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The Treaty of Federation (Russian: Федеративный договор) was a treaty signed on 31 March 1992 in Moscow between the Russian government and 18 of the 20 autonomous republics of Russia.[1] The objective of the treaty was to prevent ethnic separatist movements from disintegrating the newly independent Russian Federation, as had happened to the Soviet Union.[1]

The autonomous regions agreed to remain part of Russia in return for a greater autonomy and a larger share of natural resources.[1] Chechenya and Tatarstan refused to sign the treaty.[1] The treaty established republics as having greater power compared to other federal subjects of Russia.[2] This legal imbalance was addressed by the Russian Constitution of 1993, which stipulated that all federal subjects had equal rights in their relationships with the federal government.[2]


  1. ^ a b c d Hiatt, Fred (1 April 1992). "Russia, Ethnic Regions Sign Treaty Sought By Yeltsin To Preserve Unity". Washington Post. Retrieved 10 December 2017.
  2. ^ a b Chuman, Mizuki (2011). "The Rise and Fall of Power-Sharing Treaties Between Center and Regions in Post-Soviet Russia" (PDF). 19 (2). Retrieved 10 December 2017.