The most northerly point of land on Earth is somewhere just north of mainland Greenland, but is a contentious issue due to variation of definition. How permanent some of the contenders are makes hard determination difficult, but sets an important threshold. Problematic issues include ice sheets, water movements and inundation, storm activity that may build, shift, or destroy banks of moraine material, and observational difficulties due to remoteness.
The following table sets out the main contenders for this title.
|Island name||Coordinates||Distance from pole||Discovered by||Discovery year||Permanent||Notes|
|83-42||83°42′05.2″N, 30°38′49.4″W||700.5 km||Dennis Schmitt||2003||unknown||35 m by 15 m and 4 m high|
|[no record, needs confirmation]||83°41'N, 31°6'W||702.4km||2008 Ultima Thule expedition||2008||unknown||needs verification|
|RTOW2001||83°41′06″N, 30°45′36″W||702.5 km||RTOWexpedition||2001||unknown|
|ATOW1996||83°40′34.8″N, 30°38′38.6″W||703.2km||ATOWexpedition||1996||unknown||10 m long and 1 m high|
|Stray Dog West||83°40'37”N, 31°12'W||703.3km||Dennis Schmitt||2007||unknown||needs confirmation|
|Qeqertaq Avannarleq||83°40'17"N, 30°42'43"W||703.4 km||Morten Rasch||2021||unknown||30 m by 60 m and 3-4 m high|
|Oodaaq||83°40′N, 30°40′W||704.2km||Uffe Petersen||1978||no||15 m by 8 m, appears to be submerged periodically|
|Kaffeklubben Island||83°39′45″N, 29°50′W||704.7 km||Robert Peary||1900||yes||700 m by 300 m by 30 m high|
|Cape Morris Jesup||83°37′39″N, 32°39′52″W||708.6 km||Robert Peary||1900||yes||northernmost tip of Greenland|
Currently, Kaffeklubben Island is the most northerly, undisputed candidate among the land areas considered permanent that remain above water.
- The World's Northernmost Point Is Called 83-42. Maybe. The Daily Traveller, February 16, 2012
- Jancik, John; Richardson, Javana; & Gardiner, Steve (2002). Under the Midnight Sun: The Ascent of John Denver Peak and the Search for the Northernmost Point of Land on Earth.
- Stray Dog West photograph Archived 2011-05-22 at the Wayback Machine taken on 2007-07-16.
- John H. Richardson, Journey to the End of the Earth Esquire Magazine 2007-09-18.
- "Scientists discover 'world's northernmost island' off Greenland's coast". The Guardian. Reuters. August 27, 2021. Archived from the original on August 28, 2021. Retrieved August 28, 2021.
- "Arctic expedition discovers the most northerly island on Earth". University of Copenhagen. August 27, 2021. Archived from the original on August 28, 2021. Retrieved August 28, 2021.
- "Will the discovery of 'Qeqertaq Avannarleq' rekindle the game of one-upmanship among the Arctic countries?". www.timesnownews.com. Retrieved 2022-02-08.
- Funder, S.; Larsen, O. (Nov 15, 1982). "Implications of volcanic erratics in Quaternary deposits of North Greenland" (PDF). Bulletin of the Geological Society of Denmark. 31: 57–61. ISSN 0011-6297.