Marcus Licinius Crassus Frugi (consul 27)

Marcus Licinius Crassus Frugi (flourished 1st century AD) was a Roman nobleman of consular rank who lived during the Roman Empire. Frugi's mother was an unnamed Roman woman, while his father was consul and governor Marcus Licinius Crassus Frugi. Frugi's adoptive paternal grandfather was consul and general Marcus Licinius Crassus the Younger. Crassus was the grandson of triumvir Marcus Licinius Crassus and the last known direct descendant of his grandfather. He had a sister called Licinia who married the consul Lucius Calpurnius Piso; their son, Gaius Calpurnius Piso, was a conspirator against the Emperor Nero.


Frugi served as a praetor and in 27 as ordinary consul as the colleague of Lucius Calpurnius Piso, under the reign of Emperor Tiberius.[1] Sometime after 44, he served as governor of Mauretania. Frugi later appeared to come into favour with Emperor Claudius, who had successfully conquered Britain, adding it as a province to the Empire. In celebration of his victory, in 43, Claudius had held a triumph parade in Rome, which Frugi attended. On this occasion, Claudius exempted Frugi from wearing a purple-bordered toga (he had earned the same honour on a previous occasion). Frugi came dressed to the parade in a palm-embroidered tunic and rode a caparisoned charger. Little else is known on Frugi.


Frugi had married a noblewoman called Scribonia.[2] She was of the highest birth and had descended from ancient, distinguished and politically influential blood. Scribonia was a direct descendant of Pompeia, the daughter of triumvir Pompey from his third marriage to Mucia Tertia.

Scribonia bore Frugi the following children:

  • A son, Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus.[2] He married the princess Claudia Antonia in 43, the daughter and only child of Claudius from his second marriage to Aelia Paetina. Antonia married him as her first husband and they had no children. Magnus was murdered in 47.
  • A son, Marcus Licinius Crassus Frugi. He served as consul in 64[2] under Emperor Nero. Nero had Frugi executed between 66 and 68, because of information brought against him by Marcus Aquilius Regulus.[3] After his death, his widow Sulpicia Praetextata appeared in 70 at a meeting of the Senate, seeking vengeance for Frugi's death.[3] This led to the Senate's prosecution of Regulus, along with his associated political circle.[4] With Sulpicia Praetextata, Frugi had three sons and a daughter: Lucius Scribonius Libo Rupilius Frugi Bonus (consul in 88), Marcus Licinius Scribonianus Camerinus, and Gaius Calpurnius Piso Crassus Frugi Licinianus (consul in 87);[5] the daughter was Licinia Praetextata, who served as a Chief Vestal Virgin.[6]
  • A son, Marcus Licinius Crassus Scribonianus.[2] Sometime between 68 and 69 the general Marcus Antonius Primus had offered to make Scribonianus Emperor, but Scribonianus declined.
  • A son, Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi Licinianus[2] or Lucius Calpurnius Piso Licinianus (38–69). Licinianus was adopted by the brief Emperor Galba, who reigned between 68 and 69. Licinianus became Galba's son and heir, and was murdered on the orders of Otho, another aspirant to the throne. Licinianus married a woman called Verania Germina, who came from a family of consular rank.
  • A daughter, Licinia Magna. She married the Senator Lucius Calpurnius Piso,[2] who served as one of the consuls in 57.[7] Piso was later killed on the orders of Emperor Vespasian. Licinia and Piso had a daughter called Calpurnia, who married Calpurnius Piso Galerianus, son of Gaius Calpurnius Piso (co-consul in 41 with Claudius).[8] Calpurnius Piso Galerianus was executed in 70 for opposing Vespasian.[9] Licinia died at an unknown date between 70 and 80, as her grave altar, found on the grounds of Villa Bonaparte near the Porta Salaria, is dated from this period. The land may have been part of the family's suburban estates and her grave altar is now on display at the Vatican Museums.[10]

In the spring of 47, Frugi, his wife, and Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus were executed on the orders of Empress Valeria Messalina, after which, the three were placed in the tomb of Licinii Calpurnii located on the Via Salaria. Also placed in the tomb was their son, Marcus Licinius Crassus Frugi minor.

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Attilio Degrassi, I fasti consolari dell'Impero Romano dal 30 avanti Cristo al 613 dopo Cristo (Rome, 1952), p. 9
  2. ^ a b c d e f Syme, The Roman Revolution, p. 578
  3. ^ a b Shelton, The Women of Pliny's Letters, p. 153
  4. ^ Rutledge, Imperial Inquisitions: Prosecutors and Informants from Tiberius to Domitian, p.119
  5. ^ Rudich, Political Dissidence Under Nero: The Price of Dissimulation, p. 203
  6. ^ Romeins Imperium – Marcus Licinius Crassus Frugi translated from Dutch to English
  7. ^ Elsner, Life, Death and Representation: Some New Work on Roman Sarcophagi, p. 57
  8. ^ The Cambridge Ancient History. Vol. 5, VII ed. London: Cambridge University Press, 1970–2007.
  9. ^ Anne Publie. "Les Cneuius". [1] & Anne Publie. "Les Caesoninus" [2]
  10. ^ Elsner, Life, Death and Representation: Some New Work on Roman Sarcophagi, pp. 31, 46


External linksEdit

Political offices
Preceded byas suffecti Consul of the Roman Empire
with Lucius Calpurnius Piso
Succeeded byas suffecti