Compulsive sexual behaviour disorder

(Redirected from Hypersexual disorder)

Compulsive sexual behaviour disorder (CSBD), also known as hypersexual disorder, is a pattern of behavior involving intense preoccupation with sexual fantasies and behaviours that cause distress, are inappropriately used to cope with stress, cannot be voluntarily curtailed, and risk or cause harm to oneself or others.[1] This disorder can also cause impairment in social, occupational or other important functions.[2]

CSBD is not a diagnosis found in ICD-10 or DSM-5. It was proposed in 2010 for inclusion in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fifth Edition (DSM-5) of the American Psychiatric Association (APA), but was ultimately not approved. ICD-11 currently includes a diagnosis for "Compulsive Sexual Behaviour Disorder",[3] which is categorized under "Impulse Control Disorders".

DiagnosisEdit

ICD-11Edit

ICD-11 includes a diagnosis for "Compulsive Sexual Behaviour Disorder".[4]

"Compulsive Sexual Behaviour Disorder" is defined as a persistent pattern of failure to control intense, repetitive sexual impulses or urges resulting in repetitive sexual behaviour.

Symptoms may include repetitive sexual activities becoming a central focus of the person's life to the point of neglecting health and personal care or other interests, activities and responsibilities; numerous unsuccessful efforts to significantly reduce repetitive sexual behaviour; and continued repetitive sexual behaviour despite adverse consequences or deriving little or no satisfaction from it.

Criteria:

  1. Pattern of failure to control intense, sexual impulses or urges and resulting repetitive sexual behaviour
  2. Manifested over an extended period of time (e.g., 6 months or more)
  3. Causes marked distress or significant impairment in personal, family, social, educational, occupational, or other important areas of functioning (distress that is entirely related to moral judgments and disapproval about sexual impulses, urges, or behaviours is not sufficient to meet this requirement)

It has been argued that the CSBD diagnosis is not based upon sex research.[5]

DSM-5Edit

DSM-5[6] and DSM-5-TR have no such diagnosis.

Different literature descriptionsEdit

People with hypersexual disorder experience multiple, unsuccessful attempts to control or diminish the amount of time spent engaging in sexual fantasies, urges, and behaviors. Individuals may engage in sexual behaviors that they experience as compulsive, despite knowledge of adverse medical, legal, and/or interpersonal consequences, and may neglect social and recreational activities and role responsibilities[7]

For a valid diagnosis of hypersexual disorder to be established, symptoms must persist for a period of at least 6 months and occur independently of mania or a medical condition.[8]

TreatmentEdit

MedicinesEdit

As of end of 2019, FDA had approved no medicines for it.[9]

Cognitive-behavioural perspectiveEdit

Some treatment guides suggest shame at the core of CSBD mechanism. The shame is associated with the cognitive schema of self-defectiveness, a feeling of social pain and isolation and functions in two ways. Firstly, chronic shame derived from social stigma or early traumatic experiences augments the soothing function of sexual behaviour. That makes sexual behaviour compulsive. And secondly, that excessive or inappropriate sexual behaviour, as it is considered socially unacceptable, causes extra shame and forms a self-sustaining cycle of CSBD. Therefore, treatment is primarily aimed at shame reduction and social reintegration.[10][11]

HistoryEdit

Hypersexual disorder was recommended for inclusion in the DSM-5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition) by the Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders Workgroup (Emerging Measures and Models, Conditions for Further Study). It was ultimately not approved.[12] The term hypersexual disorder was reportedly chosen because it did not imply any specific theory for the causes of hypersexuality, which remain unknown.[13] A proposal to add sexual addiction to the DSM system had been previously rejected by the APA, as not enough evidence suggested to them that the condition is analogous to substance addictions, as that name would imply.[14][15][16]

Rory Reid, a research psychologist in the Department of Psychiatry at the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA), led a team of researchers to investigate the proposed criteria for Hypersexual Disorder. Their findings were published in the Journal of Sexual Medicine where they concluded that the given criteria are valid and the disorder could be reliably diagnosed.[17]

The DSM-IV-TR, published in 2000, includes an entry called "Sexual Disorder—Not Otherwise Specified" (Sexual Disorder NOS), for disorders that are clinically significant but do not have code. The DSM-IV-TR notes that Sexual Disorder NOS would apply to, among other conditions, "distress about a pattern of repeated sexual relationships involving a succession of lovers who are experienced by the individual only as things to be used".[18]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Herron, Abigail J., Brennan, Tim K. eds. ASAM Essentials of Addiction Medicine, The. 3rd Edition. Two Commerce Square, 2001 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19103 USA:Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2020.
  2. ^ Kafka, Martin P. (2010-04-01). "Hypersexual Disorder: A Proposed Diagnosis for DSM-V". Archives of Sexual Behavior. 39 (2): 377–400. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.433.1948. doi:10.1007/s10508-009-9574-7. ISSN 0004-0002. PMID 19937105. S2CID 2190694.
  3. ^ Compulsive sexual behaviour disorder (ICD-11)
  4. ^ Compulsive sexual behaviour disorder (ICD-11)
  5. ^ Briken, Peer; Turner, Daniel (13 July 2022). "What does "Sexual" mean in compulsive sexual behavior disorder? •". Journal of Behavioral Addictions. Akademiai Kiado Zrt. 11 (2): 222–225. doi:10.1556/2006.2022.00026. ISSN 2062-5871. PMC 9295231. PMID 35895459.
  6. ^ Weir, Kirsten (April 2014). "Is pornography addictive?". Monitor on Psychology. 45 (4): 46. ISSN 1529-4978. OCLC 612512821. Archived from the original on 2014-04-05.
  7. ^ Herron, Abigail J., Brennan, Tim K. eds. ASAM Essentials of Addiction Medicine, The. 3rd Edition. Two Commerce Square, 2001 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19103 USA:Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2020.
  8. ^ "American Psychiatric Association DSM-5 Development Page for Hypersexual Disorder". Dsm5.com. Retrieved 28 August 2017.
  9. ^ Matthias Brand, PhD, Gretchen R. Blycker, LMHC, Marc N. Potenza, MD, PhD When Pornography Becomes a Problem: Clinical Insights December 13, 2019. Quote: "Currently there are no medications with an approved Food and Drug Administration indication for CSBD."
  10. ^ Neves, Silva (2021). Compulsive Sexual Behaviours: A Psycho-Sexual Treatment Guide for Clinicians. ISBN 978-0367465483.
  11. ^ Birchard, Thaddeus (2015). CBT for Compulsive Sexual Behaviour : A Guide for Professionals. ISBN 978-0415723800.
  12. ^ "DSM-5 Development Page for Sexual Dysfunctions". Dsm5.org. Retrieved 28 August 2017.
  13. ^ Kafka, M. P. (2010). Hypersexual Disorder: A proposed diagnosis for DSM-V. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 39, 377–400.
  14. ^ "Psychiatry's bible: Autism, binge-eating updates proposed for 'DSM' - USATODAY.com". Usatoday.com. Retrieved 28 August 2017.
  15. ^ "Sex addiction, obesity, Internet addiction not included in proposed changes to APA diagnostic manual - New York Daily News". Archived from the original on 2011-07-27. Retrieved 2011-03-06.
  16. ^ "New Diagnostic Guidelines for Mental Illnesses Proposed". Health.usnews.com. Retrieved 2017-08-28.
  17. ^ Reid, Rory C.; Carpenter, Bruce N.; Hook, Joshua N.; Garos, Sheila; Manning, Jill C.; Gilliland, Randy; Cooper, Erin B.; McKittrick, Heather; Davtian, Margarit; Fong, Timothy (1 November 2012). "Report of Findings in a DSM-5 Field Trial for Hypersexual Disorder". The Journal of Sexual Medicine. 9 (11): 2868–2877. doi:10.1111/j.1743-6109.2012.02936.x. PMID 23035810.
  18. ^ American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text revision). Washington, DC: Author.

External linksEdit