Mary Reid Macarthur (13 August 1880 – 1 January 1921) was a British suffragist and Scottish trades unionist. She was the general secretary of the Women's Trade Union League and was involved in the formation of the National Federation of Women Workers and National Anti-Sweating League. In 1910 Mary led the women chain makers of Cradley Heath to victory in their fight for a minimum wage and led a strike to force employers to implement the rise.
|Born||8 December 1880|
|Died||1 January 1921 (aged 40)|
Golders Green, London, England
|Known for||Women's trade unionism|
Macarthur was born Mary Reid Anderson on 13 August 1880 in Glasgow, the eldest of six children to John Duncan Macarthur, the owner of a drapery business, and his wife, Anne Elizabeth Martin. She attended Glasgow Girls' High School, and, after editing the school magazine, decided she wanted to become a full-time writer. After her Glasgow schooling she spent time studying in Germany before returning to Scotland to work for her father as a bookkeeper.
About 1901, Macarthur became a trade unionist after hearing a speech made by John Turner about how badly some workers were being treated by their employers. Mary became secretary of the Ayr branch of the Shop Assistants' Union, and her interest in this union led to her work for the improvement of women's labour conditions. In 1902 Mary became friends with Margaret Bondfield who encouraged her to attend the union's national conference where Macarthur was elected to the union's national executive.
Trade union activismEdit
In 1903 Macarthur moved to London where she became Secretary of the Women's Trade Union League. Active in the fight for the vote, she was totally opposed to those in the NUWSS and the WSPU who were willing to accept the franchise being given to only certain groups of women. Macarthur believed that a limited franchise would disadvantage the working class and feared that it might act against the granting of full adult suffrage.
The Women's Trade Union League united women-only unions from different trades including a mixed-class membership. The conflicting aims of activists affiliated with different classes and organisations barred the league from affiliation to the Trades Union Congress.
To solve this conflict Macarthur founded the National Federation of Women Workers in 1906. The model for the Federation was a general labour union, "open to all women in unorganised trades or who were not admitted to their appropriate trade union."
In general Macarthur chose the universal suffrage position over gradualist approaches both within the Trade Union movement and the Women's Rights movement. "Mary Macarthur estimated that if women were enfranchised on the same terms as men, less than 5 per cent of working women would be eligible." (Tony Cliff quoting the Proceedings, National Women's Trade Union League, USA (1919), p. 29.)
Macarthur was involved in the Exhibition of Sweated Industries in 1905 and the formation of the Anti-Sweating League in 1906. The following year she founded the Women Worker, a monthly newspaper for women trade unionists.
In 1910 the women chainmakers of Cradley Heath won a battle to establish the right to a fair wage following a 10-week strike. This landmark victory changed the lives of thousands of workers who were earning little more than 'starvation wages'. Macarthur was the trade unionist who led the women chain makers in their fight for better pay. In reference to female earnings, Macarthur commented that "women are unorganised because they are badly paid, and poorly paid because they are unorganised.". The dispute ended on the 22 October 1910 when the last of the employers agreed to pay the minimum wage. The Cradley Heath Workers' Institute was funded using money left over from the strike fund of the 1910.
Because of the fame she had earned as an organiser at Cradley Heath Macarthur was immediately sent for in August, 1911, when the Bermondsey Uprising began. Early in 1911 Ada Salter had founded a Women's Labour League (WLL) branch in Bermondsey and was recruiting women in the local food and drink factories to Macarthur's NFWW. In August, one of the hottest on record, the appalling conditions in some of these factories became unbearable and 14,000 women suddenly walked out on strike from 22 factories. This was the Bermondsey Uprising. Though inspired by Salter it was Macarthur who organised the strikers, led the negotiations and secured a historic victory for low-paid women. The highlight was a mass rally in Southwark Park where the blistering oratory of Macarthur was backed up by Sylvia Pankhurst, Charlotte Despard and George Lansbury.
Cat and Mouse ActEdit
In August 1913, in response to the government Prisoners (Temporary Discharge for Ill Health) Act 1913 whereby hunger striking prisoners would be released when too weak to be active and permitting their re-arrest as soon as they were active, Macarthur took part in a delegation to meet with the Home Secretary, Reginald McKenna and discuss the Cat and Mouse Act. McKenna was unwilling to talk to them and when the women refused to leave the House of Commons, Macarthur and Margaret McMillan were physically ejected and Evelyn Sharp and Emmeline Pethick-Lawrence were arrested and sent to Holloway Prison.
Although an opponent of the war Macarthur nonetheless became secretary of the Ministry of Labour's central committee on women's employment.
The Stourbridge Parliamentary Election 1918Edit
After the Representation of the People Act 1918 had enfranchised women over the age of thirty and the Parliament (Qualification of Women) Act 1918 allowed women to stand for Parliament, Macarthur stood as Labour Party candidate in the newly created county constituency Stourbridge, Worcestershire at the General Election on 14 December 1919. This was a large constituency which included Halesowen, Oldbury, Cradley and Warley Woods. It did not include the Cradley Heath area where she had led the chain makers' dispute.
The returning officer insisted that she was listed under her married name of Mrs W.C. Anderson. The defending Liberal MP was John Wilson a director of the Albright and Wilson chemicals firm in Oldbury, which was in the constituency. She was also opposed by Victor Fisher of the National Democratic and Labour Party, who had the support of the Coalition, secret funding from the Unionists, and ran a particularly abusive campaign. During the campaign she worked closely with John Davison the Labour candidate in neighbouring Smethwick to defeat Christabel Pankhurst who was running as the Coalition candidate with Unionist support.
She continued her work with the Women's Trade Union League and played an important role in transforming it into the Women's section of the Trade Union Congress. Mary Macarthur died of cancer on 1 January 1921.
The Mary Macarthur Scholarship Fund and Mary Macarthur Educational Trust were established in 1922 and 1968 respectively, with the aims "to advance the educational opportunities of working women". Awards are made in memory of "pioneers of trade unionism", Mary Macarthur, Emma Paterson, Lady Dilke and Jessie Stephen. Their assets were transferred to the TUC Educational Trusts in 2010.
In popular cultureEdit
Mary Macarthur was featured in the Townsend Theatre Productions touring folk ballad Rouse Ye Women during April 2019. This included a performance at Cradley Heath Library. Bryony Purdue played the role of Macarthur supported by Neil Gore and Rowan Godel.
There is an annual festival organised by local trade unionists each July in Cradley Heath to commemorate the 1910 chain makers' strike.
- Vellacott, Jo (1993). From Liberal to Labour with Women's Suffrage: The Story of Catherine Marshall. McGill-Queen's Press. p. 385. ISBN 0-7735-0958-5.
- "Mary Reid MacArthur". High Beam Encyclopedia. Retrieved 7 April 2008.
- John, Angela V. "Mary Reid Macarthur". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/30411. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1922). . Encyclopædia Britannica (12th ed.). London & New York.
- , Article Class Struggle and Women's Liberation
- "What is her legacy?". bbc4.
- ""Rouse, Ye Women": The Cradley Heath Chain Makers' Strike, 1910". warwick.ac.uk. Retrieved 28 August 2019.
- Taylor, Graham (2016). Ada Salter, Pioneer of Ethical Socialism. pp. 112–118.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 25 February 2010. Retrieved 12 July 2009.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- , Campaign Manifesto
- Hallam, David J.A. Taking on the Men: the first women parliamentary candidates 1918, Studley 2018, chapter 3 Mary Macarthur in Stourbridge.
- "Says no to Mrs. Belmont". The New York Times. 8 October 1909.
- "Congress 2010" (PDF). General Council Report. The 142nd annual Trades Union congress. Manchester: Trades Union Congress. September 2010. p. 137. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 October 2010. Retrieved 3 December 2012.
- "Statue honours women chainmakers of Cradley Heath". BBC Birmingham. Retrieved 3 May 2017.
- "Women's rights campaigner Mary Macarthur to get blue plaque". BBC News. 7 March 2017.
- "Historic statue of suffragist leader Millicent Fawcett unveiled in Parliament Square". Gov.uk. 24 April 2018. Retrieved 24 April 2018.
- Topping, Alexandra (24 April 2018). "First statue of a woman in Parliament Square unveiled". The Guardian. Retrieved 24 April 2018.
- "Millicent Fawcett statue unveiling: the women and men whose names will be on the plinth". iNews. Retrieved 25 April 2018.
- Mary Macarthur 1880-1921 The Working Woman’s Champion RIGHTING THE WRONG By Cathy Hunt (2019)
- Hallam, David J.A. Taking on the Men: the first women parliamentary candidates 1918, (Studley 2018). This includes a chapter on her election campaign in 1918.
- Graham Taylor, Ada Salter: Pioneer of Ethical Socialism (2016)
- S. Boston, Women Workers and the Trade Unions (1980)
- Margaret Bondfield, A Life's Work (1948)
- M.A. Hamilton, Mary Macarthur (1925)
- Cradley Women Chainmakers' Festival
- Election manifesto
- Electric Scotland-Women in History of Scots Descent
- Tribune History- gloss
- Article – Margaret Bondfield and Mary Macarthur : their work to organize working women
- Mary’s Manifesto – Election Promises to Stourbridge Folk from 1918
- Cradley Heath Workers' Institute at the Black Country Living Museum
- Works by or about Mary Macarthur at Internet Archive
|Trade union offices|
| President of the National Federation of Women Workers
1906 – 1911
| General Secretary of the National Federation of Women Workers
1911 – 1921