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The Khalkh River (also spelled as Khalkha River; Mongolian: Халх гол; Ha-la-ha (哈拉哈); Ha-lo-hsin Ho) is a river in eastern Mongolia and northern China's Inner Mongolia region. The river is also referred to with the Mongolian genitive suffix -iin as the Khalkhyn Gol or River of Khalkh.
Khalkh River, Khalkha River, Ha-la-ha River, Ha-lo-hsin Ho
|Native name||Халхын гол (in Mongolian)|
|⁃ location||People's Republic of China|
|⁃ elevation||1,443 m (4,734 ft)|
|583.1 m (1,913 ft)|
|Length||233 km (145 mi)|
|Basin size||17,000 km2 (6,600 sq mi)|
|⁃ average||25 m3/s (880 cu ft/s)|
The river's source is the western slopes of the Greater Khingan mountains of Inner Mongolia. In its lower course, it forms the boundary between China's Inner Mongolia, and the Mongolian Republic until around , the river splits into two distributaries. The left branch (the Halh River proper) flows into the Buir Lake at ; discharge from that lake at ) is known as the Orshuun Gol (Mongolian: Оршуун гол, Chinese: 乌尔逊河; pinyin: Wūěrxùn Hé). The right branch, known as the Shariljiin Gol (Mongolian: Шарилжийн гол) flows directly into the Orshuun Gol at . The Chinese–Mongolian border then follows the Shariljiin Gol for about an equal distance.
From May to September 1939, the river was the site of the Battles of Khalkhin Gol, the decisive engagement of the Soviet-Japanese border conflicts. Soviet and Mongolian forces defeated the Japanese Kwantung Army.
- Elstner, Werner (1993). Mongolei: Reisehandbuch (in German). Berlin: Schiller. p. 16. ISBN 978-3-925067-27-3.
- United States. Department of the Air Force (1963). Characteristics of Manchuria, Mongolia and North China. Intelligence Activities, Volume 200, Issues 2-4. Washington, D.C. p. 69.
- Schenk, Amélie; Galsan, Tschinag (Chinagiĭn) (2006). Mongolei (in German) (2nd ed.). Munich: C. H. Beck. p. 24. ISBN 978-3-406-49283-9.
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