White River Utes
The Yampa (Yapudttka, Yampadttka, Yamparka, Yamparika) lived in the Yampa River Valley area and north of White River of the present-day state of Colorado near the Parianuche who lived to the south. They were called "root eaters". The tribe was relocated to the Uintah and Ouray Reservation.
The Parianuche (Pahdteeahnooch, Pahdteechnooch, Parianuc) lived in the Colorado River valley (or Grand Valley) in western Colorado and eastern Utah. They are called "elk people" and Grand River Utes. The tribe was relocated to the Uintah and Ouray Reservation.
The White River Utes were pressured to give up their hunter-gatherer lifestyle and take up farming in 1879. This was pressed upon them by an Indian agent, Nathan Meeker, through a number of means, destruction of Ute ponies, starvation, and sending for the military. The Utes took a defensive stand against the military and the agent, killing the agent and U.S. Army Commander Thomas Thornburgh in two separate conflicts. There were also Utes and other whites killed in what was called the Meeker Massacre and the Thornburgh ambush. This ultimately led to the White River Utes being moved to the Uintah and Ouray Reservation in Utah.
Resettlement in South DakotaEdit
A small number of White River Utes were resettled on the Cheyenne River Reservation, South Dakota, in 1906 and 1907, being allocated 4 townships totalling 92,160 acres. That land remains in the former northern part of the Cheyenne River Reservation. Their communities are Iron Lightning and Thunder Butte.
- "History of the Southern Ute". Southern Ute Indian Tribe. Retrieved June 18, 2018.
- Bakken, Gordon Morris; Kindell, Alexandra (February 24, 2006). "Utes". Encyclopedia of Immigration and Migration in the American West. SAGE. p. PT740. ISBN 978-1-4129-0550-3.
- Bradford, David; Reed, Floyd; LeValley, Robbie Baird (2004). When the grass stood stirrup-high: facts, photographs and myths of West-Central Colorado. Colorado State University. p. 4.
- Pritzker, Barry (2000). "Utes". A Native American Encyclopedia: History, Culture, and Peoples. Oxford University Press. pp. 242–246. ISBN 978-0-19-513877-1.
- Laudenschlager, David D. (Summer 1979). "The Utes in South Dakota, 1906-1908" (PDF). South Dakota History. 9 (3): 233–247. ISSN 0361-8676. Retrieved 22 July 2018.