Markanda River (Haryana)

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The Markanda river (Hindi: मारकंडा नदी) in Himachal Pradesh and Haryana states of India is a tributary of Ghaggar river, flowing through Sirmaur District, Ambala district and Shahabad Markanda town in Kurukshetra district.[1][2] The Markanda river's ancient name was Aruna.

Markanda River
MarkandaRiver - August2016.jpg
Native nameमारकंडा नदी  (Hindi)
Physical characteristics
 • locationNear Katasan Devi Temple, Baraban, Sirmaur District, Himachal Pradesh
MouthGhaggar River
 • location
Himachal Pradesh, India
 • coordinates
30°05′26″N 76°23′39″E / 30.0905°N 76.3943°E / 30.0905; 76.3943Coordinates: 30°05′26″N 76°23′39″E / 30.0905°N 76.3943°E / 30.0905; 76.3943
Length90 km (56 mi)
Basin features
 • leftBegna river, Ran, nakati
WaterbodiesJalbehra barrage in Kurukshetra
BridgesMarkanda Bridge, Haryana

Origin and routeEdit

The Markanda river is an eponymous seasonal river in Haryana state, which is a main tributary of the Ghaggar River.[3]

The Markanda river originates in the Shivalik hills on the border of Haryana and Himachal Pradesh State, and flows along the haryana and Punjab, India border before meeting with Ghaggar river at the confluence.[4]

The basin is classified in two parts, Khadir and Bangar, the higher area that is not flooded in rainy season is called Bangar and the lower flood-prone area is called Khadar.[4]

Several archaeologists identify the old Ghaggar-Hakra River as the Sarasvati river, on the banks of which the Indus Valley Civilisation developed.[5][6][7][8]


See alsoEdit


  1. ^ AmbalaOnline - Rrvers of Ambala
  2. ^ Chopra, Sanjeev (25 September 2010). "Overflowing Ghaggar, Tangri inundate some villages along Punjab-Haryana border". The Indian Express. Retrieved 9 April 2017.
  3. ^ Shanker Sharma, Hari; Kalwar, S. C. (2005). Geomorphology and Environmental Sustainability: Felicitation Volume in Honour of Professor H.S. Sharma. Concept Publishing Company. p. 61. ISBN 978-81-8069-028-0.
  4. ^ a b HaryanaOnline - Geography of Haryana Archived 1 February 2016 at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ Possehl, Gregory L. (December 1997), "The Transformation of the Indus Civilization", Journal of World Prehistory, 11 (4): 425–472, doi:10.1007/bf02220556, JSTOR 25801118, S2CID 161129625
  6. ^ Kenoyer, J. M. (1997), "Early City-states in South Asia: Comparing the Harappan Phase and the Early Historic Period", in D. L. Nichols; T. H. Charlton (eds.), The Archaeology of City States: Cross Cultural Approaches, Washington: Smithsonian Institution, pp. 52–70, ISBN 1560987227
  7. ^ Allchin, Bridget; Allchin, Raymond (1982), The Rise of Civilization in India and Pakistan, Cambridge University Press, p. 160, ISBN 978-0-521-28550-6
  8. ^ Erdosy 1995, p. 44.

External linksEdit