Ko Kizhan Adikal

  (Redirected from Ko Kizhan Adikal Ravi Neeli)
Cola-Cera Perumal relations (c. 9th-10th centuries AD)

Ko Kizhan Adikal Ravi Neeli was the traditional title of the queens/princesses of the Chera/Perumal kingdom in medieval south India.[1] It was initially assumed that Kizhan Adikal was a proper given name (and not a royal title).[1]

The title appears in the following inscriptions discovered from Kerala and Tamil Nadu.

  1. "Kizhan Adikal Ravi Neeli", daughter of Chera Kulasekhara (mid-9th century) and wife of Vijayaraga (mid-9th century), in Tirunandikkara inscription (9th century AD).[2]
  2. "Ko Kizhan Adikal", mother of Chola prince Rajaditya, in a Tirunavalur/Tirumanallur inscription (c. 935 AD, 28th regnal year) of Chola king Parantaka I (907-955 AD).[3]
  3. "Kizhan Adikal Ravi Neeli", daughter of Chera Vijayaraga (mid-9th century), in a Tiruvotriyur inscription (936 AD, 29th regnal year) of king Parantaka I.[4][5]
  4. "Kizhan Adikal" appears in the Tiruvalla copper plates with her husband king Parantaka I (lines 109-111).[6]
  5. "Kizhan Adikal Chatira Sikhamani" in a Trikkakara inscription (953 AD) with Chera/Perumal king Indu Kota (c. 943 - 962 AD).[7]

There is a possibility that the princesses (2) and (3) are the same, or are sisters. If they were sisters, king Parantaka I married two distinct Chera princesses (the mothers of his two sons, Rajaditya and Arinjaya Chola).[8]

The marriage between a Chera princess and Parantaka, c. 910 CE, is mentioned in the Udayendiram plates of Ganga king Prthivipati II Hastimalla.[1][9]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c Narayanan, M. G. S. Perumāḷs of Kerala. Thrissur (Kerala): CosmoBooks, 2013. 96-101, 437, 442, 445 and 473.
  2. ^ Narayanan, M. G. S. Perumāḷs of Kerala. Thrissur (Kerala): CosmoBooks, 2013. 437-438.
  3. ^ Narayanan, M. G. S. Perumāḷs of Kerala. Thrissur (Kerala): CosmoBooks, 2013. 100-101.
  4. ^ Narayanan, M. G. S. Perumāḷs of Kerala. Thrissur (Kerala): CosmoBooks, 2013. 442-443.
  5. ^ South Indian Inscriptions 3 (1920), no. 103.
  6. ^ Narayanan, M. G. S. Perumāḷs of Kerala. Thrissur (Kerala): CosmoBooks, 2013. 473.
  7. ^ Narayanan, M. G. S. Perumāḷs of Kerala. Thrissur (Kerala): CosmoBooks, 2013. 445.
  8. ^ George Spencer, ‘Ties that Bound: Royal Marriage Alliance in the Chola Period’, Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Asian Studies (Hong Kong: Asian Research Service, 1982), 723.
  9. ^ South Indian Inscriptions 2 (1895), no. 76: v. 8.