Mullah Mohammed Omar (Pashto: ملا محمد عمر, Mullā Muḥammad ‘Umar; c. 1960 – 23 April 2013), widely known as Mullah Omar, was the supreme commander and spiritual leader of the Taliban. Under the title "Head of the Supreme Council," He was Afghanistan's de facto head of state from 1996 to late 2001. Omar died in 2013 of natural causes and was succeeded by Mullah Akhtar Mansour.
ملا محمد عمر
|Head of the Supreme Council of Afghanistan|
27 September 1996 – 13 November 2001
Abdul Kabir (Acting)
|Preceded by||Burhanuddin Rabbani (as President)|
|Succeeded by||Burhanuddin Rabbani (as President)|
Kandahar Province, Afghanistan
|Died||April 23, 2013(aged 52–53)|
|Alma mater||Darul Uloom Haqqania|
|Allegiance|| Mujahideen (1983–1991)
|Years of service||1983–1991
• Battle of Arghandab
Afghan Civil War
• Battle of Jalalabad
|*Omar's term has been disputed by Burhanuddin Rabbani.|
Born into a poor family with no political connections, Omar joined the Afghan mujahideen in their war against the Soviet Union and the communist Democratic Republic of Afghanistan during the 1980s. He founded the Taliban in 1994 and by 1995 had captured much of southern Afghanistan; in September 1996, the Taliban took Kabul, the country's capital. During his tenure as Emir of Afghanistan, Omar seldom left the city of Kandahar and rarely met with outsiders. He was known for speaking little and living in austere conditions.
For harboring Osama bin Laden and al-Qaeda militants before and after the September 11 attacks, Omar became wanted by the United States. He fled the American invasion of Afghanistan and then directed the Taliban insurgency against NATO-led forces and the new government of Afghanistan.
Omar died in April 2013 of tuberculosis in unclear circumstances. His death was kept secret by the Taliban for two years until it was revealed in July 2015 by Afghanistan's National Directorate of Security.
According to most sources, Omar was born sometime between 1950 and 1962 in a village in Kandahar Province, Kingdom of Afghanistan (in present-day Kandahar Province or Uruzgan Province). Some suggest his birth year as 1950 or 1953, or as late as around 1966. According to a "surprise biography" published by the Taliban in April 2015, he was born in 1960.
His exact place of birth is also uncertain; one possibility is a village called Nodeh near the city of Kandahar. Matinuddin writes that he was born in 1961 in Nodeh village, Panjwai District, Kandahar Province. Others say Omar was born in a village of the same name in Uruzgan Province. In Omar's entry in the UNSC's Taliban Sanctions List, "Nodeh village, Deh Rahwod District, Uruzgan Province" is given as a possible birthplace. Other reports say Omar was born in 1960 in Noori village near Kandahar. 'Noori village, Maiwand District, Kandahar Province' is a second location suggested in Omar's entry in the Sanctions List. According to a biography of Mullah Omar published online by the Taliban in April 2015, he was born in 1960 in the village of Chah-i-Himmat, in Khakrez District, Kandahar Province. It has also been mentioned that Sangasar was his home village. Better established than Omar's place of birth is that his childhood home was in Deh Rahwod District, Uruzgan Province, having moved to a village there with his uncle after the death of his father (though some identify the district as Omar's birthplace). He attended Darul Uloom Haqqania.
An ethnic Pashtun, he was born in conservative rural Afghanistan to a poor landless family of the Hotak tribe, which is part of the larger Ghilzai branch. According to Hamid Karzai, "Omar's father was a local religious leader, but the family was poor and had absolutely no political links in Kandahar or Kabul. They were essentially lower middle class Afghans and were definitely not members of the elite." His father Mawlawi Ghulam Nabi Akhund died when Omar was young. According to Omar's own words he was 3 years old when his father died, and thereafter he was raised by his uncles. One of his uncles married Omar's mother, and the family moved to a village in the poor Deh Rawod District, where the uncle was a religious teacher. It is reported that they lived in the village of Dehwanawark, close to the town of Deh Rahwod.
After the 1978 Saur Revolution in Afghanistan, Omar went to Karachi, Pakistan, in 1979 to study at the Jamia Uloom-ul-Islamia, the city's premier seminary for orthodox Sunni Muslims. After the Soviet invasion, the family moved to Tarinkot in Urozgan province. Young Mohammed was left to fend for his family. Unemployed, Omar moved to Singesar village in Kandahar province and became the mullah, where he established a madrassa in a mud hut. He returned to Afghanistan in 1982 to fight with Hizb-e-Islami party, one of seven such parties training across the Afghan province.
Omar fought as a rebel soldier with the anti-Soviet Mujahideen under the command of Nek Mohammad of the Hizb-e-Islami Khalis, but did not fight against the communist regime of Najibullah between 1989 and 1992. It was reported that he was "a crack marksman who had destroyed many Soviet tanks during the Afghan War."
Omar was wounded four times. Mullah Abdul Salam Zaeef claims to have been present when exploding shrapnel destroyed one of Omar's eyes during a battle in Sangsar, Panjwaye District shortly before the 1987 Battle of Arghandab. Other sources place this event in 1986 or in the 1989 Battle of Jalalabad.
Unlike many Afghan mujaheddin, Omar spoke Arabic. He was devoted to the lectures of Sheikh Abdullah Azzam and took a job teaching in a madrassa in Quetta, Pakistan. He later moved to a mosque in Karachi where he led prayers and later met with Osama bin Laden for the first time.
Forming the TalibanEdit
Following the Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan in 1989 and the collapse of Najibullah's regime in 1992, the country fell into chaos as various mujahideen factions fought for control. Mullah Omar went back to the madrassa at Singesar, although when he returned to religious teaching is unclear. According to one legend, in 1994, he had a dream in which a woman told him: "We need your help; you must rise. You must end the chaos. Allah will help you." Mullah Omar started his movement with less than 50 armed madrassah students, known simply as the Taliban (Pashtun for 'students'). His recruits came from madrassas in Afghanistan and from the Afghan refugee camps across the border in Pakistan. They fought against the rampant corruption that had emerged in the civil war period and were initially welcomed by Afghans weary of warlord rule. Apparently, Omar became sickened by the abusive raping of children by warlords and turned against their authority in the mountainous country of Afghanistan from 1994 onwards.
The practice of bacha bazi by warlords was one of the key factors in Mullah Omar mobilizing the Taliban. Reportedly, in early 1994, Omar led 30 men armed with 16 rifles to free two young girls who had been kidnapped and raped by a warlord, hanging him from a tank gun barrel. Another instance arose when in 1994, a few months before the Taliban took control of Kandahar, two militia commanders confronted each other over a young boy whom they both wanted to sodomize. In the ensuing fight, Omar's group freed the boy; appeals soon flooded in for Omar to intercede in other disputes. His movement gained momentum through the year and he quickly gathered recruits from Islamic schools totaling 12,000 by the year's end with some Pakistani volunteers. By November 1994, Mullah Omar's movement managed to capture the whole of the Kandahar Province and then captured Herat in September 1995. Although some accounts estimated that by the spring of 1995 he had already taken 12 of the 31 provinces in Afghanistan.
Leader of the Islamic Emirate of AfghanistanEdit
On 4 April 1996, supporters of Mullah Omar bestowed on him the title Amir al-Mu'minin (أمير المؤمنين, "Commander of the Faithful"), after he donned a cloak alleged to be that of Muhammad that was locked in a series of chests, held inside the Shrine of the Cloak in the city of Kandahar. Legend decreed that whoever could retrieve the cloak from the chest would be the great Leader of the Muslims, or "Amir al-Mu'minin".
In September 1996, Kabul fell to Mullah Omar and his followers. The civil war continued in the northeast corner of the country, near Tajikistan. The nation was named the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan in October 1997 and was recognized by Pakistan, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates. Described as a "reclusive, pious and frugal" leader, Omar very seldom left his residence in the city of Kandahar, and visited Kabul only twice between 1996 and 2001 during his tenure as ruler of Afghanistan. In November 2001, during a radio interview with the BBC, Omar stated: "All Taliban are moderate. There are two things: extremism ['ifraat', or doing something to excess] and conservatism ['tafreet', or doing something insufficiently]. So in that sense, we are all moderates – taking the middle path."
According to Pakistani journalist Rahimullah Yusufzai, Mullah Omar stated in the late 1990s, "We have told Osama [Bin Laden] not to use Afghan soil to carry out political activities as it creates unnecessary confusion about Taliban objectives."
Mullah Omar was also "Head of the Supreme Council of Afghanistan".
In July 1999, Mullah Mohammed Omar issued a decree in favor of the preservation of the Bamiyan Buddha statues. Because Afghanistan's Buddhist population no longer exists, so the statues are no longer worshiped, he added: "The government considers the Bamiyan statues as an example of a potential major source of income for Afghanistan from international visitors. The Taliban states that Bamiyan shall not be destroyed but protected."
In early 2000, local Taliban authorities asked for UN assistance to rebuild drainage ditches around tops of the alcoves where the Buddhas were set.
In March 2001, the Buddhas of Bamiyan were destroyed by the Taliban under an edict issued from Mullah Omar, stating: "all the statues around Afghanistan must be destroyed." This prompted an international outcry. Information and Culture Minister Qadratullah Jamal told Associated Press of a decision by 400 religious clerics from across Afghanistan declaring the Buddhist statues against the tenets of Islam. "They came out with a consensus that the statues were against Islam," said Jamal. A statement issued by the ministry of religious affairs of the Taliban regime justified the destruction as being in accordance with Islamic law. The then Taliban ambassador to Pakistan Abdul Salam Zaeef held that the destruction of the Buddhas was finally ordered by Abdul Wali, the Minister for the Propagation of Virtue and the Prevention of Vice.
The Taliban supreme leader Mullah Omar explained why he ordered the statues to be destroyed in an interview:
I did not want to destroy the Bamiyan Buddha. In fact, some foreigners came to me and said they would like to conduct the repair work of the Bamiyan Buddha that had been slightly damaged due to rains. This shocked me. I thought, these callous people have no regard for thousands of living human beings -- the Afghans who are dying of hunger, but they are so concerned about non-living objects like the Buddha. This was extremely deplorable. That is why I ordered its destruction. Had they come for humanitarian work, I would have never ordered the Buddha's destruction.
In July 2000, Taliban leader Mullah Mohammed Omar, collaborating with the United Nations to eradicate heroin production in Afghanistan, declared that growing poppies was un-Islamic, resulting in one of the world's most successful anti-drug campaigns. The Taliban enforced a ban on poppy farming via threats, forced eradication, and public punishment of transgressors. The result was a 99% reduction in the area of opium poppy farming in Taliban-controlled areas, roughly three quarters of the world's supply of heroin at the time. The ban was effective only briefly due to the deposition of the Taliban in 2002.
September 11 attacksEdit
Following the September 11 attacks orchestrated by al-Qaeda, the United States under the Bush administration issued an ultimatum to Afghanistan to hand over Osama bin Laden and other high ranking al-Qaeda officials and shut down all al-Qaeda training camps within the country. In an interview with Voice of America, Omar was asked if he would give up Osama bin Laden. Omar replied, "No. We cannot do that. If we did, it means we are not Muslims, that Islam is finished. If we were afraid of attack, we could have surrendered him the last time we were threatened." Omar explained his position to high-ranking Taliban officials:
Islam says that when a Muslim asks for shelter, give the shelter and never hand him over to enemy. And our Afghan tradition says that, even if your enemy asks for shelter, forgive him and give him shelter. Osama has helped the jihad in Afghanistan, he was with us in bad days and I am not going to give him to anyone."
Omar was adamant that bin Laden was innocent of planning the 9/11 attacks despite the accusations directed against him. Despite this, high ranking Taliban officials attempted to persuade Omar and made offers to the United States through its contacts with Pakistan. The Taliban ambassador to Pakistan Abdul Salam Zaeef said at a news conference in Islamabad that "our position in this regard is that if the Americans have evidence, they should produce it." If they could prove their allegations, he said, "we are ready for a trial of Osama bin Laden." The Taliban foreign minister Wakil Ahmed Muttawakil also attempted to negotiate, offering the Americans the proposal of setting up a three-nation court under the supervision of the Organisation of the Islamic Conference as it was a "neutral organization" or having bin Laden tried by an Islamic council in Afghanistan. Muttawakil said "the US showed no interest in it." The Taliban Prime Minister Abdul Kabir stated that if evidence was provided, "we would be ready to hand him over to a third country".
The Supreme Council of the Islamic Clergy, a council of around 1,000 clerics, convened in Kabul in late September 2001 and issued a decree against the United States and its threats of militarily invading Afghanistan. They also recommended that Osama bin Laden be asked to leave Afghanistan of his own free will to "avoid the current tumult" and expressed sympathy and a conciliatory tone towards those who died in the September 11 attacks: "The ulema voice their sadness over American deaths and hope America does not attack Afghanistan." The Taliban Education Minister Amir Khan Muttaqi said that Omar had agreed to follow guidance offered by the clerics and would encourage bin Laden to leave Afghanistan without forcibly handing him over to the United States for prosecution.
However, according to an interview with Pakistani journalist Rahimullah Yusufzai, Omar told him:
"I don't want to go down in history as someone who betrayed his guest. I am willing to give my life, my regime. Since we have given him refuge I cannot throw him out now."
According to Afghan experts, Mullah Omar and the clerics wanted to rid themselves of bin Laden by asking him to leave Afghanistan of his own free will without compromising their previous assertion that their Afghan culture and Islamic principles prohibited them from endangering their so-called "guest."
This article may require copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone, or spelling. (June 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
On the night of October 7-8, 2001, shortly after the U.S.-led War in Afghanistan began, Omar's house in Kandahar was bombed by cruise missiles. Omar escaped injury, but his 10-year-old son and his uncle were killed along with a few Taliban bodyguards.
According to fellow Taliban fighters, Omar had secretly fled his residence in Kandahar for security purposes shortly after it was bombed and was last seen riding on the back of a motorcycle driven by his brother-in-law and right-hand man, Mullah Abdul Ghani Baradar. Senior and former Taliban officials have said that there has not been one confirmed sighting of their Amir-ul-Momineen (commander of the faithful) in Afghanistan since then. Omar is believed to have hidden out for over one year in the mountains and deserts of southern Afghanistan before fleeing to neighboring Pakistan in late 2002. According to sources, he was living for a time somewhere in Karachi, Pakistan, where he worked as a potato trader. The United States offered a reward of US$10 million for information leading to his capture. In November 2001, he was heard over a short-wave radio in ordering all Taliban troops to abandon Kabul and take to the mountains, noting, "defending the cities with front lines that can be targeted from the air will cause us terrible loss." In a November 2001 BBC Pashto interview, Omar said, "You (the BBC) and American puppet radios have created concern. But the current situation in Afghanistan is related to a bigger cause – that is the destruction of America.... This is not a matter of weapons. We are hopeful for God's help. The real matter is the extinction of America. And, God willing, it [America] will fall to the ground...."Claiming that the Americans had circulated "propaganda" that Mullah Omar had gone into hiding, Foreign Minister Wakil Ahmed Muttawakil stated that he would like to "propose that Prime Minister Blair and President Bush take Kalashnikovs and come to a specified place where Omar will also appear to see who will run and who not." He stated that Omar was merely changing locations due to security reasons.
In the Battle for Kandahar in late November 2001, U.S. Special Operations teams known as Texas 12 and Texas 17 aligned with Hamid Karzai and with Pashtun General Gul Agha Sherzai, respectively, surrounded Kandahar backed by U.S. Marines outside LashkarGah. On November 28, 2001, while under attack by a Russian Made BM21 Multiple Rocket Launcher System (MRLS), (Texas 17) observed Mullah Omar's Black Chevrolet Suburban passing the Kandahar Airport down highway four surrounded by a dozen sedans and six semi-trucks. Four US Navy F-18's from USS Kitty Hawk destroyed all the vehicles including the Suburban. The same day as CNN's November 28, 2001, Taliban report that Mullah Omar had supposedly survived an American Air Strike   ]  
Mullah Omar continued to have the allegiance of prominent pro-Taliban military leaders in the region, including Jalaluddin Haqqani. The former foe, Gulbuddin Hekmatyar's faction, also reportedly allied with Omar and the Taliban. In April 2004, Omar was interviewed via phone by Pakistani journalist Mohammad Shehzad. During the interview, Omar claimed that Osama Bin Laden was alive and well, and that his last contact with Bin Laden was months before the interview. Omar declared that the Taliban were "hunting Americans like pigs."
In the years following the allied invasion, numerous statements were released that were identified as coming from Omar. In June 2006, a statement regarding the death of Abu Musab al-Zarqawi in Iraq was released hailing al-Zarqawi as a martyr and claimed that the resistance movements in Afghanistan and Iraq "will not be weakened". Then in December 2006, Omar reportedly issued a statement expressing confidence that foreign forces will be driven out of Afghanistan.
In January 2007, it was reported that Omar made his "first exchange with a journalist since going into hiding" in 2001 with Muhammad Hanif via email and courier. In it he promised "more Afghan War", and said the over one hundred suicide bomb attacks in Afghanistan in the last year had been carried out by bombers acting on religious orders from the Taliban – "the mujahedeen do not take any action without a fatwa." In April 2007, Omar issued another statement through an intermediary encouraging more suicide attacks.
In November 2009, The Washington Times claimed that Omar, assisted by Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI), had moved back to Karachi in October. In January 2010, Brigadier Amir Sultan Tarar, a retired officer with ISI who previously trained Omar, said that he was ready to break with his al-Qaida allies in order to make peace in Afghanistan: "The moment he gets control, the first target will be the al-Qaida people."
In January 2011, The Washington Post, citing a report from the Eclipse Group, a privately operated intelligence network that may be contracted by the CIA, stated that Omar had suffered a heart attack on 7 January 2011. According to the report, Pakistan's ISI rushed Omar to a hospital near Karachi where he was operated on, treated, and then released several days later. Pakistan's Ambassador to the U.S., Husain Haqqani, stated that the report "had no basis whatsoever".
On 23 May 2011, TOLO News in Afghanistan quoted unnamed sources saying Omar had been killed by ISI two days earlier. These reports remained unconfirmed. A spokesman for the militant group said shortly after the news came out. "Reports regarding the killing of Amir-ul-Moemineen (Omar) are false. He is safe and sound and is not in Pakistan but Afghanistan." On 20 July 2011, phone text messages from accounts used by Taliban spokesmen Zabihullah Mujahid and Qari Mohammad Yousuf announced Omar's death. Mujahid and Yousuf, however, quickly denied sending the messages and claimed that their mobile phones, websites, and e-mail accounts had been hacked, and they swore revenge on the telephone network providers.
On 31 May 2014, in return for the release of American prisoner of war Sergeant Bowe Bergdahl, five senior Afghan detainees were released from the Guantanamo Bay detention camp in Cuba. A person purporting to be Omar reportedly hailed their release.
On 23 September 2014, Omar's aide, Abdul Rahman Nika, was killed by Afghan special forces. According to Afghan intelligence service spokesman Abdul Nasheed Sediqi, Nika was involved in most of the Taliban's attacks in western Afghanistan, including the kidnapping of three Indian engineers who were later rescued.
Post-NATO withdrawal from AfghanistanEdit
In December 2014, acting Afghan intelligence chief Rahmatullah Nabil stated he was not sure "whether Omar is alive or dead". This came amid reports after the Afghan intelligence agency revealed fracturing within the Taliban movement, speculating that a leadership struggle had ensued and therefore that Mullah Omar had died. Later reports from Afghan intelligence in December revealed that Mullah Omar has been hiding in the Pakistani city of Karachi. An anonymous European intelligence official who confirmed this has stated that "there's a consensus among all three branches of the Afghan security forces that Mullah Omar is alive. Not only do they think he's alive, they say they have a good understanding of where exactly he is in Karachi."
Emergence of ISISEdit
In April 2015, a man claiming to be Mullah Omar issued a fatwa declaring pledges of allegiance to the Islamic State group as forbidden in Islamic law. The man described ISIS leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi as a "fake caliph", and said "Baghdadi just wanted to dominate what has so far been achieved by the real jihadists of Islam after three decades of jihad. A pledge of allegiance to him is 'haram'." However, Mullah Omar was later found to have died two years earlier, suggesting that these remarks came from his successor Akhtar Mansour.
On 29 July 2015, the Afghan government publicly announced that Mohammed Omar had died on 23 April 2013 from tuberculosis. It was confirmed by a senior Taliban member that Omar's death was kept a secret for two years. It is alleged that Omar was "buried somewhere near the border on the Afghan side". The place of Omar's death is disputed; according to Afghan government sources, he died in a hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. A former Taliban minister stated that Karachi was "Omar's natural destination because he had lived there for quite some time and was as familiar with the city as any other resident." However, this claim has been dismissed by other Taliban members, stating that his death occurred in Afghanistan after his health condition had deteriorated due to "sickness" and that "not for a single day did he go to Pakistan". According to an official statement by Pakistani defence minister Khawaja Asif, "Mullah Omar neither died nor was buried in Pakistan and his sons’ statements are on record to support this. Whether he died now or two years ago is another controversy which we do not wish to be a part of. He was neither in Karachi nor in Quetta." Initially, some Taliban members denied that he had died. Other sources considered the report to be speculative, designed to destabilise peace negotiations in Pakistan between the Afghan government and the Taliban. Abdul Hassib Seddiqi, the spokesman for Afghanistan's National Directorate of Security (NDS), said: "We confirm officially that he is dead."
The following day, the Taliban confirmed the death of Omar. Sources close to the Taliban leadership said his deputy, Mullah Akhtar Mansour, would replace him, although with the lesser title of Supreme Leader. Omar's eldest son, Mullah Mohammad Yaqoob, was opposed to Mansour's ascension as leader.
The Taliban splinter group Fidai Mahaz claimed Omar did not die of natural causes but was instead assassinated in a coup led by Mullah Akhtar Mansour and Mullah Gul Agha. The Taliban commander, Mullah Mansoor Dadullah, brother of former senior commander Mullah Dadullah, confirmed that Omar had been assassinated. The leader of Fidai Mahaz, Mullah Najibullah, revealed that due to Omar's kidney disease, he needed medicine. According to Najibullah, Mansour poisoned the medicine, damaging Omar's liver and causing him to grow weaker. When Omar summoned Mansour and other members of Omar's inner circle to hear his will, they discovered that Mansour was not to assume leadership of the Taliban. It was due to Mansour allegedly orchestrating "dishonourable deals." When Mansour pressed Omar to name him as his successor, Omar refused. Mansour then shot and killed Omar. Najibullah claimed Omar died at a southern Afghanistan hide-out in Zabul Province in the afternoon on 23 April 2013. Mullah Mohammad Yaqoob, Mullah Omar's elder son, denied that his father had been killed, insisting that he died of natural causes.
Omar's death brought about condolences from Ajnad al-Kavkaz, Ansar al Furqan, Islamic Front's Ahrar al-Sham, Jaish Muhammad, Jabhat Ansar al Din, Turkistan Islamic Party, Jamaat Ansar al Sunnah, Jaish al Ummah, Jamaat ul Ahrar, Caucasus Emirate, Jaish al-Islam, Nusra, AQAP, and AQIM, and Al-Shabaab.
Despite his political rank and his high status on the Rewards for Justice most wanted list, not much was publicly known about him. Before his death, only two known photos existed of him, neither of them official, and a picture used in 2002 by many media outlets has since been established to be someone other than him. The authenticity of the existing images is debated. After his death, the Taliban released a newer and clearer photo showing Omar in his youth in 1978. Apart from the fact that he had a missing eye, accounts of his physical appearance state that Omar was thin, strongly built and very tall, at around 2 m (6 ft 6 in). Mullah Omar was described as shy and non-talkative with foreigners.
- Abdul Salam Zaeef (2010) My Life with the Taliban
- Arnaud de Borchgrave, "Osama bin Laden – Null and Void", UPI, 14 June 2001, quoted in Wright, Looming Tower, (2006), p. 226
- Deobandi Islam: The Religion of the Taliban U.S. Navy Chaplain Corps, 15 October 2001
- Matthew Rosenberg (28 December 2014). "Around an Invisible Leader, Taliban Power Shifts". The New York Times. p. A3.
- Shane, Scott (10 October 2009). "Dogged Taliban Chief Rebounds, Vexing U.S.". Retrieved 6 September 2014.
- Goldstein, Joseph; Shah, Taimoor (2015-07-30). "Death of Mullah Omar Exposes Divisions Within Taliban". The New York Times. Retrieved 2015-07-31.
- Nikhil Kumar (29 July 2015). "Mullah Omar Taliban Death". Time. Retrieved 29 July 2015.
- "Mullah Omar did not die in Pakistan, say Afghan Taliban". Dawn News. 30 July 2015. Archived from the original on 31 July 2015. Retrieved 31 July 2015.
- Index O
- "Afghanistan: The Enigmatic Mullah Omar and Taliban Decision-Making". WikiLeaks. 28 March 1997. WikiLeaks cable: 97ISLAMABAD2533_a.
- Griffiths, John C. Afghanistan: A History of Conflict, 1981. Second Revision, 2001.
- "Wanted Information leading to the location of Mullah Omar Up to $10 Million Reward". Rewards for Justice Program, U.S. Department of State. Archived from the original on 2006-10-05.
- "Taliban conflict: Afghanistan probes Mullah Omar 'death' claim". BBC News. 29 July 2015.
- "Afghanistan says Taliban leader Mullah Omar died 2 years ago". msn.com.
- Coll, Steve (23 January 2012). "Looking For Mullah Omar". The New Yorker.
- "Factbox: Five Facts on Taliban Leader Mullah Mohammad Omar". Reuters. 17 November 2008. Retrieved 31 March 2013.
- Shane, Scott (11 October 2009). "A Dogged Taliban Chief Rebounds, Vexing U.S.". The New York Times. p. A1.
- "Mohammad Omar". Encyclopædia Britannica. 3 October 2013. Retrieved 15 August 2014.
- United Nations Security Council Committee established pursuant to resolution 1988 (2011). "The List of individuals and entities established pursuant to Security Council Resolution 1988 (2011)"
- Mickolus, Edward F.; Simmons, Susan L. (2011). The Terrorist List. Vol. 1. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger Security International. p. 200. ISBN 9780313374715.
- The Daily Telegraph, Friday 31 July 2015
- Rashid, Taliban, (2001)
- "The top leader is believed to be Maulvi Mohammad Umar Amir, who was born in Nodeh (village) in Kandhar, and is now settled in Singesar. He was wounded four times in the battles against the Soviets and his right eye is permanently damaged. He took part in the "Jehad" under the late Hizb-e-Islami Khalis Commander Nek Mohammad.". Indian Defence Review. 10: 33. 1995.
- Yunas, S. Fida (1997). Afghanistan: Political Parties, Groups, Movements and Mujahideen Alliances and Governments 1879–1997. Vol. 2. p. 876.
Amir of the Taliban and commander of its Mohammadi Lashkar. Born in Nodeh village in Kandhar, now lives in Singesar village in Kuashke Nakhud area of Kandahar's Maiwand district. His family once shifted to Tarinkot, capital of Uruzgan province, before settling in Singesar.
- Matinuddin, Kamal (1999). The Taliban Phenomenon: Afghanistan 1994–1997. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 222. ISBN 9780195792744.
- Mullah ((Omar)) and the Council of Ministers (PDF) (Intelligence Information Report). U.S. Defense Intelligence Agency. 7 November 2001.
- "Afghan Taliban publish Mullah Omar biography". BBC News. 5 April 2015.
- "Obituary: Mullah Omar In the land of the blind". The Economist. Retrieved 8 August 2015.
- "Strengthening the humanity and dignity of people in crisis through knowledge and practice" (PDF). Feinstein Research Center. August 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-10-29. Retrieved 10 December 2012.
Politically and tribally, Uruzgan is part of "greater Kandahar," and the origin of many of the Taliban's original leaders, including Mullah Mohammad Omar, who was born in Deh Rawood District.
- "Mullah Muhammed Omar: A Psychobiographical Profile". 10 January 2011. Retrieved November 2014. Check date values in:
- Mohammed Omar (11 January 2001). "نص كلمة زعيم طالبان رداً على أسئلة الجزيرة نت / Naṣṣ kalimat za‘īm Ṭālibān raddan ‘alá as’alat al-Jazīrah Nit" [Text of Taliban chief's words in response to questions from Aljazeera.net]. aljazeera.net (Interview) (in Arabic). Audio link (in Pashto with Arabic voiceover).
- Gall, Carlotta (22 May 2002). "Seeking Mullah Omar in a Land of Secrets". The New York Times.
- "Mullah Omar worked as potato vendor to escape detection in Pakistan". McClatchy. 4 August 2015. Retrieved 4 August 2015.
- The Daily Telegraph, Friday 31 July 2015, p.35
- Ismail Khan, "Mojaddedi Opposes Elevation of Taliban's Omar", Islamabad the News, 6 April 1996, quoted in Wright, Looming Tower, (2006), p. 226
- Williams, Paul L., "Al Qaeda: Brotherhood of Terror", 2002
- interview with Farraj Ismail, by Lawrence Wright in Looming Tower, (2006), p.226
- Wright, Looming Tower, (2006), p. 226
- Dexter Filkins, The Forever War (New York: Vintage Books/Random House, 2009; orig. ed. 2008), p.30.
- The Daily Telegraph, Fri 31 July 2015, Obituary, p.35; citing Rashid, Taliban (2000)
- "Bacha Bazi: An Afghan Tragedy". October 2013. Retrieved 2015. Check date values in:
- National Geographic (2007). Inside The Taliban [Inside The Taliban] (Documentary). Afghanistan: National Geographic. Archived from the original on 7 October 2012.
- Goodson (2001) p. 107
- The Daily Telegraph, 31 July 2015, p.35
- Tim Weiner (7 December 2001). "Seizing the Prophet's Mantle: Muhammad Omar". The New York Times. Retrieved November 2014. Check date values in:
- Healy, Patrick (19 December 2001). "Kandahar residents feel betrayed". San Francisco Chronicle. The Boston Globe.
- "Interview with Mullah Omar – transcript". BBC News. 15 November 2001. Retrieved 31 March 2013.
- Robert Marquand (10 October 2001). "The reclusive ruler who runs the Taliban". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
- "Afghanistan: Has Taliban Leader Mullah Omar Lost His Mind?". Newsweek. 15 October 2015. Retrieved 14 August 2015.
- "Mullah Mohammed Omar". The Independent. 31 July 2015. Retrieved 13 February 2016. and "Where Will the New Taliban Leader Lead His People?". Moscow Carnegie Center. 11 August 2015. Retrieved 13 February 2016.. See also , ,  and  The Supreme Council was initially established at Kandahar in 1994. 
- Harding, Luke (3 March 2001). "How the Buddha got his wounds". London: The Guardian. Archived from the original on 28 February 2006. Retrieved 23 March 2008.
- Semple, Michael Why the Buddhas of Bamian were destroyed, Afghanistan Analysts Network 2 March 2011
- Luke Harding (2001-03-03). "How the Buddha got his wounds". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 2010-08-27.
- Barry Bearak (4 March 2001). "Over World Protests, Taliban Are Destroying Ancient Buddhas". The New York Times. Retrieved 2015. Check date values in:
- "Destruction of Giant Buddhas Confirmed". AFP. 12 March 2001. Retrieved 6 January 2008.
- Zaeef p.126
- Mohammad Shehzad (3 March 2001). "The Rediff Interview/Mullah Omar". The Rediff. Kabul. Retrieved 27 October 2010.
- Where have all the flowers gone?: evaluation of the Taliban crackdown against opium poppy cultivation in Afghanistan
- Peter Bergen (21 August 2015). "The man who wouldn't hand over bin Laden to the U.S.". CNN. Retrieved 12 September 2016.
- John Burns & Christopher Wren (21 September 2001). "Without Evidence, the Taliban Refuses to Turn Over bin Laden". New York Times. Retrieved 12 September 2016.
- Mujib Mashal (2011). [ww.aljazeera.com/news/asia/2011/09/20119115334167663.html "Taliban 'offered bin Laden trial before 9/11'"] Check
|url=value (help). al-Jazeera. Retrieved 12 September 2016.
- "Bush rejects Taliban offer to hand Bin Laden over". The Guardian. 2011. Retrieved 15 October 2001.
- Independent Online, "They said Mullah Omar's natural father had died years before and, following Afghan custom, his mother had married his uncle."Refugees say Taliban leader's son killed, 11 October 2001
- Stephen Tanner, Afghanistan: A Military History, 2008
- Independent Online, Taliban challenges Bush and Blair to a duel, 5 November 2001
- Aghanistan today is a combination of air, land, and sea power cooperating and working together. The results speak for themselves.” Secretary Rumsfeld further reported that U.S. SOF forces in and around Kandahar were not working any longer in liaison with indigenous opposition forces but instead were now operating independently as the cutting edge of an accelerated push against the Taliban and al Qaeda. In connection with that push, SOF units were now cleared to plan and execute direct-action attacks whenever deemed necessary, a long-awaited move that led to hundreds of reported en-emy deaths. One U.S. official spoke of an “unrestricted hunting license” having been given to U.S. SOF forces for going after Taliban militia and al Qaeda personnel. General Franks was said to have granted the involved SOF units their greatest freedom of action since Vietnam. Those units worked in small teams, primarily at night, identifying Taliban and al Qaeda positions around Kandahar and engaging them without seeking prior CENTCOM approval. Much of this direct-action work came in the form of quick responses to tips. Ultimately, Army Special Forces units married up with converging opposition group forces, with the A-Team code-named Texas 12 accompanying Karzai and his fighters from the north and Texas 17 with Gul Agha Sharzai and his forces from the south. Sharzai was later appointed the governor of Kandahar. As the pressure on Kandahar mounted, General Myers said that the Taliban retreat from the city was “more disorganized than organized…. It’s defections and it’s withdrawal, and it’s just trying to blend into the landscape.
- Rowan Scarborough, “Special Forces Get Free Rein,” Washington Times, November 23, 2001.
- US Marines Enter Southern Afghanistan Nov 21, 2001
- Taliban urged to fight on November 28, 2001 Posted: 11:57 PM EST (0457 GMT) KABUL, Afghanistan -- The Taliban's supreme leader, Mullah Mohammad Omar, is reportedly urging his forces to fight on, even as U.S. warplanes step up efforts to find and perhaps even kill him. A Taliban aide on the border with Pakistan said Omar radioed his commanders Wednesday urging them to stand up to U.S. Marines being deployed in southern Afghanistan. "Stick to your positions and fight to the death" the aide quoted Omar as saying, according to the Associated Press. "We are ready to face these Americans. We are happy that they have landed here and we will teach them a lesson." "Stick to your positions and fight to the death." The message was apparently broadcast after the Taliban leader escaped unharmed from a U.S. airstrike on what was Pentagon officials say they believed to be a command bunker close to the city of Kandahar. Officials say Omar is still in the city, which has been the movement's stronghold for several years. Mullah Abdul Salam Zaeef, the Taliban's former ambassador to Pakistan, said Omar was not injured in the attack and was "safe and sound".
- "Taliban urged to fight on" November 28, 2001 CNN
- Texas 17 now located six miles south of Kandahar near the Kandahar airport on November 28, 2001 0900 in the morning local spotted a Black Chevrolet Suburban driving south down Highway 4 covered by artillery fire launched from the Kandahar Airport by a Russian Made BM21 Multiple Rocket Launcher System (MRLS) dropping artillery all around Texas 17 position. The Black SUV headed south off of Highway four towards Pakistan surrounded by 12 sedans and six heavy trucks. All vehicles were destroyed by Texas 17 and Navy F18 Hornet Fighter aircraft including the Black Chevrolet Suburban, the same vehicle known to be used by Mullah Omar.
- "Taliban admit to covering up Mullah Omar's Death"
- In the South US Faces a Guerrilla War
- In and around Kandahar, Taliban forces appear increasingly pinned down, with opposition forces acting kind of like a snake, squeezing in on them, said Maj. James N. Higgins, the intelligence officer of the 15th Marine Expeditionary Unit, whose troops have made up the bulk of the largest American force on the ground in Afghanistan.
- "The Rediff Interview/Mullah Omar". Rediff.com. 12 April 2004. Retrieved 23 January 2013.
- "Mullah Omar 'hiding in Pakistan'". BBC News. 18 January 2007.
- "Taliban play down Zarqawi death". BBC News. 9 June 2006. Retrieved 2 July 2006.
- "Mullah Omar issues Eid message". Al Jazeera. 31 December 2006. Retrieved 1 January 2007.
- Ismail Khan; Carlotta Gall (5 January 2007). "Taliban Leader Promises More Afghan War". The New York Times. p. A4. Retrieved 31 March 2013.
- "Taliban's elusive leader urges more suicide raids". Reuters. 21 April 2007. Retrieved 19 August 2009.
- Lake, Eli; Carter, Sara A.; Slavin, Barbara (20 November 2009). "EXCLUSIVE: Taliban chief hides in Pakistan". The Washington Times. Retrieved 20 November 2009.
- Declan Walsh (31 July 2015). "Afghan Taliban leader ready to end al-Qaida ties, says former trainer". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 31 March 2013.
- Agence France-Presse, "Pakistan 'treated Taliban leader'", The Japan Times, 20 January 2011, p. 1.
- "Taliban leader Mullah Omar killed". Presstv.ir. 23 May 2011. Archived from the original on 26 May 2011. Retrieved 31 March 2013.
- "Afghan Taliban say leader Mullah Omar 'safe and sound'". Reuters. 23 May 2011.
- Shalizi, Hamid, Reuters, "Taliban say Mullah Omar death report false, phone hacked", Yahoo! News, 20 July 2011.
- "Taliban leader Mullah Omar 'sent letter to Barack Obama'". The Daily Telegraph. London. 3 February 2012. Retrieved 3 February 2012.
- "Amid peace bid, U.S. received purported letter from Taliban". Reuters. 3 February 2012. Retrieved 3 February 2012.
- "Bowe Bergdahl: Chuck Hagel praises release special forces". BBC News. 2014-06-01. Retrieved 2014-08-18.
- "Taliban leader's aide killed in Afghanistan". Worldbulletin News. 23 September 2014. Retrieved 31 January 2015.
- "Taliban Supreme leader Mullah Omar has possibly died". 19 November 2014. Retrieved 2015. Check date values in:
- "Around an Invisible Leader, Taliban Power Shifts". 28 December 2014. Retrieved 2015. Check date values in:
- "Taliban leader: allegiance to ISIS 'haram'". Rudaw. 13 April 2015. Retrieved 31 July 2015.
- Afghan intel agency: Taliban leader died two years ago
- "New Taliban leader facing tension as top official quits". Yahoo News. 4 August 2015. Retrieved 6 August 2015.
- "Afghan intelligence says Taliban's Mullah Omar died two years ago". The Globe and Mail. 29 July 2015. Retrieved 31 July 2015.
- "Afghan intelligence: Taliban leader Mullah Omar dead". The Press Democrat. 29 July 2015. Archived from the original on 30 July 2015. Retrieved 31 July 2015.
- "Mullah Omar did not die in Pakistan, defence minister tells NA". The Express Tribune. 7 August 2015. Retrieved 7 August 2015.
- L. O'Donnell (29 July 2015). "The Big Story". Associated Press. Retrieved 2015-07-29.
- "Mullah Omar: Taliban choose deputy Mansour as successor". BBC News. 30 July 2015.
- "Pakistan exposed Mullah Omar's death for its own interests: Kandahar clerics". Khaama Press. 18 August 2015. Retrieved 22 August 2015.
- "Mullah Omar: a myth of convenience". The Hindu. 20 August 2015. Retrieved 22 August 2015.
- "Why the Taliban murdered their own leader and the terrifying fallout now threatening the West". The Mirror. 21 August 2015. Retrieved 22 August 2015.
- "Taliban's Mullah Omar died of natural causes in Afghanistan, son says". Reuters. 14 September 2015. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
- Weiss, Caleb (31 Jul 2015). Twitter https://twitter.com/Weissenberg7/status/627178879925551104. Missing or empty
- Weiss, Caleb (31 Jul 2015). Twitter https://twitter.com/Weissenberg7/status/627183045003616256. Missing or empty
- Weiss, Caleb (1 Aug 2015). Twitter https://twitter.com/Weissenberg7/status/627462229290549248. Missing or empty
- Joscelyn, Thomas (August 4, 2015). "Jihadists in Syria honor Mullah Omar, praise Taliban's radical state". The Long War Journal. Foundation for Defense of Democracies.
- Westall, Sylvia (1 August 2015). Lidstone, Digby, ed. "Syrian Islamist group Ahrar al-Sham mourns Taliban leader". Reuters. BEIRUT.
- Weiss, Caleb (1 Aug 2015). Twitter https://twitter.com/Weissenberg7/status/627466127212457984. Missing or empty
- Weiss, Caleb (1 Aug 2015). Twitter https://twitter.com/Weissenberg7/status/627542649638125568. Missing or empty
- Weiss, Caleb (2 Aug 2015). Twitter https://twitter.com/Weissenberg7/status/627973122675838976. Missing or empty
- Zelin, Aaron Y. (August 3, 2015). "New statement from Ḥizb al-Islāmī al-Turkistānī in Bilād al-Shām: "Concerning the Death of Mullā Muḥmmad ‘Umar"". JIHADOLOGY.
- المرصد السوري (2015-08-02). ""الحزب الإسلامي التركستاني لنصرة أهل الشام" يعزي بـ "وفاة أمير المؤمنين الملا عمر" | المرصد السورى لحقوق الإنسان". Syriahr.com. Retrieved 2016-05-13.
- Weiss, Caleb (3 Aug 2015). Twitter https://twitter.com/Weissenberg7/status/628383284343500800. Missing or empty
- Weiss, Caleb (4 Aug 2015). Twitter https://twitter.com/Weissenberg7/status/628550091436068864. Missing or empty
- Weiss, Caleb (4 Aug 2015). Twitter https://twitter.com/Weissenberg7/status/628552760062013440. Missing or empty
- Weiss, Caleb (4 Aug 2015). Twitter https://twitter.com/Weissenberg7/status/628553590815236096. Missing or empty
- Weiss, Caleb (4 Aug 2015). Twitter https://twitter.com/Weissenberg7/status/628590843528671232. Missing or empty
- Weiss, Caleb (31 Jul 2015). Twitter https://twitter.com/Weissenberg7/status/628631649253748736. Missing or empty
- Weiss, Caleb (31 Jul 2015). Twitter https://twitter.com/Weissenberg7/status/628980812151681024. Missing or empty
- Weiss, Caleb (31 Jul 2015). Twitter https://twitter.com/Weissenberg7/status/631942600031731712. Missing or empty
- Cooper, Anderson (7 September 2006). "Will the real Mullah Omar please stand up?". CNN. Retrieved 23 January 2013.
- AFP (2015-10-12). "Rare new picture surfaces of Taliban founder Mullah Omar". www.dawn.com. Retrieved 2016-06-14.
- Robert Marquand (10 October 2001). "The reclusive ruler who runs the Taliban". The Christian Science Monitor.
- Afghanistan: Taliban Preps for Bloody Assault, Newsweek. 5 March 2007
- Coll, Steve (2004). Ghost Wars: The Secret History of the CIA, Afghanistan, and Bin Laden, from the Soviet Invasion to September 10, 2001. Penguin Press. ISBN 1-59420-007-6.
- Goodson, Larry P. (2001). Afghanistan's Endless War: State Failure, Regional Politics and the Rise of the Taliban. Seattle: University of Washington Press. ISBN 0-295-98111-3. OCLC 44634408.
- Rashid, Ahmad (2001). Taliban: The Story of the Afghan Warlords. London: Pan Books. ISBN 0-330-49221-7.
- Weber, Olivier (2001). Le faucon afghan: un voyage au royaume des talibans (in French). Paris: Robert Laffont. ISBN 2221093135. OCLC 319750715.
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Mohammed Omar|
- Works by or about Mohammed Omar in libraries (WorldCat catalog)
- "Mohammed Omar collected news and commentary". The New York Times.
- Mullah Mohammed Omar collected news and commentary at Newsweek
- "Mullah Omar – in his own words", The Guardian, 26 September 2001
- "Interview with Mullah Omar – transcript", BBC News, 15 November 2001
- Investigating Terror: Accomplices, BBC News, 2001
- US says Mullah Omar 'in Pakistan', BBC News, 9 February 2008
- Mullah Mohammed Omar, Hindustan Times, 6 September 2009
- Profile: Mullah Mohammed Omar, BBC News, 6 July 2010
- DIA releases through the FOIA:
as President of Afghanistan
|Emir of Afghanistan
as President of Afghanistan