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Moksha (Russian: Мо́кша) is a river in central Russia, a right tributary of the Oka River. It flows through Penza Oblast, Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Ryazan Oblast and the Republic of Mordovia, and joins the Oka near Pyatnitsky Yar, below the city of Penza Oblast.

Moksha
Mouth of Tsna river.jpg
Location
CountryRussia
RegionPenza Oblast, Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Republic of Mordovia, Ryazan Oblast
CitiesTemnikov, Krasnoslobodsk, Kovylkino
Physical characteristics
SourceVydygadovka
 ⁃ locationPrivolzhskaya Upland, Mokshansky District, Penza Oblast
 ⁃ coordinates53°19′13″N 44°31′13″E / 53.3202°N 44.5203°E / 53.3202; 44.5203
Mouth 
 ⁃ location
Oka River, Pitelinsky District, Ryazan Oblast
 ⁃ coordinates
54°44′35″N 41°52′42″E / 54.74306°N 41.87833°E / 54.74306; 41.87833Coordinates: 54°44′35″N 41°52′42″E / 54.74306°N 41.87833°E / 54.74306; 41.87833
 ⁃ elevation
79 m (259 ft)
Length656 km (408 mi)
Basin size51,000 km2 (20,000 sq mi)
Discharge 
 ⁃ location72 km from the mouth
 ⁃ average95 m3/s (3,400 cu ft/s)
Basin features
River systemVolga
Tributaries 
 ⁃ leftVad, Tsna
 ⁃ rightSivin, Satis

It is 656 kilometres (408 mi) in length, and has a drainage basin of 51,000 square kilometres (20,000 sq mi).

In the 1950s, several hydroelectric power stations were built in the middle course of the river, but without navigable locks. In 1955, 2 km below the mouth of the river. Prices on the Moksha River built Rasypukhinsky hydro-power plant with a hydroelectric power station and a wooden shipping lock. Navigation on the river was carried out until the mid-1990s.

On the Moksha is the Trinity-Scans monastery, the Nativity-Theotokos Sanaksar Monastery and the Krasnoslobodsky Savior-Transfiguration Monastery.

Origin of nameEdit

The name is left by the ancient Indo-European population of the Pohje, speaking a language close to the Baltic. Hydronym is comparable with the Indo-European basis meksha, meaning "spillage, leakage". It is suggested that in the language of Indo-European aborigines moksha meant "stream, current, river" and as a term entered into a series of hydronyms (Shirmksha, Mamoksha, etc.).[1]

The name "Moksha" is mentioned by the monk-minorite Rubruk, the ambassador of the French King Louis IX to the Mongolian khan Sartak (1253).

SourcesEdit

In the monograph "The Nature of the Penza Region" it is pointed out that p. Moksha originates from above. Lookout Nechaevsky (now Mokshan district) of the Penza region. According to the latest information, Moksha begins in a ravine from the springs system near the village of Elizavetino. The source of Moksha is on a treeless place. Research conducted in 2009-2010. Showed that from the south with. Lookout among the elevated places stretches low (up to Elizavetino) about 6 kilometres (3.7 mi) long. This site is called "Dry Moksha". In the hollow with a sandy and clay bottom 20–40 centimetres (7.9–15.7 in) deep, a creeping stream of 0.5–1.5 centimetres (0.20–0.59 in) in width runs (the study was conducted in May 2010). The constant flow of water is observed below the confluence of the hollow from the holy spring, where a small extension of the channel also forms. A true watercourse flows towards Vision in a poorly developed channel. In some places, the banks collapse in the face of the knocking out of them groundwater flowing into the channel. The bottom of the lowland where the stream flows is swamped. Along the banks of the stream, shrubs of willows, thickets of broadleaf cattails, reeds of forest and some other moisture-loving plants grow in the water. Thus, the source of Moksha is a drying creek, now fueled by thawed and groundwater. It stretches to c. The look gradually turning into a constant stream.[2]

TributariesEdit

  • 49 km: Hedgehog creek
  • 51 km: the river Tsna
  • 82 km: the river Urzeva (Black River)
  • 105 km: the river Vad
  • 121 km: the river Ermish
  • 135 km: Shoksha River
  • 144 km: the river Yuzga
  • 150 km: Stream
  • 160 km: the river Vedyazha
  • 170 km: the Barnabas River
  • 177 km: the river Uzhovka
  • 183 km: Sarma River
  • 191 km: the Satis River
  • 231 km: the river Lomovka
  • 248 km: Big Axel River
  • 258 km: Uray River (Ureika)
  • 266 km: the river Shavits (Varskley)
  • 294 km: Nului River
  • 295 km: the river Urkat
  • 302 km: the river Sukhoi Urey
  • 310 km: the Varma River
  • 338 km: Sivin River
  • 346 km: Shapa River
  • 351 km: the river Gumenka
  • 360 km: the river Ryabka
  • 373 km: the river Linyevka
  • 388 km: Bolshaya Azyas river
  • 412 km: the river Sezelka
  • 418 km: Mokshan River
  • 420 km: the river Lashma
  • 432 km: Unuy River
  • 437 km: the river Issa
  • 464 km: the Paneja River
  • 477 km: the river Sheldays
  • 492 km: the river Camora
  • 497 km: the river Kaurec
  • 500 km: the brook Modaev
  • 532 km: the river Lomovka
  • 540 km: the river Atmiss
  • 545 km: the river Iva
  • 553 km: the river Kerka
  • 562 km: the River Losma (in the water register - without a name, near the village Gorlitsyno)
  • 563 km: Stream of Convolvulus
  • 586 km: the river Medaevka (Madaevka)
  • 596 km: Muromka River (Shirkois)
  • 599 km: the river Horse
  • 604 km: the river Yulovka
  • 620 km: the river Ajias
  • 624 km: the stream of Saranka

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Поспелов Е. М.
  2. ^ [Артаев О. Н., Варгот Е. В., Ручин А. Б., Гришуткин О. Г. "О МЕСТОНАХОЖДЕНИИ ИСТОКА РЕКИ МОКШИ" - Журнал "Известия ПГУ им В.Г. Белинского 2011, Выпуск № 25 с. 650-651]