Informality is an umbrella concept to refer to the social and cultural complexity associated with non-transparency of social phenomena for the outsiders: unwritten rules, open secrets, and hidden practices.
The term ‘informality’ is often used to describe unplanned settlements as well as shadow, second and covert economies. Ordinally, informality is linked to poverty, underdevelopment, oppressive regimes, socialism and communism, but in fact informal practices are central for the functioning of every society. Old boy network, caffè sospeso, cash for access, astroturfing and kompromat are just a few examples of the various techniques and the geography of informality. The Global Encyclopedia of Informality consists of more than 200 entries from five continents.
- "Global Informality Project". Retrieved 18 April 2019.
- Hart, Keith (1973). "Informal Income Opportunities and Urban Employment in Ghana". Journal of Modern African Studies. 11 (1): 61–89. doi:10.1017/S0022278X00008089. JSTOR 159873.
- Academy of Management 2012 Program Theme: The Informal Economy. http://aom.org/Meetings/annualmeeting/past-meetings/theme2012.aspx. Retrieved 7 April 2019. Missing or empty
- Godfrey, Paul C. (2011). "Toward a Theory of the Informal Economy". Academy of Management Annals. 5 (1): 231–277. doi:10.5465/19416520.2011.585818.
- "Informal Practices in Post-Communist Societies". Retrieved 7 April 2019.
- "Global Informality Project". Retrieved 7 April 2019.
- Ledeneva, Alena (2018-01-17). The Global Encyclopaedia of Informality (Volume I ed.). ISBN 9781911307907.
- Ledeneva, Alena (2018-01-17). The Global Encyclopaedia of Informality (Volume II ed.). ISBN 9781787351899. Retrieved 7 April 2019.