Particularly vulnerable tribal group
Particularly vulnerable tribal group (PVTG) (earlier: Primitive tribal group) is a government of India classification created with the purpose of enabling improvement in the conditions of certain communities with particularly low development indices.
The Dhebar Commission (1960-1961) stated that within Scheduled Tribes there existed an inequality in the rate of development. During the fourth Five Year Plan a sub-category was created within Scheduled Tribes to identify groups that considered to be at a lower level of development. This was created based on the Dhebar Commission report and other studies. This sub-category was named "Primitive tribal group". The features of such a group include a pre-agricultural system of existence, that is practice of hunting and gathering, zero or negative population growth, extremely low level of literacy in comparison with other tribal groups.
Groups that satisfied any one of the criterion were considered as PTG. At the conclusion of the Fifth Five year plan, 52 communities were identified as being a "primitive tribal group", these communities were identified on the basis of recommendations made by the respective state governments. At the conclusion of the Sixth Five year plan 20 groups were added and 2 more in the Seventh Five year plan, one more group was added in the eighth five-year plan, making a total 75 groups were identified as PTG. The 75th group recognised as PTG were the Maram in Manipur in 1993-94. No new group was declared as PTG on the basis of the 2001 census.
In 2006 the government of India proposed to rename "Primitive tribal group" as Primitive and vulnerable tribal group". PTG has since been renamed Primitive and vulnerable tribal group by the government of India.
Names of the Primitive and vulnerable tribal groups - states / UT wise:
|Name of the States /UT||Name of PTG||Population, 2001 Census
(Figures in actual)
|Andhra Pradesh and Telangana||1. Bodo Gadaba||-|
|2. Bondo Porja||-|
|4. Dongria Khond||-|
|5. Gutob Gadaba||-|
|6. Khond Porja||-|
|8. Konda Reddi||-|
|9. Konda Savara||83096|
|10. Kutia Khond||-|
|11. Parengi Porja||-|
|Bihar & Jharkhand||Bihar||Jharkhand|
|16. Hill Kharia||-||-|
|18. Mal Paharia||4631||115093|
|20. Sauria Paharia||585||31050|
|Karnataka||27. Jenu Kuruba||29828|
|Madhya Pradesh &||Madhya Pradesh||Chhattisgarh|
|34. Abujh Maria||-||-|
|38. Hill Korwa||-||-|
|43. Maria Gond||-|
|Manipur||44. Maram Naga||1225|
|47. Chuktia Bhunjia||-|
|49. Dongria Khond||-|
|52. Kutia Khond||-|
|53. Lanjia Saura||-|
|56. Paudi Bhuyan||-|
|Tamil Nadu||59. Irular||155606|
|60. Kattu Nayakan||45227|
|Uttar Pradesh & Uttrakhand||Uttar Pradesh||Uttrakhand|
|West Bengal||68. Birhor||1017|
|Andaman & Nicobar Islands||71. Great Andamanese||43|
|75. Shom Pen||254|
|All India||Grand Total||3262960|
- B. M. L. Patel (1 January 1998). Agrarian Transformation In Tribal India. M.D. Publications Pvt. Ltd. pp. 313–. ISBN 978-81-7533-086-3. Retrieved 2 April 2013.
- Ram Nath Sharma; Dr. Rajendra K. Sharma (2004). Problems Of Education In India. Atlantic Publishers & Dist. pp. 46–. ISBN 978-81-7156-612-9. Retrieved 2 April 2013.
- Jasodhara Bagchi; Sarmistha Dutta Gupta (2005). The Changing Status of Women in West Bengal, 1970-2000: The Challenge Ahead. SAGE Publications. p. 130. ISBN 978-0-7619-3242-0. Retrieved 2 April 2013.
- Sarit Kumar Chaudhuri; Sucheta Sen Chaudhuri (2005). Primitive Tribes in Contemporary India: Concept, Ethnography and Demography. Mittal Publications. p. 2. ISBN 978-81-8324-026-0. Retrieved 2 April 2013.
- Bhagyalaxmi Mahapatra (2011). Development of a Primitive Tribe: A Study of Didayis. Concept Publishing Company. pp. 47–49. ISBN 978-81-8069-782-1. Retrieved 2 April 2013.
- Komol Singha (2011). Economy of a Tribal Village. Concept Publishing Company. p. 21. ISBN 978-81-8069-745-6. Retrieved 2 April 2013.
- Laxmikanth. Governance In India. McGraw-Hill Education (India) Pvt Limited. pp. 14–. ISBN 978-0-07-107466-7. Retrieved 2 April 2013.
- "Misconstruing order, Chhattisgarh tribals denied sterilisation for three decades". 2012-10-31. Retrieved 3 April 2013.
- "Primitive Tribal Groups and their Population in India as per 2001 Census" (PDF). pib.nic.in. Retrieved 2016-02-27.