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Objectives and key results (OKR) is a framework for defining and tracking objectives and their outcomes.

The development of OKRs is generally attributed to Andy Grove the "Father of OKRs", who introduced the approach to Intel during his tenure there and documented this in his 1983 book "High output management[1]". Grove explained his simple but effective concept thus: "The key result has to be measurable. But at the end you can look, and without any arguments: Did I do that or did I not do it? Yes? No? Simple. No judgments in it."[1]

OKRs comprise an objective - a clearly-defined goal - and one or more key results - specific measures used to track the achievement of that goal[2].

In 1975, John Doerr, at the time a sales person working for Intel, attended a course within Intel taught by Andy Grove where he was introduced to the theory of OKRs[3]. In 1999 Doerr, who by then was working for Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers - a venture capital firm, introduced the idea of OKRs to a start-up Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers had invested in called Google[4]. The idea took hold and OKRs quickly became central to Google's culture as a "management methodology that helps to ensure that the company focuses efforts on the same important issues throughout the organization."[3]

Larry Page, the CEO of Alphabet and co-founder of Google, credited OKRs within the foreword to Doerr's book: "OKRs have helped lead us to 10x growth, many times over. They’ve helped make our crazily bold mission of 'organizing the world’s information' perhaps even achievable. They’ve kept me and the rest of the company on time and on track when it mattered the most."[3]

Since becoming popular at Google OKRs have found favour with several other similar tech start-up organisations[5] including LinkedIn[6], Twitter[7], and Uber[8].

OKRs are typically set at the company, team and personal levels and may be shared across the organization with the intention of providing teams with visibility of goals with the intention to align and focus effort[2].

OKRs overlap with other performance management frameworks - in terms of complexity sitting somewhere between KPI and the Balanced Scorecard[9].

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ a b Grove, Andrew (1983). High output management. Random House. ISBN 0394532341.
  2. ^ a b Wodtke, Christina (2016). Introduction to OKRs. O’Reilly Media, Inc. ISBN 9781491960271.
  3. ^ a b c Doerr, John (2018). Measure What Matters: How Google, Bono, and the Gates Foundation Rock the World with OKRs. Penguin Publishing Group. p. 31. ISBN 9780525536239.
  4. ^ Levy, Steven (2011). In The Plex: How Google Thinks, Works, and Shapes Our Lives. Simon & Schuster. pp. 162–3. ISBN 978-1-4165-9658-5.
  5. ^ "OKR vendors". Enterprise Gamification.
  6. ^ "The Management Framework that Propelled LinkedIn to a $20 Billion Company". First Round Review. Retrieved 10 January 2014.
  7. ^ Wagner, Kurt. "Following Frat Party, Twitter's Jack Dorsey Vows to Make Diversity a Company Goal". recode. Vox Media, Inc. Retrieved 3 November 2015.
  8. ^ Fowler, Susan. "Reflecting On One Very, Very Strange Year At Uber". Susan Fowler Blog. Susan Fowler. Retrieved 2018-04-19.
  9. ^ Davies, Rob (2018-10-09). "OKR vs Balanced Scorecard – Paul Niven Explains the Difference". Perdoo GmbH. Retrieved 2018-12-03.