributing factors, clinical considerations and future directions". International Breastfeeding Journal. 10: 21. doi:10.1186/s13006-015-0046-5. PMC 4488037 . PMID 26140049. 
  149. ^ a b Office of the Surgeon General (US); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (US); Office on Women's Health (US) (2011). "Call to Action to Support Breastfeeding" (PDF). Surgeon General's Call to Action. PMID 21452448. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 February 2013. 
  150. ^ a b Reeves EA, Woods-Giscombé CL (2015). "Infant-feeding practices among African American women: social-ecological analysis and implications for practice". Journal of Transcultural Nursing. 26 (3): 219–26. doi:10.1177/1043659614526244. PMID 24810518. 
  151. ^ Allers KS (31 August 2012). "Breastfeeding: Some Slavery Crap?". Ebony Magazine. 
  152. ^ a b Boyer K (March 2011). ""The way to break the taboo is to do the taboo thing" breastfeeding in public and citizen-activism in the UK". Health & Place. 17 (2): 430–7. doi:10.1016/j.healthplace.2010.06.013. PMID 20655272. 
  153. ^ a b Wolf JH (August 2008). "Got milk? Not in public!". International Breastfeeding Journal. 3 (1): 11. doi:10.1186/1746-4358-3-11. PMC 2518137 . PMID 18680578. Archived from the original on 1 September 2008. 
  154. ^ "Breastfeeding Legislation in the United States: A General Overview and Implications for Helping Mothers". LEAVEN. 41 (3): 51–4. 2005. Archived from the original on 31 March 2007. 
  155. ^ Jordan T, Pile S, eds. (2002). Social Change. Blackwell. p. 233. ISBN 0-631-23311-3. 
  156. ^ Hausman BL (1 January 2007). "Things (Not) to Do with Breasts in Public: Maternal Embodiment and the Biocultural Politics of Infant Feeding". New Literary History. 38 (3): 479–504. doi:10.1353/nlh.2007.0039. 
  157. ^ Boyer K (1 January 2010). "Of care and commodities: breast milk and the new politics of mobile biosubstances". Progress in Human Geography. 34 (1): 5–20. doi:10.1177/0309132509105003. 
  158. ^ Al-Awadi AR (14 May 1981). "Draft International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk substitutes" (PDF). Thirty-fourth World Health Assembly, Agenda item 23.2. World Health Organization. World Health Organization(Organisation Mondiale de la Sante). Archived (PDF) from the original on 11 June 2016. 
  159. ^ Harmon A (7 June 2005). "'Lactivists' Taking Their Cause, and Their Babies, to the Streets". The New York Times. 
  160. ^ Battersby S (2010). "Understanding the social and cultural influences on breast-feeding today". The Journal of Family Health Care. 20 (4): 128–31. PMID 21053661. 
  161. ^ Spencer B, Wambach K, Domain EW (2015). "African American Women's Breastfeeding Experiences: Cultural, Personal, and Political Voices". Qualitative Health Research. 25 (7): 974–87. doi:10.1177/1049732314554097. PMID 25288408. 
  162. ^ a b Taylor EN, Wallace LE (2012). "For Shame: Feminism, Breastfeeding Advocacy, and Maternal Guilt". Hypatia. 27 (1): 76–98. doi:10.1111/j.1527-2001.2011.01238.x. 
  163. ^ Forbes GB, Adams-Curtis LE, Hamm NR, White KB (2003). "Perceptions of the Woman Who Breastfeeds: The Role of Erotophobia, Sexism, and Attitudinal Variables". Sex Roles. 49 (7/8): 379–388. doi:10.1023/A:1025116305434. 
  164. ^ "Infants exclusively breastfed for the first six months of life (%)". World Health Organization. Archived from the original on 26 March 2016. Retrieved 27 July 2015. 
  165. ^ Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (February 2013). "Progress in increasing breastfeeding and reducing racial/ethnic differences - United States, 2000-2008 births". MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 62 (5): 77–80. PMID 23388550. 
  166. ^ Xu F, Qiu L, Binns CW, Liu X (June 2009). "Breastfeeding in China: a review". International Breastfeeding Journal. 4 (1): 6. doi:10.1186/1746-4358-4-6. PMID 19531253. 
  167. ^ "UK 'world's worst' at breastfeeding". BBC. 29 January 2016. Archived from the original on 29 January 2016. Retrieved 30 January 2016. 
  168. ^ "Australia – Breastfeeding rates for children born in 2004". Archived from the original on 3 June 2016. 
  169. ^ "A Comparison of Breastfeeding Rates by Country •". 14 May 2012. Archived from the original on 2 May 2016. Retrieved 4 May 2016. 
  170. ^ Nathoo T, Ostry A (7 April 2011). The One Best Way?: Breastfeeding History, Politics, and Policy in Canada. Wilfrid Laurier Univ. Press. pp. 4–. ISBN 978-1-55458-758-2. 
  171. ^ Altorki S (1980). "Milk-kinship in Arab society: An unexplored problem in the ethnography of marriage". Ethnology. 19 (2): 233–244. JSTOR 3773273. 
  172. ^ Parkes P (October 2005). "Milk Kinship in Islam: Substance, Structure, History". Social Anthropology. 13 (3): 307–329. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8676.2005.tb00015.x. 
  173. ^ a b "Breastfeeding and the use of human milk. American Academy of Pediatrics. Work Group on Breastfeeding". Pediatrics. 100 (6): 1035–9. December 1997. doi:10.1542/peds.100.6.1035. PMID 9411381. Archived from the original on 23 October 2012. 
  174. ^ Cohen LR, Wright JD (2011). Research Handbook on the Economics of Family Law. Edward Elgar Publishing. p. 185. ISBN 978-0-85793-064-4. 
  175. ^ Ball TM, Wright AL (April 1999). "Health care costs of formula-feeding in the first year of life". Pediatrics. 103 (4 Pt 2): 870–6. PMID 10103324. 
  176. ^ Baldursdóttir, Ingibjörg. "". Archived from the original on 14 September 2016. Retrieved 26 August 2016. 
  177. ^ Dailey, Kate (7 August 2012). "Formula v breastfeeding: Should the state step in?". Archived from the original on 31 January 2016 – via 
  178. ^ Mason R (3 January 2014). "Parents 'face too much guilt over breastfeeding and work'". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 10 May 2017. 
  179. ^ "Breastfeeding may be best, but bottles of formula milk aren't the end of the world". Archived from the original on 24 December 2015. 
  180. ^ Curzer, Mirah (4 August 2016). "You Can't Call Yourself A Feminist If You Shame Women Who Don't Breastfeed". Archived from the original on 2 October 2016. 
  181. ^ Graham-Harrison E (7 February 2014). "UAE law requires mothers to breastfeed for first two years". Archived from the original on 26 November 2016 – via The Guardian. 
  182. ^ "Forcing Mothers to Breastfeed Is No Way to Help Children – Huffington Post". Archived from the original on 23 December 2015. 
  183. ^ "What is social marketing? | The NSMC". Retrieved 2017-11-27. 
  184. ^ "Loving Support: Make Breastfeeding Work". United States Department of Agriculture. 
  185. ^ "Mother-Friendly Worksite Program". Texas Mother-Friendly Worksite Policy Initiative. 
  186. ^ "Fathers Supporting Breastfeeding". United States Department of Agriculture. Archived from the original on 28 April 2017. 
  187. ^ "Champions for Moms". Best for Babes Foundation. 
  188. ^ a b Center for Disease Control and Prevention (2013). "Strategies to Prevent Obesity and Other Chronic Diseases: The CDC Guide to Strategies to Support Breastfeeding Mothers and Babies" (PDF). US Department of Health and Human Services. 
  189. ^ Wakefield MA, Loken B, Hornik RC (2010). "Use of mass media campaigns to change health behaviour". Lancet (London, England). 376 (9748): 1261–71. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(10)60809-4. PMC 4248563 . PMID 20933263. 
  190. ^ a b Moorhead J (15 May 2007). "Milking it". The Guardian. 
  191. ^ Williams Z (15 February 2013). "Baby health crisis in Indonesia as formula companies push products". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 2 May 2016. 
  192. ^ Kaplan DL, Graff KM (July 2008). "Marketing breastfeeding--reversing corporate influence on infant feeding practices". Journal of Urban Health. 85 (4): 486–504. doi:10.1007/s11524-008-9279-6. PMC 2443254 . PMID 18463985. 
  193. ^ a b "Baby-Friendly USA". Retrieved 2017-10-21. 
  194. ^ "Baby-Friendly USA". Retrieved 2017-11-27. 
  195. ^ Fox S, Jones S (2009). "The social life of health information". Pew Internet & American Life Project. Washington DC. 
  196. ^ "WHO | Breastfeeding education for increased breastfeeding duration". Retrieved 2017-11-27. 
  197. ^ Grossman X, Chaudhuri J, Feldman-Winter L, Abrams J, Newton KN, Philipp BL, Merewood A (2009). "Hospital Education in Lactation Practices (Project HELP): does clinician education affect breastfeeding initiation and exclusivity in the hospital?". Birth. 36 (1): 54–9. doi:10.1111/j.1523-536X.2008.00295.x. PMID 19278384. 
  198. ^ a b Sen M (2018-01-22). "The Short-Lived Normalization of Breastfeeding on Television". Hazlitt. Retrieved 2018-01-28. 
  199. ^ Kramer MS, Kakuma R (August 2012). "Optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 8 (8): CD003517. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003517.pub2. PMID 22895934. 
  200. ^ Saha MR, Ryan K, Amir LH (2015). "Postpartum women's use of medicines and breastfeeding practices: a systematic review". International Breastfeeding Journal. 10 (1): 28. doi:10.1186/s13006-015-0053-6. PMID 26516340. 
  201. ^ Marchesi C, Ossola P, Amerio A, Daniel BD, Tonna M, De Panfilis C (January 2016). "Clinical management of perinatal anxiety disorders: A systematic review". Journal of Affective Disorders. 190: 543–550. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2015.11.004. PMID 26571104; Access provided by the University of Pittsburgh Library System 
  202. ^ "Improved breastfeeding rates. [Social Impact]. Improved breastfeeding rates through evidence-based guideline changes". SIOR, Social Impact Open Repository. 


Further readingEdit

External linksEdit