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File:Gloria Swanson & Billy Wilder - ca. 1950.JPG

Original file(654 × 795 pixels, file size: 86 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)

Summary[edit]

Description
English: Studio publicity photo of Billy Wilder and Gloria Swanson.
Date circa 1950
date QS:P,+1950-00-00T00:00:00Z/9,P1480,Q5727902
Source Original uploader was User:Wikiwatcher1 on 11/4/2010; transferred from the English Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Wilder-Swanson-45.jpg
Author Studio

Licensing[edit]

Public domain
This work is in the public domain because it was published in the United States between 1923 and 1963 and although there may or may not have been a copyright notice, the copyright was not renewed. Unless its author has been dead for the required period, it is copyrighted in the countries or areas that do not apply the rule of the shorter term for US works, such as Canada (50 pma), Mainland China (50 pma, not Hong Kong or Macao), Germany (70 pma), Mexico (100 pma), Switzerland (70 pma), and other countries with individual treaties. See Commons:Hirtle chart for further explanation.

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Copyright details[edit]

Additional source information:

This is a publicity photo taken to promote a film actor. As stated by film production expert Eve Light Honthaner in The Complete Film Production Handbook, (Focal Press, 2001 p. 211.):

"Publicity photos (star headshots) have traditionally not been copyrighted. Since they are disseminated to the public, they are generally considered public domain, and therefore clearance by the studio that produced them is not necessary."

Nancy Wolff, includes a similar explanation:

"There is a vast body of photographs, including but not limited to publicity stills, that have no notice as to who may have created them." (The Professional Photographer's Legal Handbook By Nancy E. Wolff, Allworth Communications, 2007, p. 55.)

Film industry author Gerald Mast, in Film Study and the Copyright Law (1989) p. 87, writes:

"According to the old copyright act, such production stills were not automatically copyrighted as part of the film and required separate copyrights as photographic stills. The new copyright act similarly excludes the production still from automatic copyright but gives the film's copyright owner a five-year period in which to copyright the stills. Most studios have never bothered to copyright these stills because they were happy to see them pass into the public domain, to be used by as many people in as many publications as possible."

Kristin Thompson, committee chairperson of the for Cinema and Media Studies writes in the conclusion of a 1993 conference with cinema scholars and editors, that they "expressed the opinion that it is not necessary for authors to request permission to reproduce frame enlargements. . . [and] some trade presses that publish educational and scholarly film books also take the position that permission is not necessary for reproducing frame enlargements and publicity photographs."[1]

File history

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Date/TimeThumbnailDimensionsUserComment
current13:07, 10 March 2011Thumbnail for version as of 13:07, 10 March 2011654 × 795 (86 KB)Artur Andrzej{{Information |Description ={{en|1=Studio publicity photo of Billy Wilder and Gloria Swanson.}} |Source =transferred from the English Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Wilder-Swanson-45.jpg |Author =Studio |Date =ca

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