A historical drama (also period drama, costume drama, and period piece) is a work set in a past time period, usually used in the context of film and television. Historical drama includes historical fiction and romances, adventure films, and swashbucklers. A period piece may be set in a vague or general era such as the Middle Ages, or a specific period such as the Roaring Twenties, or the recent past.
Films set in historical times have always been some of the most popular works. D. W. Griffith's The Birth of a Nation and Buster Keaton's The General are examples of popular early American works set during the U.S. Civil War. In different eras different subgenres have risen to popularity, such as the westerns and sword and sandal films that dominated North American cinema in the 1950s. The costume drama is often separated as a genre of historical dramas. Early critics defined them as films focusing on romance and relationships in sumptuous surroundings, contrasting them with other historical dramas believed to have more serious themes. Other critics have defended costume dramas, and argued that they are disparaged because they are a genre directed towards women. Historical dramas have also been described as a conservative genre, glorifying an imagined past that never existed.
While historical drama is fiction, works may include references to real-life people or events from the relevant time period or contain factually accurate representations of the time period. Works may also include mostly-fictionalized narratives based on actual people or historical events, such as Apollo 13, Braveheart, Chernobyl, Enemy at the Gates, Les Misérables, and Titanic.
Works that focus on accurately portraying specific historical events or persons are instead known as docudrama, such as The Report. Where a person's life is central to the story, such a work is known as biographical drama, with notable examples being films such as Alexander, Cinderella Man, Frida, House of Saddam, Lincoln, Stalin, and W..
- Historical fiction
- Jidaigeki, Japanese historical dramas
- Sageuk, Korean historical dramas
- List of films about the American Revolution
- List of films and television shows about the American Civil War
- List of films set in ancient Rome
- List of historical drama films and series set in Near Eastern and Western civilization
- Historical drama films set in Asia
- List of Vietnamese historical drama films
- Middle Ages in film
- War film
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- Robé, Chris (2009). "Taking Hollywood Back: The Historical Costume Drama, the Biopic, and Popular Front U.S. Film Criticism". Cinema Journal. 48 (2): 70–87. doi:10.1353/cj.0.0082. JSTOR 20484449.
- Niemi, Robert (2013-10-17). Inspired by True Events: An Illustrated Guide to More Than 500 History-Based Films, 2nd Edition: An Illustrated Guide to More Than 500 History-Based Films. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9781610691987.
- Carver, Terrell (Spring 2005). "Oliver Stone's Alexander". Film & History: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Film and Television Studies. Center for the Study of Film & History. 35 (2): 83–84. doi:10.1353/flm.2005.0033. eISSN 1548-9922. ISSN 0360-3695 – via Project MUSE.