78K is the trademark name of 16- and 8-bit microcontroller family:23-4–23-5:78 manufactured by Renesas Electronics, originally developed by NEC:229 started in 1986.:7, line 2 The basis of 78K Family is an accumulator-based register-bank CISC architecture. 78K is a single-chip microcontroller, which usually integrates; program ROM, data RAM, serial interfaces, timers, I/O ports, an A/D converter, an interrupt controller, and a CPU core, on one die.:412
|Produced||From 1986to current|
|Max. CPU clock rate||32 kHz to 24 MHz|
|Instruction set||78K Family|
|Variant||78K0R, 78K0S, 78K0,|
78K4, 78K6, 78K3,
Regarding software development tools, C compilers and macro-assemblers are available.:99 As for development tool hardware, full probing-pod type and debug port type in-circuit emulators, and flash ROM programmers:22–24 are available.
Historically, the family has 11 series with 9 instruction set architectures. As of 2018, 3 instruction set architectures, those are 8-bit 78K0, 8-bit 78K0S, and 16-/8-bit 78K0R, are still promoted for customers' new designs. But in most of cases, migration to RL78 Family, which is a successor of 78K0R and almost binary level compatible with 78K0R,:20 is recommended.
78K0 Series (also known as 78K/0) is a long-running 8-bit single chip microcontroller, which is the basis of 78K0S and 78K0R Series. It contains 8× 8-bit registers ×4 banks. For 16-bit calculating instructions, it performs ALU operation twice. Each instructions are performed serially without instruction pipelining. It has 16-bit 64K Byte address space. Some variants of 78K0 have affordable and compact type 8-bit R-2R D/A converter, which does not have monotonicity because it is not trimmed for adjustment nor followed by operational amplifier.
78K0S Series (also known as 78K/0S) is a low-end version of 78K0. It has 8× 8-bit registers, but without any banks. In addition, some instructions, such as multiplication and division, are removed from 78K0 instruction set architecture.
78K0R Series is a 16-bit single-chip microcontroller with 3-stage instruction pipelining. Its instruction set is similar to 78K0 and covers 16- and 8-bit operations. It has 20-bit 1M Byte address space. 75 instructions out of 80 are identical with that of RL78 Family; its successor.:20
178K0 Series (also known as 178K/0) is a successor of NEC's 17K Family 4-bit microcontroller for DTS (Digital Tuning Systems) and remote controls. It integrates 17K family's peripheral functions with the 78K0 8-bit CPU core on a chip.
178K0S Series (also known as 178K/0S) is also a successor of 17K Family with the 78K0S CPU core.
78K4 Series (also known as 78K/4) is a 16-bit single-chip microcontroller with 16 and 8-bit operations. It has 16× 8-bit registers ×4 banks, which can be also used for 8× 16-bit registers ×4 banks. Some of these registers can be also used as 24-bit extension for addressing modes. It has 24-bit 16M Byte address space. It has microcode-based operations named Macro Service with interrupt functions.:§23.8, 560–593
78K7 Series (also known as 78K/7) is a 32-bit single-chip microcontroller with 32, 16 and 8 bit operations. It has 8× 32-bit registers ×16 banks, which can be also used for 16× 16-bit registers ×16 banks and 16× 8-bit registers ×16 banks. It has microcode-based operations named Macro Service with interrupt functions. It has 24-bit 16M Byte linear address space. It is used for some Quantum Fireball products,:Photo 2 but shortly replaced with V850 Family 32-bit RISC microcontrollers.
78K6 Series (also known as 78K/6) is a 16-bit single-chip microcontroller. Its life-time was short, and less variants.
78K1 Series (also known as 78K/1) is an 8-bit single-chip microcontroller. It has 8× 8-bit registers ×4 banks. 78K1 series is targeted for servo controls of videocassette recorders. μPD78148 sub-series integrates 2 operational amplifiers.
78K3 Series (also known as 78K/3) is a 16-bit single-chip microcontroller with 16 and 8 bit operations. It has 16× 8-bit ×8 banks, which can be also used for 8× 16-bit registers ×8 banks. Its address space is 16-bit 64K Byte. It is developed as high-end series of 78K Family. It has microcode-based operations named Macro Service with interrupt functions.:§13.4, 261–280
This series is used for hard disk drives, especially Quantum Fireball Series. μPD78364 sub-series is used for inverter compressor controls. It is also used for traction control systems of some cars.
78K2 Series (also known as 78K/2) is an 8-bit single-chip microcontroller. It has 8× 8-bit registers ×4 banks. It is developed as general purpose series of 78K Family.
17K Family:229 is a 4-bit single-chip microcontroller, especially dedicated for DTS (Digital Tuning Systems) and remote controls. It has 2 plane of 128× 4-bit register files, and sophisticated fully orthogonal instruction set. This instruction set is completely different from that of 78K Family.
Table list of 78K FamilyEdit
|RL78-S3||16-bit||8× 8-bit ×4 banks||81 (75+6)||3-stage||Successor of 78K0R||:8|
|RL78-S2||16-bit||8× 8-bit ×4 banks||75||3-stage|
|RL78-S1||8-bit||8× 8-bit (no bank)||74 (75-1)||3-stage|
|78K0R||16-bit||8× 8-bit ×4 banks||80 (75+5)||3-stage||Extended 78K/0||:18|
|78K0S||8-bit||8× 8-bit (no bank)||47||none||Simplified 78K/0|||
|78K0||8-bit||8× 8-bit ×4 banks||48||none||Basic 78K/0 core|||
|178K0S||8-bit||8× 8-bit||47||none||78K/0S for DTS;
Digital Tuning System
|178K0||8-bit||8× 8-bit ×4 banks||48||none||78K/0 for DTS|||
|78K4||16-bit||16× 8-bit ×4 banks||113||none||Macro service available||:24, 128|
|78K7||32-bit||16× 16-bit ×16 banks||none||Macro service available|||
|78K6||16-bit||Macro service available|
|78K1||8-bit||8× 8-bit ×4 banks||64||none||For VCR servo controls||:3,39|
|78K3||16-bit||16× 8-bit ×8 banks||113–115||none||Macro service available||:3–28, 45|
|78K2||8-bit||8× 8-bit ×4 banks||65||none||General purpose||:16, 50|
|87AD||8-bit||8× 8-bit ×2 banks||CMOS: 159
|none||Predecessor of 78K||:21, 39|
|(17K)||4-bit||128× 4-bit ×2 banks||47||none||Predecessor of 178K|||
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