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Objectives and key results (OKR) is a framework for defining and tracking objectives and their outcomes. It has been used by several major companies[1] including Google, LinkedIn,[2], Twitter[3], and Uber[4].

One of the earliest investors in Google, John Doerr, called Andy Grove the "Father of OKRs".[5] Doerr brought OKRs to Google,[6] and they became central to Google's culture as a "management methodology that helps to ensure that the company focuses efforts on the same important issues throughout the organization."[7] The objective is the clearly-defined goal, while the key results were the specific benchmarks to ensure achievement of that goal were "measurable and verifiable."[8]

In 1975, Doerr wrote of attending a course within Intel taught by Andy Grove, where he was introduced to the theory of OKRs.[9] Grove explained his simple but effective perspective on management: "The key result has to be measurable. But at the end you can look, and without any arguments: Did I do that or did I not do it? Yes? No? Simple. No judgments in it."[10]

Larry Page, the CEO of Alphabet and co-founder of Google, credited OKRs within the foreword to Doerr's book: "OKRs have helped lead us to 10x growth, many times over. They’ve helped make our crazily bold mission of 'organizing the world’s information' perhaps even achievable. They’ve kept me and the rest of the company on time and on track when it mattered the most."[11]

The OKR framework aims to define company and team "objectives" along with linked and measurable "key results" to provide "a critical thinking framework and ongoing discipline that seeks to ensure employees work together, focusing their efforts to make measurable contributions."[12] OKRs are typically set at the company, team and personal levels and may be shared across the organization with the intention of providing teams with visibility of goals with the intention to align and focus effort.[citation needed]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "OKR vendors". Enterprise Gamification. 
  2. ^ "The Management Framework that Propelled LinkedIn to a $20 Billion Company". First Round Review. Retrieved 10 January 2014. 
  3. ^ Wagner, Kurt. "Following Frat Party, Twitter's Jack Dorsey Vows to Make Diversity a Company Goal". recode. Vox Media, Inc. Retrieved 3 November 2015. 
  4. ^ Fowler, Susan. "Reflecting On One Very, Very Strange Year At Uber". Susan Fowler Blog. Susan Fowler. Retrieved 2018-04-19. 
  5. ^ Doerr, John (2018). Measure What Matters: How Google, Bono, and the Gates Foundation Rock the World with OKRs. Penguin Publishing Group. p. 31. ISBN 9780525536239. 
  6. ^ Levy, Steven (2011). In The Plex: How Google Thinks, Works, and Shapes Our Lives. Simon & Schuster. pp. 162–3. ISBN 978-1-4165-9658-5. 
  7. ^ Doerr, John (2018). Measure What Matters: How Google, Bono, and the Gates Foundation Rock the World with OKRs. Penguin Publishing Group. p. 12. ISBN 9780525536239. 
  8. ^ Doerr, John (2018). Measure What Matters: How Google, Bono, and the Gates Foundation Rock the World with OKRs. Penguin Publishing Group. p. 12. ISBN 9780525536239. 
  9. ^ Doerr, John (2018). Measure What Matters: How Google, Bono, and the Gates Foundation Rock the World with OKRs. Penguin Publishing Group. p. 31. ISBN 9780525536239. 
  10. ^ Doerr, John (2018). Measure What Matters: How Google, Bono, and the Gates Foundation Rock the World with OKRs. Penguin Publishing Group. p. 33. ISBN 9780525536239. 
  11. ^ Doerr, John (2018). Measure What Matters: How Google, Bono, and the Gates Foundation Rock the World with OKRs. Penguin Publishing Group. pp. 8–9. ISBN 9780525536239. 
  12. ^ Niven, Paul R.; Lamorte, Ben (2016-09-06). Objectives and Key Results: Driving Focus, Alignment, and Engagement with OKRs (1 ed.). Wiley. ISBN 9781119252399.