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Ecobricks are plastic drinking bottles packed with non-biodegradable waste to make a reusable building block

An ecobrick is a plastic bottle packed with used plastic to a set density to create a reusable building block. Ecobricks are applied to make modular furniture, garden spaces, walls and structures.[1] Ecobricks terminally reduce the net surface area of the packed plastic to effectively secure the plastic from degrading into toxins and micoplastics. Ecobrick making also serves as an educational experience, raising awareness about the dangers of plastic and the consequences of consumption.[2]

Typically, a wood or bamboo stick is used to manually pack plastic into the plastic bottle.[3] Any size of transparent PET plastic bottle can be used to make an ecobrick. The bottle and the packed plastic are clean and dry to prevent the growth of bacteria. Plastic is cut or ripped into small pieces then packed little by little, alternating between adding the plastic and compacting it, layer by layer. The bottle is rotated with each press to ensure the plastic is evenly compacted throughout the bottle. This helps ensure that the bottle does not have any voids and that the packing reaches the requisite solidity needed for a building block applications.[4] Completed ecobricks are packed solid enough that they can bear the weight of a person without deforming-- a density range between 0.33g/ml and 0.7g/ml.[5] Maximizing density minimizes the flammability of the ecobrick[6]while increasing itsits durability and re-usability.


"Take a Plastic Bottle – Stuff it Full of plastic" Ecobrick.it


Context for EcobrickingEdit

 
Albatross at Midway Atoll Refuge. Plastics do not fit back into the cycles of life. (8080507529)

The global ecobrick movement and the development of the ecobrick concept has arisen in different locations around the world in response to the ever increasing disposal challenges of plastic. As economic petroleum consumption and plastic production have increased<re>Hayden K. Webb, Jaimys Arnott, Russell J. Crawford and Elena P. Ivanova, 'Plastic Degradation and Its Environmental Implications with Special Reference to Poly(ethylene terephthalate),', (Faculty of Life and Social Sciences, Swinburne University of Technology, 28 December 2012) </ref>, and as industrial waste management methods have struggled to keep pace, ecobricking has emerged as a local, non-industrial solution.[1]

20th Century Plastic DevelopmentEdit

The widespread adoption of fossil fuels as a source of energy has defined the 20th century. In the refinement of crude oil, 4-13% cannot be processed into high value, high energy fuels.[7] This by-product is useful as a feedstock for the ultra-cheap production of plastic polymers. Since 1950 an estimated 8300 million metric tons (Mt) of virgin plastics have been produced worldwide; 9% of which had been recycled, 12% were incinerated and 79% have accumulated in landfills or the natural environment.[8]

Petroleum ProjectionsEdit

According to the American Chemistry Council, since 2010 $186bn dollars is being invested in 318 new projects to fuel a 40% increase in plastic production over the next decade.[9] If current production and waste management trends continue, roughly 12,000 Mt of plastic waste will be in landfills or in the natural environment by 2050.[10] In addition, by 2030, CO2 emissions from the production, processing and disposal of plastic could reach 1.34 gigatons per year—equivalent to the emissions released by more than 295 new 500-megawatt coal-fired power plants.[11]

Plastic Pollution and ContaminationEdit

A tremendous amount of plastic waste litters our planet every year, and its cost is huge. According to the UNEP 2014 Yearbook, plastic contamination threatens marine life, tourism, fisheries and businesses and the overall natural capital cost for plastic waste is $75 billion each year.[12] Increasing scientific documentation is demonstrating many dangers arising from plastic degradation. When plastic enters the biosphere it releases toxins, fragments into microplastics and emits greenhouse gases that interfere with ecological cycles.[13] When plastic is burned or incinerated, toxic gases like dioxins, furans, and polychlorinated biphenyls are released into the atmosphere.[14] Photo-oxidative degradation caused by exposure to ultraviolet radiation and physical abrasion fragments plastic debris into smaller and smaller particles, known as microplastics.[15] The degradation process corresponds directly to the amount of surface area of the plastic that is exposed as well as the length of time of exposure to UV rays. The majority of non-recyclable single use plastics are sheets and films with large surface areas and are highly susceptible to photodegration. The photodegradation process also emits greenhouse gases, methane and ethylene.[16]

Microplastics can have possible direct ecotoxicological impacts, accumulate in food chains and cause economic damage because of food safety concerns.[17] Burned and incinerated plastics have been shown to release dioxins and other chemicals that are harmful to human health.[18]

Rural Community ImpactEdit

In countries and communities without access to industrial recycling or incineration, plastic has accumulated in streets, ditches and beaches. Without large scale options for managing plastic households and communities have been powerless to manage their own plastic, other than dangers and intoxicating low-temperature incineration, water and land loose dumping.[citation needed]

Failure of Industrial RecyclingEdit

Between, 1950 and 2017 an estimated 8300 million metric tons (Mt) of virgin plastics have been produced worldwide; only 9% were recycled, the rest have been dumped or burned.[19] As of the early 200's most industrial recyling was occurring in China where the majority of G7 countries were exporting their waste plastic.[20] The processing of this plastic, in particular the dumping and incineration of unrecyclables, caused significant pollution in China.[21] As of January 1st 2018, China banned plastic imports in its National Sword program. [22]. Since then, globally, more plastics are now ending up in landfills, incinerators, or likely littering the environment as rising costs to haul away recyclable materials increasingly render the practice unprofitable.[23] The displaced plastic exports from Europe and America has been largely diverted to Indonesia, Turkey, India, Malaysia, and Vietnam [24] where lacking environmental regulations have resulted in wholesale air, water and earth pollution around processing plants.[25] Critics observe that industrial recycling relies on the energy intensive export of plastic to other locations, that industrial recycling isn't a circular (processes turn a high grade plastic into a lower, less-recyclable form), and that recycling enables the unquestioned continuation of plastic consumtion[26][27]


The Ecobricking of PlasticEdit

Ecobricking has arisen from the growing awareness of the scale of plastic pollution, the problems it causes and the inability of industrial means to adequately manage plastic waste [28] Ecobricking techniques, methodology and applications have developed as a means for households, communities and cities [29] to take responsibility for their plastic, secure and transform it. Ecobricks serve to sequester plastic, to put the plastic to use locally as building block, and as an alternative medium of community exchange [30]

Terminal Minimization of Net Surface AreaEdit

By packing plastic into a bottle, flat high-surface area wrappers and films are compressed together. This terminal minimization of net surface area means that the plastic is secured from the principal forms of potential degradation: heat, burning, friction and photodegradation.[31] In addition, by ensuring that only clean and dry plastic is packed and permanently sealing the bottle, potential microbial degradation is also prevented.[32]

Sequestration of PlasticEdit

When ecobricks are properly made and properly applied in cradle to cradle design constructions they result in the effective sequestration,[33] of plastic out of the biosphere. In other words, ecobricks serve as a way to trap and secure plastic from entering the environment, degrading and causing ecological harm.[34] In short-term ecobrick applications, such as milstein[35] or Dieleman Modules [36] ecobricks can be used for up to three years without any damage to the bottle. By using silicone sealant[37] or inner-tube-bands[38] as short-term, non-permanent attachment methods, the ecobricks can be extricated undamaged at the construction's end and used again in another short or long-term applications.[39] In particular, the long-term earth and ecobrick buidling method,[40] results in gardens, parks, and earthen walls that ensure that the ecobricked plastic is fully secured. Earthen mortar will easily crumble when the structure is dissembled ensuring that the ecobricks can be extricate and reused.[41] Earthen mortar also completely covers the ecobrick negating any possibility of heat, friction, fire or microbial degradation.[42] Ecobrick sequestration thus prevents the breakdown of the contained plastic into microplastics[43] and into green house gases through photodegradation.[44] Ecobrick sequestration also prevents the incineration of the plastic and the release of gases and CO2[45] It is estimated that for each 1 Kg of ecobricked plastic, 3.1Kg of CO2 is sequestered.[46]

The Raising of Ecological ConsciousnessEdit

In contrast to industrial plastic management technologies, ecobriking directly involves the consumers of plastic in its process. The process of saving, segregating, washing, drying and packing plastic results in consumer/ecobricker reflection[47] The meditative and communal tendencies of ecobricking raise individual and collective ‘ecological consciousness’ over time.[48][49]Ecobrickers tend to pursue more information about waste disposal in their community, plastic, recycling and ecobricking topics. This leads to a steady decrease in the ecobricker’s net plastic consumption.[50] [51]

Ecobrick Building ApplicationsEdit

Ecobricks can be connected using tire bands, silicone, cob, and cement to build furniture, gardens, structures and more.[52] Ecobricks are being used in different ways around the world. Ideally, ecobrick constuctions use cradle to cradle design methods of combining the bottles-- ensuring that the ecobricks can be extricated without compromise to the bottle at the end of the construction’s life span.[53] It is useful to differentiate between short-term ecobrick and long term ecobrick applications

Short-term ApplicationsEdit

Ecobricks can be combined together using [54] or inner-tube-bands[55] as short-term, non-permanent attachment methods to create applications that last months to several years. As short-term applications are not usually covered, such constructions are typically for indoor use, in order to prevent UV photodegration of the bottles. Short-term applications range from:

  • Ecobrick Milstein Modules: Hexagon and triangle modules that are used for sitting, but can be combined together to form one or two level horizontal surfaces. Applications include tables, beds, stages, etc.[56][57]
  • Ecobrick Dieleman Modules: A geometric configuration of 16 ecobricks that enables a stackable LEGO module. These modules can be stacked horizontally and vertically indefinitely. Applications include indoor playgrounds, temporary stalls, sheds, and circular structure.[58]
  • Ecobrick Open Spaces: A combination of hundreds of Milstein and Dieleman lego modules that enable the creation of interactive social spaces.[59]

Long-term ApplicationsEdit

Ecobricks can be used with Earth building techniques (i.e. Cob (material), Wattle and daub, adobe) to create structures that can last years or decades (it is not uncommon for traditional earth constructions to last centuries).[60] In this way, earth mixes are used in between horizontally laid ecobricks as mortar.[61] Ecobricks can also used vertically and with traditional construction techniques in the Pura Vida Atlan style of building.[62] Both methods are careful to avoid the complete covering of ecobricks with cement which upon the end of the construction results in the destruction of ecobricks upon extrication.[63] Examples of long-term ecobrick applications include

  • Raised gardens: Ecobricks are laid horizontal and completely covered [64]
  • Raised benches: two or three levels of horizontally laid ecobricks to make a seats and benches.[65]
  • Food Forest Play Parks: A combination of raised beds and benches to make a public green space, ideally filled with edible plants.[66]
  • Walls: Ecobricks can be laid horizontal with earth mortar to build vertical walls. The walls can between standing posts and beams or as a circular standing structure. Alternatively, the pura vida method, uses chicken wire between posts to make walls from enclosed vertically standing ecobricks.[67]


HistoryEdit

The packing of plastic into bottles to sequester plastic and to make building blocks has arisen independently in locations around the world as a local solution to plastic pollution[clarification needed]. Filling bottles with plastic waste builds upon the bottle building techniques of German architect Andreas Froese (using sand-filled PET bottles) in South America in 2000. Alvaro Molina began packing plastic into bottles on the island of Ometepe in 2003. Susana Heisse, in Guatemala began to encourage ecobricking in 2014 as a building technique and for solving plastic pollution challenges faced in Lake Atitlan communities.[68]

In 2010, in the Northern Philippines, Russell Maier and Irene Bakisan[69] developed a curriculum guide of simplified and recommended practices to help local schools integrate eco-bricks into their curriculum. Applying the ancestral ecological principles of the Igorots for building rice terraces, they integrated cradle-to-cradle principles into ecobrick methodology: ensuring that ecobricks can be reused at the end of the construction they are used in.[70] Through the Department of Education, the guide distributed to 1700 schools in 2014.[71]

The open source development of ecobrick best practices and innovations that emerged from the Filipino movement became the genesis for the Global Ecobrick Alliance as founded by Russell Maier, Joseph Stodgel and Candice Mostert. The Global Ecobrick Alliance continues to develop and maintain the conceptual and technological infrastructure of the global ecobrick movement as an Earth Enterprise.[72] Movements in South Africa began in 2012, when Joseph Stodgel brought the concept to Greyton, throwing an annual Trash to Treasure festival at the local dumpsite with South African, Candice Mostert, who started local school projects under Greyton transition town building with the bricks made by the community. The movement has since grown in South Africa, with organizations like Waste-ED, founded by Candice Mostert, who works both in Zambia and Cape Towns surrounds to educate people about plastic and its value, and the architect Ian Dommisse as the Ecobrick Exchange.



 
Ecobricks are ideal for building community garden spaces.

Case studiesEdit

  1. In the village of Besao in the Northern Philippines, hospital custodian Jane Liwan set about packing one ecobrick a day to revamp her ailing home that her neighbors had been ridiculing. Two years later her home is a tourist attraction that has been featured in both local and national media.[73]
  2. On the isolated volcano island of Ometepe in Lake Nicaragua, Alvaro Molina, distraught by the plastic waste that had nowhere to go in his community, began eco bricking at his hotel. His community is now one of the cleanest in the country, with dozens of local schools building with eco-bricks and a micro-economy formed around eco-brick buying and selling.[74]
  3. In Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA, Jo Stodgel is encouraging his community to stuff eco-bricks with creative workshops for youth, river cleanup projects, and design / build projects. He is also using milk cartons instead of bottles.[75]
  4. In Serbia a math professor Tomislav Radovanovic spent five years turning 13,500 plastic bottles into his dream home. The teacher's former students helped him.[76]
  5. The Alfredo Santa Cruz family of Puerto Iguazu, Argentina, made their home almost entirely from thousands of plastic bottles. Walls, coffee tables, bed platforms and even the steps to get to the front door are made of plastic bottles.[77]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Rob, Hopkins. "EcoBricks and education: how plastic bottle rubbish is helping build schools". www.theguardian.com. The Guardian. Retrieved 2014-05-29.
  2. ^ Ecobricking Inspires Ecological Consciousness - Global Ecobrick Alliance https://www.ecobricks.org/why
  3. ^ Stodgel, Jo (2014-09-09). "ECOBRICK.IT". www.ecobrick.it. Upcycle Santa Fe. Retrieved 4 February 2015.
  4. ^ Taaffe, Jonathan; O’Sullivan, Seán; Rahman, Muhammad Ekhlasur; Pakrashi, Vikram (August 2014). "Experimental characterisation of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) bottle Eco-bricks". Materials & Design. 60: 50–56. doi:10.1016/j.matdes.2014.03.045. hdl:10197/10416.
  5. ^ Weighing your Ecobrick to Ensure Quality & Density https://www.ecobricks.org/how
  6. ^ Ecobricks & Fire Safety https://www.ecobricks.org/fire
  7. ^ British Plastics Federation, 'Oil consumption' , |url=http://www.bpf.co.uk/press/oil_consumption.aspx (Ref PD/LFH/19/8/08)
  8. ^ Geyer, Roland; Jambeck, Jenna R.; Law, Kara Lavender (19 July 2017). "Production, use, and fate of all plastics ever made". Science Advances. 3 (7): e1700782. Bibcode:2017SciA....3E0782G. doi:10.1126/sciadv.1700782. PMC 5517107. PMID 28776036.
  9. ^ Matthew Taylor, '$180bn investment in plastic factories feeds global packaging binge', 26 Dec 2017 |url=https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2017/dec/26/180bn-investment-in-plastic-factories-feeds-global-packaging-binge
  10. ^ Geyer, Roland; Jambeck, Jenna R.; Law, Kara Lavender (19 July 2017). "Production, use, and fate of all plastics ever made". Science Advances. 3 (7): e1700782. Bibcode:2017SciA....3E0782G. doi:10.1126/sciadv.1700782. PMC 5517107. PMID 28776036.
  11. ^ Plastic & Climate: The Hidden Costs of a Plastic Planet, Center for International Environmental Law, Executive Summary, May 2019 |url=https://www.ciel.org/plasticandclimate/
  12. ^ UN Environment Programme (2014-06-23). "Plastic waste causes $13 billion in annual damage to marine ecosystems, says UN agency". un.org. United Nations News Service. Retrieved 23 June 2014.
  13. ^ Webb, Hayden; Arnott, Jaimys; Crawford, Russell; Ivanova, Elena (28 December 2012). "Plastic Degradation and Its Environmental Implications with Special Reference to Poly(ethylene terephthalate)". Polymers. 5 (1): 1–18. doi:10.3390/polym5010001.
  14. ^ Verma, Rinku; Vinoda, K.S.; Papireddy, M.; Gowda, A.N.S. (2016). "Toxic Pollutants from Plastic Waste- A Review". Procedia Environmental Sciences. 35: 701–708. doi:10.1016/j.proenv.2016.07.069.
  15. ^ Andrady, Anthony L. (August 2011). "Microplastics in the marine environment". Marine Pollution Bulletin. 62 (8): 1596–1605. doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2011.05.030. PMID 21742351.
  16. ^ Royer, Sarah-Jeanne; Ferrón, Sara; Wilson, Samuel T.; Karl, David M.; Pardha-Saradhi, P. (1 August 2018). "Production of methane and ethylene from plastic in the environment". PLOS ONE. 13 (8): e0200574. Bibcode:2018PLoSO..1300574R. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0200574. PMC 6070199. PMID 30067755.
  17. ^ Löhr, Ansje; Savelli, Heidi; Beunen, Raoul; Kalz, Marco; Ragas, Ad; Van Belleghem, Frank (October 2017). "Solutions for global marine litter pollution". Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability. 28: 90–99. doi:10.1016/j.cosust.2017.08.009.
  18. ^ Is Burning Plastic Waste a Good Idea? National Geographic, March 12, 2019 When C02 and greenhouse gases enter the atmosphere they have been shown to disrupt global climate stability.|url=https://www.nationalgeographic.com/environment/2019/03/should-we-burn-plastic-waste/
  19. ^ Geyer, Roland; Jambeck, Jenna R.; Law, Kara Lavender (19 July 2017). "Production, use, and fate of all plastics ever made". Science Advances. 3 (7): e1700782. Bibcode:2017SciA....3E0782G. doi:10.1126/sciadv.1700782. PMC 5517107. PMID 28776036.
  20. ^ Why the world’s recycling system stopped working, Financial Times https://www.ft.com/content/360e2524-d71a-11e8-a854-33d6f82e62f8
  21. ^ National Sword, Episode 341, Avery Trufelman, https://99percentinvisible.org/episode/national-sword/
  22. ^ The World's Recycling Is in Chaos. Here's What Has to Happen, Wired, march 13th, 2019 https://www.wired.com/story/the-worlds-recycling-is-in-chaos-heres-what-has-to-happen/
  23. ^ https://www.buzzfeed.com/venessawong/plastic-drinking-problem?utm_term=.ucll33JMv#.nvveDDK4G
  24. ^ A Guardian report from 11 countries tracks how US waste makes its way across the world – and overwhelms the poorest nations, https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2019/jun/17/recycled-plastic-america-global-crisis
  25. ^ China's ban on trash imports shifts waste crisis to Southeast Asia, National Geographic, https://www.nationalgeographic.com/environment/2018/11/china-ban-plastic-trash-imports-shifts-waste-crisis-southeast-asia-malaysia/
  26. ^ Recycling: The Evil Illusion, Russell Maier, 2016 https://www.russs.net/recycling
  27. ^ More Recycling Won't Solve Plastic Pollution, Scientific American, Matt Wilkins, July 6, 2018 https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/observations/more-recycling-wont-solve-plastic-pollution/
  28. ^ Indonesian EcoBricks: A new approach in its plastics 'war' BBC |url=https://www.bbc.com/news/av/science-environment-44046352/indonesian-ecobricks-a-new-approach-in-its-plastics-war
  29. ^ City Government Launches Ecobricks To Overcome Plastic Waste, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, June 9, 2015 |url=https://jogjatv.tv/pemkot-luncurkan-ecobricks-untuk-atasi-sampah-plastik/
  30. ^ Episode 5 - The Power of the Community: Ecobricks |url=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3wgw6-clvqc&feature=youtu.be&fbclid=IwAR2uYLk45f7RbixPj9sf9ZgMSy2d89KV8-qAI9ve-7Jg2wXCuErAzk5UKkI.
  31. ^ Ecobrick & Brikcoin Whitepaper – Global Ecobrick Alliance – July 2019 |url=www.ecobricks.org/brikcoins
  32. ^ "How to Make an Ecobrick?" Global Ecobrick Alliance |url=www.ecobricks.org/how
  33. ^ “to keep safe and secure” Originates from Old French sequester or late Latin sequestrare ‘commit for safekeeping’, from Latin sequester ‘trustee’. The term is also used in reference to carbon credits, i.e. “C02 sequestration”
  34. ^ Ecobrick & Brikcoin Whitepaper – Authenticated Plastic Sequestration, p16, Global Ecobrick Alliance |url=www.ecobricks.org/brikcoins
  35. ^ Milstein Modules, Global Ecobrick Alliance |url=www.ecobricks.org/modules
  36. ^ Dieleman Modules, Global Ecobrick Alliance |url=www.ecobricks.org/dms
  37. ^ Ecobrick Module Making Tuturial on YouTube
  38. ^ Ecobrick Tube-Banding Technique |url=https://www.ecobricks.org/banding/
  39. ^ Ecobrick Cradle to Cradle Design www.ecobricks.org/cradle
  40. ^ Ecobrick and Earth Buidling, Global Ecobrick Alliance |url=www.ecobricks.org/earth
  41. ^ The Andrew Report on Ecobrick Building, Global Ecobrick Alliance |url=www.ecobricks.org/andrew
  42. ^ “Plastics are resistant against microbial attack, since during their relatively short time of presence in nature, evolution has not yet design new enzyme structures capable of degrading synthetic polymers” Polyethylene and biodegradable mulches for agricultural applications: a review, p 510, Subrahmaniyan Kasirajan & Mathieu Ngouajio, 12 January 2012
  43. ^ Anthony L. Andrady,'Microplastics in the marine environment', (sciencedirect.com, Marine Pollution Bulletin, vol 62, issue 8, August 2011), 1596–1605. https://doi.org/10.1016/j
  44. ^ Sarah-Jeanne Royer, Sara Ferrón, Samuel T. Wilson, David M. Karl, 'Production of methane and ethylene from plastic in the environment', (Published: August 1, 2018) |url= https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0200574
  45. ^ National Research Council (US) Committee on Health Effects of Waste Incineration. Waste Incineration & Public Health. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2000. 3, Incineration Processes and Environmental Releases. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK233627/
  46. ^ Assuming a 95% petro-combustible and photodegradeable plastic content in an ecobrick. Calculated on the approximate weight ratio for carbon to carbon dioxide of 12 to 44. Plastic and Climate • The hidden costs of a plastic planet |url= https://www.ciel.org/plasticandclimate/
  47. ^ How to Ecobrick https://www.ecobricks.org/how
  48. ^ Learning Toward an Ecological Consciousness, Edmund O'Sullivan and Marilyn M. Taylor, 2004, Palgrave Macmillan, p.30 "...responsible global citizenship requires not only a new social and ecological imagination but a shift in consciousness itself—a transformed way of understanding and construing reality. We have to change our minds—as individuals and as a culture.”
  49. ^ Why Ecobrick? The Raising of ecological consciousess https://www.ecobricks.org/why
  50. ^ Changing the Dialogue About “Waste” with Ecobricks https://medium.com/local-futures/ecobricks-plastic-waste-downstream-technology-and-system-level-change-646e0f891ba1
  51. ^ Reflections on the Ethics of Ecobricking, Russell Maier, Oct 6, 2013 http://russs.net/reflections-on-the-ethics-of-ecobricking/
  52. ^ Ecobrick Building Methods www.ecobricks.org/build
  53. ^ Ecobricks and Cradle to Cradle design www.ecobricks.org/cradle
  54. ^ Ecobrick Module Making Tutorial |url=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mbbbOPZoV-E
  55. ^ Ecobrick Tube-Banding Technique |url=https://www.ecobricks.org/banding/
  56. ^ Ecobrick Milstein Modules |url=https://www.ecobricks.org/modules
  57. ^ Milstein modules were invented by Russell Maier and nammed after Daniel Milstein http://russs.net/milstein-modules/
  58. ^ Dieleman Lego Modules |url=https://www.ecobricks.org/dms
  59. ^ Ecobrick Open Space Concept |url=https://www.ecobricks.org/openspace
  60. ^ Taos Pueblo and a Thousand Year Old Adobe Architecture |url= http://runawayjuno.com/runaway-media/photo-of-the-week/taos-pueblo-adobe-architecture-new-mexico/
  61. ^ Ecobrick Earth Building Technique |url=https://www.ecobricks.org/earth
  62. ^ Sistema Constructiva Pura Vida (Spanish) |url=http://www.puravidaatitlan.org/images/Manual%20%20Sistema%20Constructivo%20Pura%20Vida.pdf
  63. ^ The Andrew Report - Ecobrick Constructions Six Years On, Global Ecobrick Alliance 2018 |url=https://www.ecobricks.org/andrew/
  64. ^ Ecobrick Benches Six Years On |url=http://russs.net/ffpp6/
  65. ^ Probolingo Ecobrick Mandal Park |url=https://www.ecobricks.org/earth-park/
  66. ^ Food Forest Play Park in Action |url=https://www.ecobricks.org/food-forest-play-park-in-action/
  67. ^ Sustainable Building Guide 4 Eco Bricks on YouTube
  68. ^ "This Is Not A Leaf: The Story Of Plastic Bottle Schools". April 21, 2016.
  69. ^ Shruti Verma (June 5, 2014). "World Environment Day Special: Ecobricks". Nestopia. Retrieved February 14, 2016.
  70. ^ Solving Plastic One Bottle at a Time in the Northern Philippines https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ynh0RYORsOM
  71. ^ Dison, Gina (July 11, 2014). "Dep Ed USec graces eco-brick launching in Apayao". Northern Philippine Times.
  72. ^ About the Global Ecobrick Movement https://www.ecobricks.org/about
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  75. ^ "upcycleman". UPCYCLE SANTA FE. Retrieved 2018-08-26.
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  77. ^ "Drink it In: 14 Buildings Made from Plastic Bottles." Momtastic Web Ecoist. https://www.momtastic.com/webecoist/2011/05/06/drink-it-in-14-buildings-made-from-plastic-bottles/

External linksEdit