Kong He (孔紇), (622 BC–548 BC) also known as Shuliang He (叔梁紇), was the father of Confucius and an officer in the Lu state military. Kong died when Confucius was three years old, and Confucius was raised by his mother Yan Zhengzai (顏徵在) in poverty. Kong also had another son, named Pi (皮). However, as Kong Pi's mother was a concubine and Pi himself was said to have deformities in his feet, he could not become his father's successor. Kong He's first wife Lady Shi had given birth to only daughters. Thus, Kong He was heirless until the birth of Confucius.
|Other name(s)||Shuliang He|
On the 69th day of the fourth lunar month of the year 563 BCE, Kong He was supposedly responsible for holding open the gates of Bi Yang (偪阳), so that soldiers from his side who had already entered Bi Yang could escape. Meng Xianzi, then leader of the Mengsun clan of Lu (one of the Three Huan), praised him by saying, "This is what the Classic of Poetry meant by 'having the strength of a tiger'."
- Huang, Yong (2013). Confucius: A Guide for the Perplexed. A&C Black. p. 4. ISBN 9781441196538. Retrieved August 12, 2015.
- Hugan, Yong (2013). Confucius: A Guide for the Perplexed. A&C Black. p. 3. ISBN 9781441196538. Retrieved August 12, 2015.
- Creel 1949, 25 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFCreel1949 (help).
- Rainey 2010, 16 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFRainey2010 (help).