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List of parties to the Kyoto Protocol

  (Redirected from List of Kyoto Protocol signatories)

Participation in the Kyoto Protocol
  Annex B parties with binding targets in the second period
  Annex B parties with binding targets in the first period but not the second
  non-Annex B parties without binding targets
  Annex B parties with binding targets in the first period but which withdrew from the Protocol
  Signatories to the Protocol that have not ratified
  Other UN member states and observers that are not party to the Protocol

As of June 2013, there are 192 parties to the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, which aims to combat global warming. This total includes 191 states (189 United Nations member states as well as the Cook Islands and Niue) and one supranational union (the European Union).[1][2] Canada renounced the convention effective 15 December 2012 and ceased to be a member from that date.

With the Protocol's 2008-2012 commitment period expiring, the Doha Amendment to the Kyoto Protocol was agreed to, which establishes new commitments for the period 2013-2020. As of July 2019, 130 states have accepted this amendment.

Contents

PartiesEdit

Signing is optional, indicating an intention to ratify the Protocol. Ratification means that a state is legally bound by the provisions of the treaty. For Annex I parties (e.g. a developed state or one with an 'economy in transition') this means that it has agreed to cap emissions in accordance with the Protocol.

Iceland was the 55th state to ratify, fulfilling the first condition for coming-into-force. With Russia's ratification the "55 percent of 1990 carbon dioxide emissions of the Parties included in Annex I" clause was satisfied and the treaty was brought into force, effective 16 February 2005. As of July 2019, 130 states have accepted the Doha amendment, but it has not entered into force.

Party[2][3][4] Annex[5] % for ratification[6] emissions
limit
(2012)
[7][8]
emissions
limit
(2020)
[9]
Signed Ratification / Acceptance Amendment acceptance Notes
  Afghanistan 25 March 2013 [10]
  Albania 1 April 2005
  Algeria 16 February 2005 28 September 2015
  Angola 8 May 2007
  Antigua and Barbuda 16 March 1998 3 November 1998 23 September 2016
  Argentina 16 March 1998 28 September 2001 1 December 2015
  Armenia 25 April 2003 31 March 2017
  Australia I, II 2.1% +8%[a] −0.5% 29 April 1998 3 December 2007 9 November 2016
  Austria I, II 0.4% −8% (−13%)[b] −20%[c] 24 September 1998 31 May 2002 21 December 2017
  Azerbaijan 28 September 2000 1 July 2015
  Bahamas 9 April 1999 4 November 2015
  Bahrain 31 January 2006
  Bangladesh 22 October 2001 13 November 2013
  Barbados 7 August 2000 14 August 2013
  Belarus I -[d] none[e][f] −12%[g] 26 August 2005
  Belgium I, II 0.8% −8% (−7.5%)[b] −20%[c] 29 April 1998 31 May 2002 14 November 2017
  Belize 26 September 2003 24 July 2018
  Benin 25 February 2002 29 August 2018
  Bhutan 26 August 2002 29 September 2015
  Bolivia 9 July 1998 30 November 1999
  Bosnia and Herzegovina 16 April 2007
  Botswana 8 August 2003 7 March 2016
  Brazil 29 April 1998 23 August 2002 13 February 2018
  Brunei 20 August 2009 14 November 2014
  Bulgaria I 0.6% −8%[b] −20%[c] 18 September 1998 15 August 2002 21 December 2017
  Burkina Faso 31 March 2005 29 November 2016
  Burundi 18 October 2001
  Cambodia 22 August 2002 17 November 2015
  Cameroon 28 August 2002
  Cape Verde 10 February 2006
  Central African Republic 18 March 2008
  Chad 18 August 2009
  Chile 17 June 1998 26 August 2002 10 November 2015
  China 29 May 1998 30 August 2002 2 June 2014   Hong Kong: applied since 8 April 2003
  Macao: applied since 14 January 2008
  Colombia 30 November 2001
  Comoros 10 April 2008 7 September 2014
  Democratic Republic of the Congo 23 March 2005
  Republic of the Congo 12 February 2007 14 May 2015
  Cook Islands 16 September 1998 27 August 2001 5 November 2018
  Costa Rica 27 April 1998 9 August 2002 21 September 2016
  Côte d'Ivoire 23 April 2007
  Croatia I[h] -[i] −5%[b] −20%[c] 11 March 1999 27 April 2007 21 December 2017
  Cuba 15 March 1999 30 April 2002 28 December 2016
  Cyprus I[j] -[k] none[l][m][b] −20%[c] 16 July 1999 10 December 2015
  Czech Republic I[n][h] 1.2% −8%[b] −20%[c] 23 November 1998 15 November 2001 21 December 2017
  Denmark I, II 0.4% −8% (−21%)[b] −20%[c] 29 April 1998 31 May 2002 21 December 2017   Greenland: applied
  Faroe Islands: not applied
  Djibouti 12 March 2002 23 September 2014
  Dominica 25 January 2005 15 July 2019
  Dominican Republic 12 February 2002 21 September 2016
  Ecuador 15 January 1999 13 January 2000 20 April 2015
  Egypt 15 March 1999 12 January 2005
  El Salvador 8 June 1998 13 January 2000
  Equatorial Guinea 16 August 2000
  Eritrea 28 July 2005 3 May 2018
  Estonia I 0.3% −8%[b] −20%[c] 3 December 1998 14 October 2002 21 December 2017
  Ethiopia 14 April 2005 26 June 2015
  European Union[o] I, II [p] −8%[b] −20%[c] 29 April 1998 31 May 2002 21 December 2017 All ratifications of the 15 then-EU-members and the EU itself were deposited simultaneously. For the purpose of satisfying the entry-into-force conditions, the EU's ratification was not counted.[7]
  Fiji 17 September 1998 17 September 1998 19 September 2017
  Finland I, II 0.4% −8% (0%)[b][q] −20%[c] 29 April 1998 31 May 2002 16 November 2017
  France I, II 2.7% −8% (0%)[b][q] −20%[c] 29 April 1998 31 May 2002 30 November 2017   French Guiana,   Guadeloupe,   Martinique,   Réunion: applied
  French Polynesia,   New Caledonia,   Wallis and Futuna,   French Southern Territories,   Mayotte,   Saint Pierre and Miquelon: not applied
  Gabon 12 December 2006 1 December 2017
  Gambia 1 June 2001 7 November 2016
  Georgia 16 June 1999
  Germany I, II 7.4% −8% (−21%)[b] −20%[c] 29 April 1998 31 May 2002 14 November 2017
  Ghana 30 May 2003
  Greece I, II 0.6% −8% (+25%)[b][a] −20%[c] 29 April 1998 31 May 2002 21 December 2017
  Grenada 6 August 2002 1 April 2015
  Guatemala 10 July 1998 5 October 1999
  Guinea 7 September 2000 6 April 2016
  Guinea-Bissau 18 November 2005 22 October 2018
  Guyana 5 August 2003 23 December 2014
  Haiti 6 July 2005
  Honduras 25 February 1999 19 July 2000 11 April 2014
  Hungary I 0.5% −6%[b] −20%[c] 21 August 2002 1 October 2015
  Iceland I, II 0.0% +10%[a] −20%[c] 23 May 2002 7 October 2015
  India 26 August 2002 8 August 2017
  Indonesia 13 July 1998 3 December 2004 30 September 2014
  Iran 22 August 2005
  Iraq 28 July 2009
  Ireland I, II 0.2% −8% (+13%)[b][a] −20%[c] 29 April 1998 31 May 2002 21 December 2017
  Israel 16 December 1998 15 March 2004
  Italy I, II 3.1% −8% (−6.5%)[b] −20%[c] 29 April 1998 31 May 2002 18 July 2016
  Jamaica 28 June 1999
  Japan I, II 8.5% −6% none[r] 28 April 1998 4 June 2002
  Jordan 17 January 2003
  Kazakhstan I (dec.)[n][s] -[k] none[l][t] −5% 12 March 1999 19 June 2009
  Kenya 25 February 2005 7 April 2014
  Kiribati 7 September 2000 11 February 2016
  North Korea 27 April 2005
  South Korea 25 September 1998 8 November 2002 27 May 2015
  Kuwait 11 March 2005 8 May 2019
  Kyrgyzstan 13 May 2003
  Laos 6 February 2003 23 April 2019
  Latvia I 0.2% −8%[b] −20%[c] 14 December 1998 5 July 2002 21 December 2017
  Lebanon 13 November 2006
  Lesotho 6 September 2000 18 January 2019
  Liberia 5 November 2002 17 August 2015
  Libya 24 August 2006
  Liechtenstein I[h] 0.0% −8% −16% 29 June 1998 3 December 2004 23 February 2015
  Lithuania I -[i] −8%[b] −20%[c] 21 September 1998 3 January 2003 22 November 2017
  Luxembourg I, II 0.1% −8% (−28%)[b] −20%[c] 29 April 1998 31 May 2002 21 September 2017
  Madagascar 24 September 2003 1 October 2015
  Malawi 26 October 2001 29 June 2017
  Malaysia 12 March 1999 4 September 2002 12 April 2017
  Maldives 16 March 1998 30 December 1998 1 July 2015
  Mali 27 January 1999 28 March 2002 7 December 2015
  Malta I[u] -[k] none[l][m][b] −20%[c] 17 April 1998 11 November 2001 21 December 2017
  Marshall Islands 17 March 1998 11 August 2003 7 May 2015
  Mauritania 22 July 2005
  Mauritius 9 May 2001 5 September 2013
  Mexico 9 June 1998 7 September 2000 23 September 2014
  Federated States of Micronesia 17 March 1998 21 June 1999 19 February 2014
  Moldova 22 April 2003
  Monaco I[n][h] 0.0% −8% −22% 29 April 1998 27 February 2006 27 December 2013
  Mongolia 15 December 1999 20 February 2019
  Montenegro 4 June 2007 26 December 2018
  Morocco 25 January 2002 5 September 2014
  Mozambique 18 January 2005
  Myanmar 13 August 2003 19 September 2017
  Namibia 4 September 2003 17 February 2015
  Nauru 16 August 2001 1 December 2014
    Nepal 16 September 2005
  Netherlands I, II 1.2% −8% (−6%)[b] −20%[c] 29 April 1998 31 May 2002 22 November 2017   Aruba: not applied
  Curaçao: not applied
  Sint Maarten: not applied
  Caribbean Netherlands: not applied
  New Zealand[v] I, II 0.2% 0%[q] none[r] 22 May 1998 19 December 2002 30 November 2015   Tokelau: not applied
  Nicaragua 7 July 1998 18 November 1999 3 July 2019
  Niger 23 October 1998 30 September 2004 1 August 2018
  Nigeria 10 December 2004
  Niue 8 December 1998 6 May 1999
  North Macedonia 18 November 2004
  Norway I, II 0.3% +1%[a] −16% 29 April 1998 30 May 2002 12 June 2014
  Oman 19 January 2005
  Pakistan 11 January 2005 31 October 2017
  Palau 10 December 1999 10 March 2015
  Panama 8 June 1998 5 March 1999 29 September 2015
  Papua New Guinea 2 March 1999 28 March 2002
  Paraguay 25 August 1998 27 August 1999 21 February 2019
  Peru 13 November 1998 12 September 2002 24 September 2014
  Philippines 15 April 1998 20 November 2003 13 April 2016
  Poland I 3.0% −6%[b] −20%[c] 15 July 1998 13 December 2002 28 September 2018
  Portugal I, II 0.3% −8% (+27%)[b][a] −20%[c] 29 April 1998 31 May 2002 22 November 2017
  Qatar 11 January 2005
  Romania I 1.2% −8%[b] −20%[c] 5 January 1999 19 March 2001 3 May 2016
  Russia I 17.4% 0%[q] none[r] 11 March 1999 18 November 2004
  Rwanda 22 July 2004 20 November 2015
  Saint Kitts and Nevis 8 April 2008 25 October 2016
  Saint Lucia 16 March 1998 20 August 2003 20 November 2018
  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 19 March 1998 31 December 2004
  Samoa 16 March 1998 27 November 2000 18 September 2015
  San Marino 28 April 2010 4 August 2015
  Sao Tome and Principe 24 July 2008
  Saudi Arabia 31 January 2005
  Senegal 20 July 2001
  Serbia 24 September 2007 30 June 2017
  Seychelles 20 March 1998 22 July 2002 15 July 2015
  Sierra Leone 10 November 2006
  Singapore 12 April 2006 23 September 2014
  Slovakia I[n][h] 0.4% −8%[b] −20%[c] 26 February 1999 31 May 2002 16 November 2017
  Slovenia I[n][h] -[i] −8%[b] −20%[c] 21 October 1998 2 August 2002 21 December 2017
  Solomon Islands 29 September 1998 13 March 2003 5 September 2014
  Somalia 26 July 2010
  South Africa 31 July 2002 7 May 2015
  Spain I, II 1.9% −8% (+15%)[b][a] −20%[c] 29 April 1998 31 May 2002 14 November 2017
  Sri Lanka 3 September 2002 2 December 2015
  Sudan 2 November 2004 3 February 2014
  Suriname 25 September 2006
  Swaziland 13 January 2006 21 September 2016
  Sweden I, II 0.4% −8% (+4%)[b][a] −20%[c] 29 April 1998 31 May 2002 14 November 2017
   Switzerland I, II 0.3% −8% −15.8% 16 March 1998 9 July 2003 28 August 2015
  Syria 27 January 2006
  Tajikistan 5 January 2009
  Tanzania 26 August 2002
  Thailand 2 February 1999 28 August 2002 1 September 2015
  Timor-Leste 14 October 2008
  Togo 2 July 2004 5 November 2018
  Tonga 14 January 2008 5 November 2018
  Trinidad and Tobago 7 January 1999 28 January 1999 6 August 2015
  Tunisia 22 January 2003
  Turkey I[w] -[d] none[e] none 28 May 2009 [49][50][51]
  Turkmenistan 28 September 1998 11 January 1999
  Tuvalu 16 November 1998 16 November 1998 4 December 2014
  Uganda 25 March 2002 8 July 2015
  Ukraine I -[i] 0%[q] −24% 15 March 1999 12 April 2004
  United Arab Emirates 26 January 2005 26 April 2013
  United Kingdom I, II 4.3% −8% (−12.5%)[b] −20%[c] 29 April 1998 31 May 2002 17 November 2017 Guernsey and Isle of Man, applied since 4 April 2005; Gibraltar, since 2 January 2007; Bermuda, Cayman Islands, Falkland Islands, Jersey, since 7 March 2007. Anguilla, British Virgin Islands, Montserrat, Pitcairn Islands, Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, Turks and Caicos Islands or the Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia: not applied
  Uruguay 29 July 1998 5 February 2001 12 September 2018
  Uzbekistan 20 November 1998 12 October 1999
  Vanuatu 17 July 2001 15 March 2018
  Venezuela 18 February 2005 1 March 2018
  Vietnam 3 December 1998 25 September 2002 22 June 2015
  Yemen 15 September 2004
  Zambia 5 August 1998 7 July 2006
  Zimbabwe 30 June 2009 20 April 2016
Totals I: 38 + EU
II: 21+EU
33 (63.9%) -%: 31 (24)
0%: 3 (5)
+%: 3 (8)
192 (incl. EU) 130

Former partiesEdit

Country Annex[5] % for ratification[6] emissions
limit
(2012)
[7]
emissions
limit
(2020)
[9]
Signed Ratification/Acceptance Amendment acceptance Notes
  Canada I, II 3.3% −6% none[x] 29 April 1998 17 December 2002 Withdrew 15 December 2011, effective 15 December 2012.[52] (See Canada and the Kyoto Protocol)

SignatoryEdit

Country Annex[5] % for ratification[6] emissions
limit
(2012)
[7]
emissions
limit
(2020)
[9]
Signed Notes
  United States I, II 36.1% −7% none[x] 12 November 1998

Not signatories or partiesEdit

As of 2017 there are four UN member states or Observers which are not Party to the Protocol:

  • members of the UNFCCC: Andorra, Palestine, South Sudan
  • observers of the UNFCCC (UNFCCC ratification required first): Holy See[53]

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Maximum increase allowed.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac The 15 member states of the European Union at the time of adoption of the Kyoto Protocol each agreed to a reduction target of −8% under Annex B, as did the European Communities as a whole. A declaration was made upon ratifacation that an agreement had been reached by the states to jointly meet their reduction commitments under the Protocol, as permitted by Article 4 of the Protocol.[3][11] Emission quotas were pooled and allocated amongst the member states by an internal EU Council Decision.[8] The specific EU imposed targets are listed in brackets. The 13 member states that entered the union later did not participate in this joint agreement, and retained their individual Kyoto targets (if applicable).[19]
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad The 27 member states of the European Union at the time of adoption of the Doha Amendment, in addition to Croatia, which subsequently acceded to the EU, and Iceland each agreed to a reduction a target of −20% under the amended Annex B, as did the European Union as a whole. An agreement was subsequently reached by the states to jointly meet their reduction commitments under the amended Protocol.[20] Emission quotas were pooled and allocated amongst the member states by an internal EU Council Decision.[21]
  4. ^ a b Emissions of states listed in Annex I that were not a party to the UNFCCC at the time of adoption of the Kyoto Protocol,[11] which were thus not permitted to sign the Protocol, were not included in the totals for entry into force for the Protocol.
  5. ^ a b States listed in Annex I that were not a party to the UNFCCC at the time of the adoption of the Kyoto Protocol were not eligible sign the Protocol and were not listed in Annex B.
  6. ^ A proposal to amend Annex B to list Belarus as an economy in transition with an emissions reduction for the first commitment period of −8% was adopted by the Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC in 2006,[12][13][14] but did not enter into force prior to the end of the commitment period in 2012 due to not being ratified by a sufficient number of states.[15]
  7. ^ Belarus was added to Annex B with the Doha Amendment.[9]
  8. ^ a b c d e f At their request, an amendment to the UNFCCC which entered into force in 1998 added Croatia, Liechtenstein, Monaco and Slovenia to Annex I, while the Czech Republic and Slovakia replaced Czechoslovakia, from which they had seceded in 1993, in Annex I.[6][16][5]
  9. ^ a b c d Emissions of Annex I parties to the UNFCCC that had not yet submitted their first national communication to the UNFCCC secretariat with an emissions inventory at the time of adoption of the Kyoto Protocol were not included in the figure for entry into force of the protocol.[6][35][36][37][38][39][40][41]
  10. ^ At its request, an amendment to the UNFCCC which entered into force in 2013 added Cyprus to Annex I.[17][18][5]
  11. ^ a b c Emissions not included in the figure for entry into force of the Protocol because at the time of adoption of the Kyoto Protocol the state was not listed in Annex I.
  12. ^ a b c Not listed in Annex B because at the time of adoption of the Kyoto Protocol the state was not listed in Annex I.
  13. ^ a b As they were not listed in Annex I when the Kyoto Protocol was adopted, Cyprus and Malta were not listed in Annex B. However, following their accession to the European Union they were obliged to participate in the EU ETS. Both took on targets under the Doha Amendment.[9]
  14. ^ a b c d e Monaco (1992), the Czech Republic (1995), Slovakia (1996), Slovenia (1998) and Kazakhstan (2000)[22] submitted declarations under Article 4.2 (g) of the UNFCCC, which as per Article 1.7 of the Kyoto Protocol means that they are treated as Annex I states under the Kyoto Protocol.[11] All of these states except Kazakhstan have since been added to Annex I of the UNFCCC by an amendment to the convention.
  15. ^ All 28 EU member states are also members of the UNFCCC individually, in addition to their common representation through the EU.
  16. ^ As per Article 25 of the Kyoto Protocol, "any instrument deposited by a regional economic integration organization shall not be counted as additional to those deposited by States members of the organization."[7]
  17. ^ a b c d e No increase allowed but no reduction required – emissions should stay at their 1990 level.
  18. ^ a b c Japan, New Zealand and Russia were listed in Annex B of the Kyoto Protocol with emission limits for the first commitment period, but were not assigned any emission reduction limits under the Doha Amendment for the second commitment period.[9]
  19. ^ Kazakhstan proposed in 1999 that Annex I be amended to include it,[23] but the proposal was never adopted by the Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC as no consensus could be reached on the matter.[24][25][22]
  20. ^ Kazakhstan proposed in 2009 that Annex B be amended to include it as an economy in transition with an emissions reduction commitment of 0%,[26][27] and latter indicated it was willing to accept a -6% limit,[28] but the proposal was never adopted by the Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC.[29][30][31][32][33]
  21. ^ At its request, an amendment to the UNFCCC which entered into force in 2010 added Malta to Annex I.[34][5]
  22. ^ The states in free association with New Zealand, the Cook Islands and Niue have their own separate memberships in the UNFCCC.
  23. ^ Turkey was originally listed in both Annex I and Annex II of the UNFCCC. It refused to ratify the Convention, as it objected to its listing in the annexes. In 1997 a proposal was submitted that Annex I and Annex II be amended to remove Turkey.[42][43] Though no consensus could be reached on this proposal,[44][45][24] a compromise was reached and an amendment that entered into force in 2002 removed Turkey from Annex II.[46][25][47][22][48][5]
  24. ^ a b Canada and the United States were listed in Annex B of the Kyoto Protocol with emission limits for the first commitment period, but as they were not parties to the Kyoto Protocol at the time of adoption of the Doha Amendment they were removed from Annex B.[9]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Kyoto Protocol Status of Ratification (pdf)" (PDF). Retrieved 12 October 2006.
  2. ^ a b "Status of Ratification". UNFCCC's Kyoto Protocol Background. Retrieved 28 October 2010.
  3. ^ a b "Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change". United Nations Treaty Series. 23 July 2013. Retrieved 24 July 2013.
  4. ^ "Doha Amendment to the Kyoto Protocol". United Nations Treaty Series. 1 April 2015. Retrieved 1 April 2015.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g "United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change" (PDF). United Nations. Retrieved 28 April 2016.
  6. ^ a b c d e "REPORT OF THE CONFERENCE OF THE PARTIES ON ITS THIRD SESSION, HELD AT KYOTO FROM 1 TO 11 DECEMBER 1997 - Annex Table: Total carbon dioxide emissions of Annex I Parties in 1990, for the purposes of Article 25 of the Kyoto Protocol" (PDF). FCCC/CP/1997/7Add.1. United Nations. 25 March 1998. Retrieved 26 April 2016.
  7. ^ a b c d e "Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change". United Nations. Retrieved 28 April 2016.
  8. ^ a b "2002/358/EC: Council Decision of 25 April 2002 concerning the approval, on behalf of the European Community, of the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the joint fulfilment of commitments thereunder". Official Journal of the European Communities. L (130). 15 May 2002. Retrieved 28 April 2016.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g "Doha amendment to the Kyoto Protocol" (PDF). United Nations. Retrieved 28 April 2016.
  10. ^ "Afghanistan ratifies Kyoto Protocol". Pajhwok Afghan News. 3 April 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
  11. ^ a b c "United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change". United Nations Treaty Series. 23 July 2013. Retrieved 24 July 2013.
  12. ^ "Amendment to Annex B of the Kyoto Protocol". United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Retrieved 1 October 2014.
  13. ^ "Report of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol on its second session, held at Nairobi from 6 to 17 November 2006" (PDF). United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. 2 March 2007. Retrieved 1 October 2014.
  14. ^ "KYOTO PROTOCOL TO THE UNITED NATIONS FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE" (PDF). United Nations. 17 April 2007. Retrieved 30 April 2016.
  15. ^ "Amendment to Annex B of the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change". United Nations. 1 April 2015. Retrieved 1 April 2015.
  16. ^ "ADOPTION OF AMENDMENTS TO THE LIST IN ANNEX I TO THE CONVENTION IN ACCORDANCE WITH ARTICLE 4.2 (f) OF THE CONVENTION" (PDF). United Nations. 13 February 1998. Retrieved 30 April 2016.
  17. ^ "United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change - Adoption of amendments to Annex I to the Convention" (PDF). United Nations. 9 July 2012. Retrieved 15 May 2014.
  18. ^ "United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change - Entry into force of amendments to Annex I to the Convention" (PDF). United Nations. 14 January 2013. Retrieved 15 May 2014.
  19. ^ "Kyoto 1st commitment period (2008–12)". European Commission. Retrieved 28 April 2016.
  20. ^ "Council Decision (EU) 2015/1339 of 13 July 2015 on the conclusion, on behalf of the European Union, of the Doha Amendment to the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the joint fulfilment of commitments thereunder". Official Journal of the European Communities. L (207). 4 August 2015. Retrieved 29 April 2016.
  21. ^ "Kyoto 2nd commitment period (2013–20)". European Commission. Retrieved 28 April 2016.
  22. ^ a b c "REPORT OF THE CONFERENCE OF THE PARTIES ON ITS SEVENTH SESSION, HELD AT MARRAKESH FROM 29 OCTOBER TO 10 NOVEMBER 2001" (PDF). United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. 21 January 2002. Retrieved 1 October 2014.
  23. ^ "AMENDMENT TO ANNEX I TO THE CONVENTION - Proposal from the Republic of Kazakhstan to amend Annex I to the Convention" (PDF). United Nations. 28 May 1999. Retrieved 30 April 2016.
  24. ^ a b "REPORT OF THE CONFERENCE OF THE PARTIES ON ITS FIFTH SESSION, HELD AT BONN FROM 25 OCTOBER TO 5 NOVEMBER 1999" (PDF). United Nations. 21 December 1999. Retrieved 30 April 2016.
  25. ^ a b "REPORT OF THE CONFERENCE OF THE PARTIES ON ITS SEVENTH SESSION, HELD AT MARRAKESH FROM 29 OCTOBER TO 10 NOVEMBER 2001" (PDF). United Nations. 21 January 2002. Retrieved 30 April 2016.
  26. ^ "Framework Convention on Climate Change - Secretariat" (PDF). United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. 21 January 2010. Retrieved 1 October 2014.
  27. ^ "Proposal from Kazakhstan to amend Annex B to the Kyoto Protocol" (PDF). United Nations. 27 July 2010. Retrieved 30 April 2016.
  28. ^ "Proposal from Kazakhstan to amend Annex B to the Kyoto Protocol" (PDF). United Nations. 8 June 2010. Retrieved 30 April 2016.
  29. ^ "Report of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol on its fifth session, held in Copenhagen from 7 to 19 December 2009" (PDF). United Nations. 30 March 2010. Retrieved 30 April 2016.
  30. ^ "Report of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol on its sixth session, held in Cancun from 29 November to 10 December 2010" (PDF). United Nations. 15 March 2011. Retrieved 30 April 2016.
  31. ^ "Report of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol on its seventh session, held in Durban from 28 November to 11 December 2011" (PDF). United Nations. 15 March 2012. Retrieved 30 April 2016.
  32. ^ "Report of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol on its eighth session, held in Doha from 26 November to 8 December 2012" (PDF). United Nations. 28 February 2013. Retrieved 30 April 2016.
  33. ^ "Decision 9/CMP.8 - Proposal from Kazakhstan to amend Annex B to the Kyoto Protocol" (PDF). United Nations. 28 February 2013. Retrieved 30 April 2016.
  34. ^ "United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change - Adoption of amendments to Annex I to the Convention in accordance with Article 16(3) of the Convention" (PDF). United Nations. 26 April 2010. Retrieved 15 May 2014.
  35. ^ "Review of the implementation of the convention and of decisions of the first session of the conference of the parties" (PDF). FCCC/CP/12/Add.2. United Nations. 2 July 1996. Retrieved 27 April 2016.
  36. ^ "NATIONAL COMMUNICATIONS - COMMUNICATIONS FROM PARTIES INCLUDED IN ANNEX I TO THE CONVENTION" (PDF). FCCC/SB/1997/6. United Nations. 25 July 1997. Retrieved 27 April 2016.
  37. ^ "Annex I National Communications". United Nations. Retrieved 27 April 2016.
  38. ^ "CROATIA - Report on the in-depth review of the first national communication of Croatia" (PDF). FCCC/IDR.1/HRV. United Nations. 23 May 2002. Retrieved 27 April 2016.
  39. ^ "LITHUANIA - Report on the in-depth review of the first national communication of Lithuania" (PDF). FCCC/IDR.1/LTU. United Nations. 10 May 2000. Retrieved 27 April 2016.
  40. ^ "SLOVENIA - Report on the in-depth review of the first national communication of Slovenia" (PDF). FCCC/IDR.1/SVN. United Nations. 21 November 2003. Retrieved 27 April 2016.
  41. ^ "UKRAINE - Report on the in-depth review of the first national communication of Ukraine" (PDF). FCCC/IDR.1/UKR. United Nations. 15 November 2000. Retrieved 27 April 2016.
  42. ^ "ARRANGEMENTS FOR INTERGOVERNMENTAL MEETINGS - Amendments to the Convention or its Annexes - Letters from the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, the Azerbaijan Republic, the Netherlands (on behalf of the European Community and its Member States) and Kuwait proposing amendments to the Convention or its Annexes" (PDF). United Nations. 20 June 1997. Retrieved 1 May 2016.
  43. ^ "REVIEW OF INFORMATION AND POSSIBLE DECISIONS UNDER ARTICLE 4.2(f)" (PDF). United Nations. 2 December 1997. Retrieved 1 May 2016.
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