Nyctanthes arbor-tristis

(Redirected from Parijata)

Nyctanthes arbor-tristis, also known as the Night-flowering jasmine or Parijata (Parvati chi phula), is a species of Nyctanthes native to South Asia and Southeast Asia.[2][3][4][5]

Hengra bubar, night-flowering jasmine, Shiuli
Shiuli phool - panoramio.jpg
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Lamiales
Family: Oleaceae
Genus: Nyctanthes
Species:
N. arbor-tristis
Binomial name
Nyctanthes arbor-tristis
Synonyms[2]
  • Bruschia macrocarpa Bertol.
  • Nyctanthes dentata Blume
  • Nyctanthes tristis Salisb.
  • Parilium arbor-tristis (L.) Gaertn.
  • Scabrita scabra L.
  • Scabrita triflora L.

Nyctanthes arbor-tristis is a shrub or a small tree growing to 10 m (33 ft) tall, with flaky grey bark. The leaves are opposite, simple, 6–12 cm (2.4–4.7 in) long and 2–6.5 cm (0.79–2.56 in) broad, with an entire margin. The flowers are fragrant, with a five- to eight-lobed white corolla with an orange-red centre; they are produced in clusters of two to seven together, with individual flowers opening at dusk and finishing at dawn. The fruit is a bilobed, flat brown heart-shaped to round capsule 2 cm (0.79 in) diameter, each lobe containing a single seed.[4][5]

Despite its common name, the species is not a "true jasmine" and not of the genus Jasminum.

Names and symbolismEdit

The tree is sometimes called the "tree of sorrow", because the flowers lose their brightness during daytime; the scientific name arbor-tristis also means "sad tree". The flowers can be used as a source of yellow dye for clothing. The flower is called Pārijāta (पारिजात) in Sanskrit, rātarāni (रातरानी, Queen of the Night) in Hindi, Gangaseuli and Jharaa sephali in Odisha, India. In the Borok Tipruri culture, it is associated with the cycle of life, i.e., birth and dying. It is popularly used as a garland for the dead.[citation needed]

The flower is the official flower of the state of West Bengal,[6] and of Kanchanaburi Province, Thailand.[citation needed] It is known as Parijata, Shefali and Siuli around West Bengal. Nyctanthes arbor-tristis is commonly known as night-flowering jasmine and coral jasmine. It is referred to as Har-shringaar in Bihar's Mithilanchal and Madhesh. It is called Xewālee (Xewālee, শেৱালী) in Assamese, while in Sri Lanka, it is called Sepalika (සේපාලිකා). In Karnataka it is called parijatha(ಪಾರಿಜಾತ), In Telugu it is called parijatam పారిజాతం, Kerala, where it is called Pavizhamalli (പവിഴമല്ലി) in Malayalam, Pavaḻamalli (பவழ மல்லி) in Tamil, paardak (पार्दक) in Konkani, prajakta (प्राजक्त) in Marathi. In Myanmar, it is called Seikphaloo ( my:ဆိပ်ဖလူး ). It is used for pujas and similar ceremonies[citation needed]. It also has importance in old Malayalam romantic songs.[citation needed]

Chemical constituentsEdit

UsesEdit

Traditional MedicineEdit

The leaves have been used in Ayurvedic medicine and Homoeopathy for sciatica, arthritis, and fevers, and as a laxative.[7]

LiteratureEdit

 
Krishna Uproots the Parijata Tree, manuscript from a Bhagavata Purana.

The parijata is featured in Hindu literature, and is often associated with the legendary tree called the Kalpavriksha. The Mahabharata and the Puranas describe the parijata tree to have emerged during the legend of the Samudra Manthana.[8] Krishna is described to have later battled with Indra to uproot the parijata from his capital of Amaravati and plant it in his own city of Dvaraka.[9] In regional tradition, Satyabhama grew aggrieved when Krishna offered his chief consort Rukmini a parijata flower. To placate her envy, Krishna is described to have confronted Indra and had the parijata tree planted near her house's door. In spite of having the tree planted near her dwelling, the flowers of the tree fell in the adjacent backyard of Rukmini, the favourite wife of Krishna, because of her superior devotion and humility.[10][11]

The tree is the subject of a work named Parijatapaharanamu in Telugu literature, written by Nandi Thimmana, the court-poet of Krishnadevaraya.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ IUCN SSC Global Tree Specialist Group; Botanic Gardens Conservation International (BGCI); Lakhey, P. & Pathak, J. (2022). "Nyctanthes arbor-tristis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2022: e.T150224828A152201552. Retrieved 23 January 2023.
  2. ^ a b Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, Nyctanthes arbor-tristis
  3. ^ "Nyctanthes arbor-tristis". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 16 December 2017.
  4. ^ a b Flora of Pakistan: Nyctanthes arbor-tristis
  5. ^ a b AgroForestry Tree Database: Nyctanthes arbor-tristis Archived 2011-07-16 at the Wayback Machine
  6. ^ Nyctanthes arbor-tristisArchived 2 July 2017 at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^ Saxena RS, Gupta B, Lata S (August 2002). "Tranquilizing, antihistaminic and purgative activity of Nyctanthes arbor tristis leaf extract". J Ethnopharmacol. 81 (3): 321–5. doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(02)00088-0. PMID 12127232.
  8. ^ Books, Kausiki (2021-10-24). Padma Purana Srishti Khanda Part 1: English Translation only without Slokas. Kausiki Books. p. 56.
  9. ^ Dalal, Roshen (2014-04-18). Hinduism: An Alphabetical Guide. Penguin UK. p. 917. ISBN 978-81-8475-277-9.
  10. ^ Bryant, Edwin Francis (2007). Krishna: A Sourcebook. Oxford University Press. pp. 184–185. ISBN 978-0-19-803400-1.
  11. ^ Geybels, Hans; Herck, Walter Van (2011-03-17). Humour and Religion: Challenges and Ambiguities. A&C Black. p. 39. ISBN 978-1-4411-6313-4.

External linksEdit