Menora (dance)

Menora (Jawi: منورا) is a type of dance drama originating in Southern Thailand and practised mainly in the northern states of Malaysia and southern provinces of Thailand. Menora is also known as Manora (มโนราห์, มโนห์รา; pronounced [mā.nōː.rāː]) or Nora (โนรา; [nōː.rāː]) in Thai language.[1]

The basic features of the performance include a lengthy invocation, a dance by the main character, and a play or skit. The invocation is enacted by slow rhythmic movements of legs, arms and fingers.[2] The dramatic repertoire of Menora performance is based on Thai legends of Manohara, derived from the Buddhist Jataka tales, many of which already accultured into Malay society centuries ago.[3]

In the northeastern state of Kelantan and Terengganu, Menora incorporates much use of Malay language and a mak yong-style dance movements. While in the northwestern state of Kedah, it is performed in a mixture of Thai and local dialects, but adheres to the invocation-play in a distinctly north Malaysian style and incorporates some elements of Jikey and Mek Mulung.[2]

The musical ensemble consists of a pair of hand cymbals, a pair of small knobbed gongs, a pair of wooden sticks, a barrel-shaped kendang, a reed instrument and a vase-shaped single headed drum.[1]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "Music for Theater: Menora". Musicmall Production Pte Ltd. 2004. Retrieved 24 September 2010.
  2. ^ a b Terry Miller & Sean Williams (2008). The Garland Handbook of Southeast Asian Music. Routledge. p. 229. ISBN 978-0-415-96075-5.
  3. ^ "Menora". Dance Malaysia. Retrieved 24 September 2010.

Further readingEdit

  • Ginsburg, Henry D. (1972). "The Menora dance-drama: an introduction" (PDF). Journal of the Siam Society. 60 (2): 169–181.
  • Hemmet, Christine (1992). "Le Nora du sud de la Thaïlande: un culte aux ancêtres". Bulletin de l'École française d'Extrême-Orient. 79 (2): 261–282. doi:10.3406/befeo.1992.1881. JSTOR 43731384.
  • Kershaw, Roger (1982). "A Little Drama of Ethnicity: Some Sociological Aspects of the Kelantan Manora". Southeast Asian Journal of Social Science. 10 (1): 69–95. doi:10.1163/156853182X00056. JSTOR 24490909.
  • "CORRIGENDA: A Little Drama of Ethnicity: Some Sociological Aspects of the Kelantan Manora". Southeast Asian Journal of Social Science. 10 (2): 118. 1982. doi:10.1163/156853182X00191. JSTOR 24490818.
  • Plowright, Poh Sim (November 1998). "The Art of Manora: an Ancient Tale of Feminine Power Preserved in South-East Asian Theatre". New Theatre Quarterly. 14 (56): 373–394. doi:10.1017/S0266464X00012458.
  • Sheppard, Mubin (1973). "MANORA in KELANTAN". Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. 46 (1 (223)): 160–170. JSTOR 41492072.
  • Simmonds, E. H. S. (1967). "'Mahōrasop' in a Thai Manōrā Manuscript". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. 30 (2): 391–403. doi:10.1017/S0041977X00062297. JSTOR 611002. S2CID 177913499.
  • Simmonds, E. H. S. (1971). "'Mahōrasop' II: The Thai National Library Manuscript". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. 34 (1): 119–131. doi:10.1017/S0041977X00141618. JSTOR 614627. S2CID 162819400.
  • Sooi-Beng, Tan (1988). "The Thai 'Menora' in Malaysia: Adapting to the Penang Chinese Community". Asian Folklore Studies. 47 (1): 19–34. doi:10.2307/1178249. JSTOR 1178249.