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Mass in C minor, K. 139 "Waisenhaus"

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The Missa solemnis in C minor, K. 139/47a, is a mass composed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart in the summer of 1768 in Vienna.[1] It is scored for SATB soloists, SATB choir, violin I and II, 2 violas, 2 oboes, 2 trumpets, 2 clarini (high trumpets), 3 trombones colla parte, timpani and basso continuo.

Missa solemnis in C minor
"Waisenhaus"
Mass by W. A. Mozart
Wien - Waisenhauskirche.JPG
Waisenhauskirche (Orphanage Church) of Vienna
KeyC minor
CatalogueK. 139/47a
OccasionConsecration of the Waisenhauskirche
Performed7 December 1768 (1768-12-07): Vienna
Movements6
VocalSATB choir and soloists
Instrumental

BackgroundEdit

The mass was commissioned by the Jesuit priest Father Ignaz Parhammer, who asked Mozart for music for the consecration of the new Orphanage Church – Waisenhauskirche [de] – on the Rennweg.[2] The commission gives the mass its nickname Waisenhausmesse (Orphanage Mass). Mozart also composed a trumpet concerto suitable for performance by a boy as well as an offertory, both thought to be lost.[2] Indeed, due to cataloging errors, this mass was also considered lost for many years.[3][4]

The performance took place on 7 December 1768 at the church, in the presence of the court. The twelve-year-old Mozart conducted a choir of orphans in a performance that received "universal acclaim and admiration".[2] This mass is considered Mozart's most ambitious work to be performed up until that point in time,[5] and was his first and longest missa longa.[6]

StructureEdit

The mass consists of six movements. Performances require approximately 40 minutes.

1. "Kyrie" Adagio, C minor, common time
  • "Kyrie eleison, Christe eleison..." Allegro, C major, 3/4
  • "Christe eleison..." Andante, F major, 2/4
  • "Kyrie eleison..." Allegro, C major, 3/4

2. "Gloria" Allegro, C major, common time

  • "Laudamus te..." Andante, G major, 3/4
  • "Gratias agimus tibi..." Adagio, C major, common time; Vivace, A minor, common time
  • "Domine deus..." Andante, F major, 2/4
  • "Qui tollis..." Adagio, F minor, cut common time
  • "Quoniam tu solus sanctus..." Allegro, F major, 3/4
  • "Cum sancto spiritu..." Allegro, C major, cut common time
3. "Credo" Allegro, C major, cut common time
  • "Et incarnatus est..." Andante, F major, 6/8
  • "Crucifixus..." Adagio, C minor, common time
  • "Et resurrexit..." Allegro, C major, cut common time; Adagio, C major, cut common time; Allegro, C major, cut common time
  • "Et in Spiritum Sanctum..." Andante, G major, 3/4
  • "Et unam sanctam..." Allegro, C major, cut common time; Adagio, C major, cut common time
  • "Et vitam venturi..." Allegro, C major, cut common time

4. "Sanctus" Adagio, C major, cut common time

  • "Pleni sunt coeli et terra..." Allegro, C major, 3/4
  • "Hosanna in excelsis" <Allegro>, C major, cut common time
5. "Benedictus" Andante, F major, common time
  • "Hosanna in excelsis" <Allegro>, C major, cut common time

6. "Agnus Dei" Andante, C minor, cut common time

  • "Dona nobis pacem..." Allegro, C major, 3/4

Despite its designation as a C minor mass, the music is predominantly in C major;[3] masses wholly set in a minor key were considered unusual and funereal in the classical period.[4][7]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Robert Dearling (1982). The Music of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart: The Symphonies. p. 35.
  2. ^ a b c Hermann Abert, MR Stewart Spencer (2007) [1923–24]. W. A. Mozart. p. 107.
  3. ^ a b Stanley Sadie (2006). Mozart: The Early Years 1756–1781. p. 160.
  4. ^ a b Alfred Einstein, Arthur Mendel (1945). Mozart: His Character, His Work. p. 323.
  5. ^ Julian Rushton (2006). Mozart. p. 22.
  6. ^ The Cambridge Mozart Encyclopedia. p. 272.
  7. ^ "Introduction". Antonio Salieri, Mass in D minor. p. x.

External linksEdit