Mori-Torbole tunnel

The Mori–Torbole Tunnel (Italian: Galleria Adige–Garda) is a diversion tunnel completed in 1959 between the Italian towns of Mori and Nago-Torbole to connect the Adige river with Lake Garda.[1]

The entrance of the tunnel in Mori, seen from the bike path
The outlet of the tunnel in Torbole, seen from the route SS249 "Gardesana Orientale"

Its function is to reduce water levels in the river upstream of the province of Verona by discharging excess water into the lake.[2] The tunnel reduces the risk of flooding in Verona and environs from once every seventy years to once every two centuries.

To increase the level of Lake Garda by 0.4 inches (1 cm), the tunnel must divert about 130,000,000 cubic feet (3,700,000 m³) of water.

When the tunnel is open, the temperature shock and inflow of mud caused by the sudden influx of the Adige's water endanger the lake's fish populations, although the lake's larger volume is able to absorb large quantities of extraneous water into itself.[3] For these reasons the tunnel is used only on the rare occasion when there is a flood risk in the Veronese basin.

Main characteristicsEdit

  • Length: 32,392 ft (9,873 m)
  • Share of lead: 528 ft (161 m) a.s.l.
  • Opening level: 180 ft (55 m) a.s.l.
  • Difference: 348 ft (106 m)
  • Slope: 0.8688%
  • Average diameter: 26¼ ft (8 m)
  • Hydraulic section: 542½ sq. ft (50.40 m²)
  • Maximum capacity: 17,650 ft³ (500 m³/s)
  • Water speed at the maximum capacity: 36 ft/s (11 m/s)
  • Water speed at the minimum flow: 16 ft/s (5 m/s)

HistoryEdit

After the great floods of the second part of the 19th century (the last in 1882), defense of the city of Verona from Adige floods was deemed urgent. Using an idea already established in the 18th century, Venice's Water Magistrate proposed constructing a diversion tunnel to Lake Garda that would alleviate flooding by conveying that part of the Adige's flow exceeding the river's carrying capacity. The lake's surface area, equal to about 142 square miles (370 km²), would allow the diversion of huge volumes of river water with only a modest increase in the lake's level. The most appropriate solution was considered to be a tunnel originating on the right bank of the Adige near Ravazzone (a subdivision of Mori) and terminating at Lake Garda to the south of Torbole. The depth of the lake at that location would allow solid material that might be transported by the water to be deposited without damage. Construction began under the fascist government in March 1939, was suspended for the war in 1943, then resumed in 1954 to finish in May 1959.

Lake Loppio was drained during the construction of the tunnel. Water leaks became common as the tunnel approached the lake, and the lake was drained to prevent these and to reduce the danger posed to the workers.[2]

The tunnel was used eleven distinct times in the 55 years between its opening and 2002.[2] It was opened again in October 2018 in response to unusually high water levels in the Adige.[3]

FeaturesEdit

The electromechanical equipment that supports the Adige-Garda Tunnel consists of grilles, watertight doors and gates with associated control panels, and controls housed in special rooms. The gates are positioned on four intake windows. Each gate has a width of 31 feet (9.50 m) and is made up of two overlapping panels. The lower of the two panels is 10 feet (3 m) high and the upper one 16 feet (5 m) high.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "L'Adige ora fa paura al Veneto "Aprire la galleria Mori–Torbole". Non si fa da quasi 20 anni" (in Italian). Retrieved October 29, 2018.
  2. ^ a b c Vaccari, Alessandro (22 October 2014). "La galleria Adige Garda per la salvaguardia del territorio". Girovagando in Trentino (in Italian). Retrieved 12 July 2020.
  3. ^ a b "La galleria Adige Garda salva il Veneto dall'alluvione". l'Adige.it (in Italian). Retrieved 12 July 2020.

Coordinates: 45°51′51″N 10°56′50″E / 45.8641°N 10.9472°E / 45.8641; 10.9472