Oshawa (electoral district)

Oshawa (formerly known as Oshawa—Whitby) is a federal electoral district in Ontario, Canada, that is represented in the House of Commons of Canada. It currently consists of the City of Oshawa south of Taunton Road. Historially, the riding was dominated by a working-class electorate.

Oshawa
Ontario electoral district
Oshawa Electoral District 2015.svg
Oshawa in relation to other Greater Toronto Area districts
Federal electoral district
LegislatureHouse of Commons
MP
 
 
 
Colin Carrie
Conservative
District created1966
First contested1968
Last contested2019
District webpageprofile, map
Demographics
Population (2016)[1]126,764
Electors (2015)94,928
Census division(s)Durham
Census subdivision(s)Oshawa

The riding was first created in 1966 from parts of what are now Oshawa and Whitby, and was very competitive for its first 2 elections. However, the riding quickly became a New Democratic Party (NDP) stronghold during the tenure of Ed Broadbent and the riding continued to be that way until the early 1990s. During this period, the boundaries were changed twice, in 1976 and 1987, with the riding now consisting of southern and central Oshawa.

In the early 1990s, the unpopularity of both the NDP and the Progressive Conservatives (PCs) caused the Liberals to win the seat throughout the 1990s. After the PCs and the Reform Party merged to form the Conservative Party, the NDP tried to take it back by nominating a well-known labour leader but lost by a close margin. In the elections following 2004, the Conservatives continued to increase their share of the vote, as did the NDP to a lesser extent, at the expense of the Liberals. Despite large Liberal gains in 2015, the Conservatives continued to hold this riding. It has been represented by Conservative Colin Carrie since 2004.

Riding profileEdit

The riding currently consists of the City of Oshawa south of Taunton Road.[2]

In 2016, the riding's population was 126,764, an increase of 0.8% compared to the population in 2011. In 2015, the median income in the riding was $32,567, slightly below the Ontario average and up from 30,773 in 2010.[1][3] The riding has a much lower proportion of visible minorities compared to the rest of the province. In 2016, 11.9% of the riding's population was part of a visible minority, compared to the provincial average of 29.3%.[1] In 2011, about 67% of the riding's population was Christian, which was slightly above the Ontario average. Having no religious affiliation was also slightly above the Ontario average, with about 30% of people in the riding having no affiliation.[3][4] The riding had historically been dominated by a working-class electorate, but the loss of auto industry jobs in the area since the 1980s has lessened the effect of the working class.[5]

HistoryEdit

1966-1990: Oshawa—Whitby as a marginal seat and dominance of the NDPEdit

The riding was first created in 1966 with the Town of Whitby, the City of Oshawa, and part of Whitby Township, which were previously part of the riding of Ontario. In 1967, its name was changed to "Oshawa—Whitby."[6][7] In the Ontario riding, the previous election was competitive, with the PCs, Liberals, and NDP all being within about 6500 votes (10%) away from each other.[8] In 1968, the election was very close. There were over 45,000 votes cast and all 3 candidates were within 325 votes of each other. NDP candidate Ed Broadbent won, beating PC Michael Starr, who won the previous election in the riding of Ontario, by 15 votes.[8][9] Broadbent and Starr would once again run against each other in the 1972 election. It was also a close race, with Broadbent beating Starr by 824 votes.[9]

In the 1974 election, Broadbent had increased his lead to 11,000 votes, and his vote count was almost as much as the Liberal and PC candidates combined.[8] This had happened at the same time as prominent New Democrats such as David Lewis lost their seats.[10] Shortly after the 1974 election, Broadbent was appointed Parliamentary leader of the NDP.[11] In 1975, Broadbent was elected leader of the NDP.[12] In 1976, the riding was modified to now only include the City of Oshawa and its name was changed back to "Oshawa."[7][13] In 1979, a writer for Maclean's described Broadbent's re-election chances as "considerably better" than his chances in 1968.[10] He ended up being re-elected by a similar margin, though this time it was over a PC instead of a Liberal.[8]

By this point, the riding was an NDP stronghold and they continued to win elections by large margins, increasing their margin of victory to 12,000 votes in 1980.[8][9] Shortly afterward, Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau invited Broadbent to join his cabinet, but Broadbent ultimately rejected his offer.[14] In 1984, Broadbent held on to the seat by a margin of 2000 votes despite the landslide that the PCs won nationally.[8][9] In 1986, the riding was modified to exclude the area north of Rossland Road.[13] In 1988, Broadbent would increase his margin of victory to about 4,400 votes over the PCs.[8]

In 1989, Broadbent resigned as NDP leader and he announced his retirement as MP later that year. He left parliament on December 31, 1989.[12][15][16] By mid-1990, before the by-election happened, the government of Prime Minister Brian Mulroney was very unpopular.[17] The PCs ended up dropping from 33.8% to 6.4% and the NDP increased their vote share slightly. The Liberals increased their vote share to 34.4%.[18]

1991-2002: The NDP's fall and the Liberals' successEdit

 
Map of the riding from 1996 to 2003

By the time the 1993 election campaign started, the NDP was also very unpopular.[19] Liberal candidate Ivan Grose did win, but the Liberals' vote share didn't go up much. This was the same election that the Liberals nearly swept Ontario.[18][20] In 1996, the riding was once again modified. It would lose the part of the riding east of Harmony Road and north of King Street (former Highway 2), but it would gain the area west of Ritson Road between Rossland Road and Taunton Road.[13] The 1993 result for each party did not vary more than 1.2% when redistributed to the new area of the riding.[18][21]

In 1997, the PCs and the NDP rebounded slightly et the expense of the Liberals and the Reform Party and Grose was re-elected by a slightly smaller margin.[21] In 2000, the Liberals increased their vote share and their margin of victory by about 5%, mostly at the expense of the NDP.[21]

In 2003, the riding was expanded. Initially, the district would consist of the area of Oshawa south of Rossland Road as well as the area east of Ritson Road south of Taunton Road.[22] However, area MP Judy Longfield objected, by which point the proposed boundaries had changed to south of Rossland and south of Taunton west of Ritson. Longfield proposed, citing support from MP Ivan Grose and Oshawa City Council, that the district be changed from the previous version to not include the area west of Simcoe Street north of Rossland Road and the Oshawa Creek north of former Highway 2, but include the area east of Sincoe Street up to Winchester Road. A new Whitby—Oshawa riding would cover the rest of Oshawa. This proposal ended up being implemented.[23][24] The redistributed result showed minimal change.[21][25]

2004-2011: The Conservatives take the ridingEdit

 
Map of Oshawa riding (2003 to 2012)

In 2004, there was some infighting in the Liberal Party. Grose ended up losing the Liberal nomination for that year's election. It was instead won by Louise Parks.[citation needed] The NDP nominated Sid Ryan, a well-known labour leader.[5] That year's election ended up being very close. Sid Ryan was within 500 votes of Conservative candidate Colin Carrie. Liberal candidate Louise Parks was within 1400 votes of Carrie.[26] In the 2006 election, Parks, Ryan, and Carrie ran again. During the 2006 campaign, a writer for The Globe and Mail considered it to be a riding to watch.[27] The NDP increased their share of the vote, but the Conservatives increased their vote share even more. These gains were at the expense of the Liberals, likely due to the recent layoffs at the General Motors Oshawa plant.[26][27][28]

The Conservatives would once again increase their vote percentage in the 2008 election and by a higher amount than the NDP, at the expense of the Liberals. The Conservatives now had 41% of the vote, compared to the NDP's 34%.[28][29] In 2011, a writer for the Toronto Star said that the increasing margins of victory for the Conservative Party over the NDP reflected the transformation of Oshawa from a working-class centre of the auto industry to another Toronto suburb.[5] In the run-up to that year's election, a writer for the National Post considered it to be a potential NDP pickup. The NDP had nominated another union leader, Chris Buckley, president of a local branch of the Canadian Auto Workers union.[30] Despite the NDP's rise nationally, the Conservatives still increased their vote share more than them, now having a majority of the vote in the riding.[29][31]

2012-present: Nearly being split and continued Tory successEdit

During the 2012 redistribution, the riding was originally going to be split into 2 ridings. South of former Highway 2, it would be part of a new riding called "Oshawa—Bowmanville" and the part north of former Highway 2 would be part of the riding of "Oshawa—Durham."[32] During the public hearings, there was opposition to the new boundaries and the commission ended up revising the boundaries to consist of the area of Oshawa south of Taunton Road, despite the fact that the population of the district was now almost 20% above the provincial quota.[33] MPs Erin O'Toole and Colin Carrie later objected, requesting that as much of Oshawa as possible be kept within one electoral district, adding 2 campuses. The commission rejected this.[34][35]

In the 2015 election, despite the large gains by the Liberals under Justin Trudeau, who now had 27% of the vote in the riding, Carrie was re-elected with 38% of the vote. The NDP did fall, but not as much as the Conservatives to 31%.[36] Shortly after the election, Carrie was appointed to be the Conservatives' Deputy Health Critic.[37] In April 2016, Carrie was promoted to Health Critic.[38] By the 2019 election, Carrie had become the Shadow Cabinet Secretary for Canada-US relations and Economic Development in Southern Ontario.[39]

In April 2019, Forum Research conducted a poll in the riding showing a larger Conservative lead and a large NDP decline.[9] In the 2019 election, Carrie was re-elected again, increasing his vote share slightly while the Liberal and NDP candidates lost 2-4% of the vote each.[40][41] After the election, Carrie retained his previously held critic roles.[42]

Members of ParliamentEdit

 
Ed Broadbent in 2008
 
Colin Carrie in 2018

This riding has elected the following Members of Parliament:

Parliament Years Member Party
Oshawa—Whitby
Riding created from Ontario
28th  1968–1972     Ed Broadbent New Democratic
29th  1972–1974
30th  1974–1979
Oshawa
31st  1979–1980     Ed Broadbent New Democratic
32nd  1980–1984
33rd  1984–1988
34th  1988–1990
 1990–1993 Michael Breaugh
35th  1993–1997     Ivan Grose Liberal
36th  1997–2000
37th  2000–2004
38th  2004–2006     Colin Carrie Conservative
39th  2006–2008
40th  2008–2011
41st  2011–2015
42nd  2015–2019
43rd  2019–present

Election resultsEdit

Graph of general election results in Oshawa (minor parties that never got 2% of the vote or didn't run consistently are omitted)
2019 Canadian federal election
Party Candidate Votes % ±% Expenditures
Conservative Colin Carrie 24,087 38.9 $111,106.65
New Democratic Shailene Panylo 17,668 28.5 $19,350.32
Liberal Afroza Hossain 15,750 25.4 $17,557.03
Green Jovannah Ramsden 3,151 5.1 none listed
People's Eric Mackenzie 1,215 2.0 none listed
Communist Jeff Tomlinson 112 0.2 none listed
Total valid votes/Expense limit 61,983 100.0
Total rejected ballots 414
Turnout 62,397 61.5
Eligible voters 101,419
Source: Elections Canada[43][41]
2015 Canadian federal election
Party Candidate Votes % ±% Expenditures
Conservative Colin Carrie 23,162 38.17 -12.96 $119,096.25
New Democratic Mary Fowler 19,339 31.87 -5.23 $124,250.16
Liberal Tito-Dante Marimpietri 16,588 27.33 +19.67 $26,849.94
Green Michael Dempsey 1,522 2.51 -1.04 $10.22
Marxist–Leninist David Gershuny 75 0.12
Total valid votes/Expense limit 60,686 100.00   $240,095.10
Total rejected ballots 228 0.37
Turnout 60,914 63.74
Eligible voters 95,561
Conservative hold Swing -3.86
Source: Elections Canada[40][44]
2011 federal election redistributed results[45]
Party Vote %
  Conservative 26,837 51.13
  New Democratic 19,474 37.10
  Liberal 4,022 7.66
  Green 1,863 3.55
  Others 294 0.56
2011 Canadian federal election
Party Candidate Votes % ±% Expenditures
Conservative Colin Carrie 26,034 51.31 +9.95
New Democratic Chris Buckley 19,212 37.87 +3.15
Liberal James Morton 3,536 6.97 -9.07
Green Gail Bates 1,631 3.21 -3.78
Libertarian Matthew Belanger 260 0.51
Marxist–Leninist David Gershuny 61 0.12 -0.12
Total valid votes/Expense limit 50,734 100.00
Total rejected ballots 200 0.39 0.00
Turnout 50,934 57.31 +2.06
Eligible voters 88,878
2008 Canadian federal election
Party Candidate Votes % ±% Expenditures
Conservative Colin Carrie 19.951 41.36 +2.76 $83,665
New Democratic Mike Shields 16,750 34.72 +1.26 $66,814
Liberal Sean Godfrey 7,741 16.04 -7.94 $62,601
Green Pat Gostlin 3,374 6.99 +3.22 $9,606
Christian Heritage Peter Vogel 246 0.51 $2,149
Marxist–Leninist David Gershuny 117 0.24 -0.07
Canadian Action Alex Kreider 52 0.10
Total valid votes/Expense limit 48,231 100.00 $89,927
Total rejected ballots 191 0.39 +0.04
Turnout 48,422 55.25 -8.62
Conservative hold Swing +0.75
2006 Canadian federal election
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Colin Carrie 20,657 38.60 +5.39
New Democratic Sid Ryan 17,905 33.46 +1.23
Liberal Louise V. Parkes 12,831 23.98 -6.49
Green Adam Jobse 2,019 3.77 -0.11
Marxist–Leninist David Gershuny 91 0.17 -0.02
Total valid votes 53,503 100.00
Total rejected ballots 186 0.35 -0.25
Turnout 53,689 63.87 +6.67
2004 Canadian federal election
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Colin Carrie 15,815 33.21 -10.7
New Democratic Sid Ryan 15,352 32.23 +21.1
Liberal Louise V. Parkes 14,510 30.47 -12.4
Green Liisa Walley 1,850 3.88
Marxist–Leninist Tim Sullivan 91 0.19 -0.1
Total valid votes 47,618 100.0
Total rejected ballots 287 0.60
Turnout 47,905 57.20

Note: Conservative vote is compared to the total of the Canadian Alliance vote and Progressive Conservative vote in 2000 election.

2000 Canadian federal election
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Liberal Ivan Grose 16,179 42.9 +5.2
Alliance Barry Bussey 10,863 28.8 +0.5
Progressive Conservative Bruce L. Wright 5,675 15.1 -1.5
New Democratic Bruce Rogers 4,203 11.1 -6.3
Marijuana Craig James Michael McMillan 679 1.8
Marxist–Leninist David Gershuny 97 0.3
Total valid votes 37,696 100.0

Note: Canadian Alliance vote is compared to the Reform vote in 1997 election.

1997 Canadian federal election
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Liberal Ivan Grose 15,925 37.7 -0.5
Reform Andrew Davies 11,974 28.4 -0.5
New Democratic Brian Nicholson 7,350 17.4 +2.5
Progressive Conservative Alan Hayes 6,972 16.5 +1.4
Total valid votes 42,221 100.0
1993 Canadian federal election
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Liberal Ivan Grose 15,574 38.3 +3.9
Reform Andrew Davies 11,760 28.9
Progressive Conservative Linda Dionne 6,137 15.1 +6.4
New Democratic Michael Breaugh 6,066 14.9 -32.7
National John Arkelian 387 1.0
Christian Heritage Brian Chiasson 383 0.9 -4.2
Natural Law Helene Ann Darisse 260 0.6
Commonwealth of Canada Ann-Marie Methot 73 0.2
Abolitionist Christopher Boddy 60 0.1
Total valid votes 40,700 100.0


Canadian federal by-election, 13 August 1990
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
On Ed Broadbent's resignation, 2 January 1990
New Democratic Michael Breaugh 12,046 47.6 +3.3
Liberal Cathy O'Flynn 8,709 34.4 +13.9
Progressive Conservative Bill Longworth 1,627 6.4 -27.4
Christian Heritage Gerry Van Schepen 1,308 5.2
Confederation of Regions Garnet Chesebrough 1,024 4.0
Green David A.J. Hubbell 243 1.0
Libertarian George Dance 117 0.5 -0.6
Social Credit Ken Campbell 96 0.4
Independent Robert Bob Kirk 94 0.4
Independent John Turmel 50 0.2
Total valid votes 25,314 100.0
1988 Canadian federal election
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
New Democratic Ed Broadbent 18,410 44.3 +2.0
Progressive Conservative Nancy McLean 14,040 33.8 -5.0
Liberal Ed White 8,496 20.5 +2.4
Libertarian George S. Kozaroff 449 1.1 +0.5
Commonwealth of Canada Lucylle Boikoff 139 0.3 +0.2
Total valid votes 41,534 100.0
1984 Canadian federal election
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
New Democratic Ed Broadbent 25,092 42.3 -9.3
Progressive Conservative Alex Sosna 23,028 38.8 +10.6
Liberal Terry Kelly 10,719 18.1 -1.5
Libertarian Rolf Posma 335 0.6 +0.2
Commonwealth of Canada Lucille Boikoff 74 0.1
Communist Russell Z. Rak 72 0.1 0.0
Total valid votes 59,320 100.0
1980 Canadian federal election
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
New Democratic Ed Broadbent 26,761 51.6 +0.4
Progressive Conservative Jim Souch 14,645 28.3 -4.1
Liberal Elizabeth Gomes 10,129 19.5 +3.5
Libertarian Dolores Keys 178 0.3
Communist Russell Rak 81 0.2 0.0
Marxist–Leninist Steve Rutchinski 29 0.1 0.0
Total valid votes 51,823 100.0
1979 Canadian federal election
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
New Democratic Ed Broadbent 29,090 51.3 +2.6
Progressive Conservative Jim Souch 18,369 32.4 +10.2
Liberal Elizabeth Gomes 9,099 16.0 -12.7
Communist Russ Rak 80 0.1 -0.1
Marxist–Leninist Bill Aird 62 0.1 0.0
Independent Richard Sanders 47 0.1
Total valid votes 56,747 100.0

Oshawa—Whitby, 1967-1976Edit

1974 Canadian federal election
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
New Democratic Ed Broadbent 25,013 48.7 +6.8
Liberal Margaret Shaw 14,783 28.8 +11.1
Progressive Conservative Martin Weatherall 11,412 22.2 -18.2
Communist Russell Rak 125 0.2 0.0
Marxist–Leninist Dennis Deveau 66 0.1
Total valid votes 51,399 100.0
1972 Canadian federal election
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
New Democratic Ed Broadbent 23,757 41.8 +8.2
Progressive Conservative Michael Starr 22,933 40.4 +6.8
Liberal Peter Connolly 10,027 17.6 -15.2
Independent Russell Rak 98 0.2
Total valid votes 56,815 100.0
1968 Canadian federal election
Party Candidate Votes %
New Democratic Ed Broadbent 15,224 33.6
Progressive Conservative Michael Starr 15,209 33.6
Liberal Desmond G. Newman 14,899 32.9
Total valid votes 45,332 100.0

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • "(Code 35061) Census Profile". 2011 census. Statistics Canada. 2012. Retrieved 3 March 2011.
  • 1966-67 Riding history from the Library of Parliament
  • 1976-2008 Riding history from the Library of Parliament
  • 2011 results from Elections Canada
  • Campaign expense data from Elections Canada

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b c Statistics Canada (2016). "Census Profile, 2016 Census". statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  2. ^ "Oshawa". elections.ca. Elections Canada. Retrieved 5 June 2020.
  3. ^ a b Statistics Canada (2011). "NHS Profile: Oshawa, Ontario". statcan.gc.ca. Archived from the original on 5 June 2020. Retrieved 5 June 2020.
  4. ^ Statistics Canada (2011). "NHS Profile: Ontario". statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 6 June 2020.
  5. ^ a b c Kennedy, Brendan (10 April 2011). "Oshawa: NDP trying to win back former stronghold". Toronto Star. Torstar. Archived from the original on 15 May 2020. Retrieved 14 May 2020.
  6. ^
  7. ^ a b "Oshawa--Whitby, Ontario (1967-11-06 - 1979-03-25)". lob.parl.ca. Library of Parliament. Archived from the original on 12 May 2020. Retrieved 12 May 2020.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g "Elections and Candidates". lop.parl.ca. Library of Parliament. Archived from the original on 20 December 2019. Retrieved 12 May 2020.
  9. ^ a b c d e "FEATURE: The riding of Oshawa". The Oshawa Express. Dowellman Publishing Corp. 2 May 2019. Archived from the original on 12 May 2020. Retrieved 12 May 2020.
  10. ^ a b "The Third Man". Maclean's. 23 April 1979. pp. 30–31. Retrieved 12 May 2020.
  11. ^ The Canadian Press (18 July 1974). "Hopes for new life in NDP" (PDF). The Sherbooke Record. p. 1. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 May 2020. Retrieved 12 May 2020.
  12. ^ a b CBC Archives (4 March 2019). "When Ed Broadbent Stepped Down as NDP Leader". Retrieved 12 May 2020.
  13. ^ a b c "Oshawa, Ontario (1979-03-26 - )". lop.parl.ca. Library of Parliament. Archived from the original on 12 May 2020. Retrieved 12 May 2020.
  14. ^ Wong, Jan (17 November 2009). "Ed Broadbent, 2005". The Globe and Mail. Archived from the original on 13 May 2020. Retrieved 13 May 2020.
  15. ^ "An Oshawa legend gets his due". Oshawa Express. Dowellman Publishing Corp. 8 October 2019. Archived from the original on 13 May 2020. Retrieved 13 May 2020.
  16. ^ "The Hon. John Edward Broadbent, P.C., C.C., M.P." lop.parl.ca. Library of Parliament. Archived from the original on 14 December 2019. Retrieved 13 May 2020.
  17. ^ Laver, Ross (7 May 1990). "A COMEBACK PLAN". Maclean's. Archived from the original on 13 May 2020. Retrieved 13 May 2020.
  18. ^ a b c "Oshawa, ON (1987 Rep. Order)". Pundit's Guide to Canadian Elections. Archived from the original on 21 October 2015. Retrieved 13 May 2020.
  19. ^ "Ready, Set, Go!". Maclean's. 13 September 1993. p. 20. Retrieved 13 May 2020.
  20. ^ Natural Resources Canada (26 October 1993). Results of the 35th Federal Election (PDF) (Map). 1:7,500,000. Cartography by Surveys, Mapping, and Remote Sensing Sector. Archived (PDF) from the original on 5 August 2017. Retrieved 13 May 2020.
  21. ^ a b c d "Oshawa, ON (1996 Rep. Order)". Pundit's Guide to Canadian Elections. Archived from the original on 8 September 2015. Retrieved 13 May 2020.
  22. ^ "Oshawa". elections.ca. Elections Canada. 2003. Archived from the original on 2 July 2003. Retrieved 6 June 2020.
  23. ^ "OBJECTIONS FILED BY MEMBERS OF THE HOUSE OF COMMONS" (PDF). elections.ca. Elections Canada. 2003. pp. 23–24. Archived from the original (PDF) on 31 August 2003. Retrieved 6 June 2020.
  24. ^ "Whitby--Oshawa, Ontario (2004-05-23 - 2015-08-01)". lop.parl.ca. Library of Parliament. Archived from the original on 14 May 2020. Retrieved 14 May 2020.
  25. ^ "Oshawa, ON (2003 Rep. Order)". Pundit's Guide to Canadian Elections. Archived from the original on 8 September 2015. Retrieved 14 May 2020.
  26. ^ a b "Official Results of the 38th General Election: Oshawa". elections.ca. Elections Canada. 2004. Archived from the original on 9 February 2005. Retrieved 15 May 2020.
  27. ^ a b Lorinc, John (3 December 2006). "10 RIDINGS TO WATCH". The Globe and Mail. Archived from the original on 15 May 2020. Retrieved 14 May 2020.
  28. ^ a b "Official Results of the 39th Canadian General Election: Oshawa". elections.ca. Elections Canada. 2006. Archived from the original on 15 May 2020. Retrieved 15 May 2020.
  29. ^ a b "Official Results of the 40th General Election: Oshawa". elections.ca. Elections Canada. 2008. Archived from the original on 31 July 2020. Retrieved 15 May 2020.
  30. ^ Carlson, Kathryn Blaze (26 April 2011). "Road map to a potential NDP breakthrough". National Post. Postmedia. Retrieved 15 May 2020.
  31. ^ "Results of the 41st General Election: Oshawa". elections.ca. Elections Canada. 2011. Archived from the original on 30 July 2020. Retrieved 15 May 2020.
  32. ^ Ontario Electoral Redistribution Commission (2012). "Proposed Boundaries: Durham" (PDF). 2012 federal electoral redistribution. Archived (PDF) from the original on 11 December 2017. Retrieved 12 May 2020.
  33. ^ Ontario federal electoral boundaries commission. "Initial Report". 2012 federal electoral redistribution. Retrieved 10 September 2020.
  34. ^ Ontario Electoral Redistribution Commission (31 July 2013). "Part II – Amendments to the Initial Report– Ontario – Objections". 2012 federal electoral redistribution. Archived from the original on 11 December 2017. Retrieved 12 May 2020.
  35. ^ Ontario Electoral Redistribution Commission (2013). "Final Boundaries: Oshawa" (PDF). 2012 federal electoral redistribution. Archived (PDF) from the original on 11 December 2017. Retrieved 12 May 2020.
  36. ^ Oshawa This Week (19 October 2015). "Oshawa returns Colin Carrie: 2015 federal election results". DurhamRegion.com. Torstar. Metroland Media. Archived from the original on 27 November 2015. Retrieved 15 May 2020.
  37. ^ Wittnebel, Joel (24 November 2015). "O'Toole, Carrie named to shadow cabinet". The Oshawa Express. Dowellman Publishing Corp. Archived from the original on 2 March 2017. Retrieved 15 May 2020.
  38. ^ Dickson, Janice (8 April 2016). "Ambrose shakes up shadow cabinet, adds role for 'sharing economy'". iPolitics. Archived from the original on 6 May 2016. Retrieved 15 May 2020.
  39. ^ "Colin Carrie | Vote 2019". DurhamRegion.com. Torstar. Metroland Media. 20 October 2019. Archived from the original on 3 June 2020. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  40. ^ a b Elections Canada – Confirmed candidates for Oshawa, 30 September 2015
  41. ^ a b "FORTY-THIRD GENERAL ELECTION 2019 — Poll-by-poll results (Oshawa)". elections.ca. Elections Canada. April 2020. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  42. ^ Lim, Jolson (29 November 2019). "Tories release list of 'shadow cabinet' members". iPolitics. Archived from the original on 21 January 2020. Retrieved 15 May 2020.
  43. ^ "List of confirmed candidates". Elections Canada. Retrieved 3 October 2019.
  44. ^ Elections Canada – Preliminary Election Expenses Limits for Candidates
  45. ^ "Oshawa, ON (2013 Rep. Order)". Pundit's Guide to Canadian Elections. Archived from the original on 21 October 2015. Retrieved 12 May 2020.

Coordinates: 43°54′03″N 78°50′43″W / 43.9009°N 78.8454°W / 43.9009; -78.8454