Free kick (association football)

  (Redirected from Direct free kick)

A direct free kick

A free kick is a method of restarting play in association football. It is awarded after an infringement of the laws by the opposing team.

Direct and indirect free kicksEdit

Free kicks may be either direct or indirect, distinguished as follows:

  • An attacking goal may be scored directly from a direct free kick, but not from an indirect free kick.
  • Direct free kicks are awarded for more serious offences (handball and most examples of foul play), while indirect free kicks are awarded for less serious offences
  • A direct free kick cannot be awarded in the opposing team's penalty area: if a team in its own penalty area commits an offence normally punished by a direct free kick, a penalty kick is awarded instead. An indirect free kick may be awarded for an offence committed anywhere.
  • The referee signals an indirect free kick by raising the arm vertically above the head; this signal must be maintained until the kick has been taken and the ball touches another player, goes out of play, or it is clear that a goal cannot be scored directly. If the referee fails to signal that the free kick is indirect, and the ball goes directly into the opponents' goal, the kick must be retaken. The referee signals a direct free kick by extending the arm horizontally.

ProcedureEdit

 
Often several players (red) will line up for a free kick, so as to mask their intentions to the defending team (blue).

The free kick is taken from the place where the infringement occurred, with the following exceptions:

  • if the offence was within the kicking team's own goal area, the free kick may be taken from anywhere within the goal area.
  • if an indirect free kick is awarded for an offence within the offending team's own goal area, the kick is taken from the nearest point on the goal area line which runs parallel to the goal line.
  • if the offence took place outside the field of play, the free kick is taken from the boundary line nearest to where the offence occurred.
  • for certain technical offences (a substitute starts a match without the referee being informed; a player or team official enters the playing area without the referee's permission but without interfering with the game) play is started with an indirect free kick from the place where the ball was when play stopped.

The ball must be stationary and on the ground. Opponents must be at least 10 yards (9.1 metres) from the ball until it is in play, unless they are on their own goal-line between the goal-posts. If the free kick is taken from within the kicking team's penalty area, opponents must also be outside the penalty area.

If the defending team forms a "wall" of 3 or more players, all attacking players must be at least 1 metre (1.1 yd) from the wall until the ball is in play.

The ball becomes in play as soon as it is kicked and clearly moves.[1] The ball must be kicked (a goalkeeper may not pick up the ball). A free kick can be taken by lifting the ball with a foot or both feet simultaneously.

A player may be penalised for an offside offence from a free-kick. This distinguishes the free-kick from most other methods of restarting the game, from which it is not possible for a player to commit an offside offence.

Scoring a goal directly from a free kickEdit

Ball goes
directly into
Type of free kick
Direct Indirect
Opponents' goal Goal scored Goal-kick to opponents
Own goal Corner-kick
to opponents


A goal may be scored directly from a direct free kick against the opposing side. A goal may not be scored directly from an indirect free kick, and an own goal may not be scored directly from any free kick. If the ball goes directly into the opposing team's goal from an indirect free kick, a goal kick is awarded to the opposing team. If the goes directly into the kicking team's own goal, a corner kick is awarded to the opposing team.[2]

Infringements and sanctionsEdit

 
Vanishing spray has been utilised in recent years to indicate the minimum distance for free kicks.

If the ball is moving, or in the wrong place, the kick is retaken. A player who takes a free kick from the wrong position in order to force a retake is cautioned for delaying the restart of play.

If an opponent is less than 10 yards (9.1 m) from the spot where the kick is taken, the kick is re-taken unless the kicking team chooses to take a "quick free kick" before opponents have been able to retreat the required distance. An opponent also may be cautioned (yellow card) for failing to retreat 10 yards,[2] or for deliberately preventing a quick free kick from being taken.

If the kicker touches the ball a second time before it has touched another player, an indirect free kick is awarded to the opposing team, unless this second touch is an illegal handball offence, in which case a direct free kick or penalty kick is awarded.

If an attacking player stands within 1 metre (1.1 yd) of a "wall" of 3 or more defending players, an indirect free kick is awarded to the opposing team.[1]

Quick free kickEdit

A team may choose to take a "quick" free kick, that is, take the kick while opponents are within the 10-yard (9.1 m) minimum required distance. This is usually done for some strategic reason, such as surprising the defence or taking advantage of their poor positioning. The referee has full discretion on whether to allow a quick free kick, and all other rules on free kicks still apply. However, in taking a quick free kick the kicking team waives their entitlement to retake the kick if an opponent who was within 10 yards intercepts the ball.[2] Football governing bodies may provide further instruction to referees on administering quick free kicks; for example, the United States Soccer Federation advises that referees should not allow a quick free kick if a card is shown prior to the restart, if a trainer has to enter the field to attend to an injured player, if the kicking team requests enforcement of the 10-yard rule, or if the referee needs to slow the pace of the match (e.g., to talk to a player).[3]

Scoring opportunitiesEdit

 
Guilherme Finkler attempts to score from a direct free kick for Melbourne Victory FC

Direct free kicks awarded near the opponent's goal can often lead to scoring opportunities, either from the kick itself or from an ensuing set piece. Accordingly, developing plays from free kicks are an important part of team strategy, and defending against them is an important skill for defenders.

There are various techniques used with direct free kicks.[citation needed] The player taking the direct free kick may choose to strike the ball with as much force as possible, usually with the laces of the boot. Alternatively, players may attempt to curl the ball around the keeper or the wall, with the inside or outside the boot. Additionally, certain free-kick specialists will choose to kick the ball with minimal spin, making the ball behave unpredictably in the air (similar to the action of a knuckleball pitch in baseball). The kicker may also attempt to drive the shot under the wall formed by the opposition defenders using the inside of their boot in a passing manner. Free kick takers may also attempt to cross the ball to their centre-backs or strikers to get a header on goal, since they usually are the tallest members of the team, especially if the position of the free kick is close to the wings.

StrategyEdit

 
A defending team (red) attempts to block the direct path to goal with a "wall" of players.

Most teams have one or two designated free kick takers, depending on the distance from goal and the side of the field the free kick is to be taken from. The strategy may be to score a goal directly from the free kick, or to use the free kick as the beginning of a set piece leading towards a goal scoring opportunity.

The kicking team may have more than one player line up behind the ball, run up to the ball, and/or feint a kick in order to confuse or deceive the defence as to their intentions; this is usually legal as long as no other infringements occur.

Where there is a potential for a shot on goal to occur from a direct free kick, often the defending side will erect a "wall" of players standing side-by-side as a barrier to the shot. The number of players composing the wall varies based on distance and strategy. It is not fully known when the wall was started. A kicker who has the skill to curl the ball around a wall is at a distinct advantage. Since 2000, referees at the highest levels of football have used vanishing spray to enforce the 10-yard minimum required distance for the wall; referees without vanishing spray may indicate the minimum distance verbally and/or with hand gestures. In 2019, Law 13 was changed to require attacking players to maintain a minimum 1-metre (1.1 yd) distance from a defensive "wall" until the ball is in play.[1]

Offences for which the free kick is awardedEdit

The following are the offences punishable by a free kick in the 2019 Laws of the Game.

Direct free kick / penalty kickEdit

  • handball (except for the goalkeeper within the penalty area)
  • any of the following offences against an opponent, if committed in a manner considered by the referee to be careless, reckless or using excessive force:
    • charges
    • jumps at
    • kicks or attempts to kick
    • pushes
    • strikes or attempts to strike (including head-butt)
    • tackles or challenges
    • trips or attempts to trip
  • holding an opponent
  • impeding an opponent with contact
  • biting or spitting at someone
  • throwing an object at the ball, an opponent or a match official, or making contact with the ball with a held object
  • any physical offence, if committed within the field of play while the ball is in play, against a team-mate, substitute, substituted or sent-off player, team official or a match official
  • a team official, substitute, substituted player or sent-off player enters the field of play and interferes with play
  • a player, substitute, substituted player, sent-off player or team official enters the field of play while that person's team scores a goal
  • a player who requires the referee’s permission to re-enter the field of play re-enters without the referee’s permission, and interferes with play

Indirect free kickEdit

  • offside
  • illegal handling by the goalkeeper within the penalty area
  • preventing the goalkeeper from releasing the ball from the hands
  • kicking (or attempting to kick) the ball when the goalkeeper is in the process of releasing it
  • playing in a dangerous manner (without committing a more serious offence)
  • impeding the progress of an opponent without any contact being made
  • dissent
  • using offensive, insulting or abusive language and/or gestures
  • other verbal offences
  • after having already been guilty of serious foul play, violent conduct or a second cautionable offence, a player challenges or interferes with an opponent while the referee is playing advantage (unless another more serious offence was committed)
  • an offence committed outside the field of play by a player against a player, substitute, substituted player or team official of their own team
  • the player taking a kick-off, free kick, penalty kick, throw-in, goal kick, or corner kick touches the ball a second time before it has been touched by another player (unless the second touch is a handball offence punishable by a direct free kick / penalty kick)
  • when a free kick is taken, an attacking player is less than 1 metre (1 yard) from a "wall" formed by three or more defending players
  • a penalty kick does not go forwards
  • illegal feinting at a penalty kick
  • a team-mate of the identified player takes a penalty kick
  • at a penalty kick, both the kicker and goalkeeper commit an offence at the same time, and the kick is scored
  • at a penalty kick, an attacking player encroaches, and the kick is not scored
  • at a throw-in, an opponent unfairly distracts or impedes the thrower, and play is stopped after the throw-in has been taken
  • a player who requires the referee’s permission to re-enter the field of play re-enters without the referee’s permission, but does not interfere with play, and the referee decides to stop play to deal with the offence
  • any other offence, not mentioned in the Laws, for which play is stopped to caution or send off a player

HistoryEdit

Before 1863Edit

The concept of a free kick -- i.e., an opportunity to kick the ball without being challenged by opponents -- is found in public school football games from the early nineteenth century. The three situations in which the free kick was typically found are:[4]

  • as a reward for a fair catch
  • after a touch-down
  • after an offence by the opposing team

Fair catchEdit

The fair catch was the most common reason for a free kick in football codes of the early nineteenth-century. An early example is found in the testimony of Matthew Bloxam, in the famous passage where he attributes the innovation of "running with the ball" at Rugby School to the actions of William Webb Ellis in 1823:[5]

[Ellis] caught the ball in his arms. This being so, according to the then rules, he ought to have retired back as far as he pleased, without parting with the ball, for the combatants on the opposite side could only advance to the spot where he had caught the ball, and were unable to rush forward till he had either punted it or had placed it for some one else to kick, for it was by means of these place kicks that most of the goals were in those days kicked, but the moment the ball touched the ground, the opposite side might rush on.

The first published laws of football, those of Rugby School in 1845, confirm that a free kick was awarded for a catch:[6]:

Charging is fair, in case of a place-kick, as soon as a ball has touched the ground; in case of a kick from a catch, as soon as the player's foot has left the ground, and not before.

Although the 1848 "Cambridge rules" described by Henry C. Malden in 1897 have not survived, Malden implies that they awarded a free kick for a fair catch.[7] The 1856 Cambridge rules, which do survive, explicitly awarded such a free kick:[8]

When a player catches the ball directly from the foot, he may kick it as he can without running with it.

Other early codes awarding a free kick for a fair catch include Shrewsbury School (1855),[9] Harrow School (1858),[10] Sheffield FC (1858),[11] Melbourne FC (1859),[12] and Blackheath FC (1862).[13] All these kicks, except for Sheffield's, permit a goal to be scored directly.

Touch-downEdit

The free kick after a touch-down (also known as a "try at goal") is found at Rugby School from the mid 1830s.[14] It is also found in Rugby-influenced codes, such as Marlborough College,[15] and in the Cambridge Rules of 1863, which were drawn up by a committee including representatives from both Marlborough and Rugby.[16]

After an offence by the oppositionEdit

The use of a free kick to punish the team committing an offence was not particularly common in the early-to-mid nineteenth century. The first Rugby School rules (1845) awarded a punt or a drop-kick to the opposition after a player took "a punt when he [was] not entitled to it".[17] The 1846 revision of the Rugby School rules kept that rule, but added the provision that a goal could not be scored from such a drop-kick, giving an early example of an indirect free-kick.[18] Other codes that used a free kick to punish an infringement of the rules included the Uppingham laws of 1857 (for offside),[19] and the Melbourne FC laws of 1860 (for any offence).[20]

SummaryEdit

Year Code Name Free kick awarded for
Fair catch Touch down Offence by
opposition
1823 Rugby School
(uncodified, based on
later recollections)
direct[21]
c. 1834 direct[22][23]
1845 Rugby School [24][25] Place-kick
Punt
Drop
direct direct[26] direct[27]
1846 indirect[28]
1847 Eton Field Game[29] N/A No direct[30] No
1848 Cambridge Rules
(as recalled by Malden)[31]
Yes
1855 Shrewsbury[32] Hoist Yes
1856 Cambridge Rules[33] "Kick it as he can" direct No No
1857 Uppingham School[34] "Kick it as best he can"
Fair kick
direct No direct[35]
1858 Harrow School[36] Free kick direct No No
1858 Sheffield FC[37] Free kick indirect No No[38]
1859 Melbourne FC[39] Free kick direct No No
1860 Melbourne FC[40] Free kick direct No direct[41]
1862 Barnes FC[42] N/A No No No
1862 Blackheath FC[43] Free kick direct No No
1862 Eton Field Game[44] N/A No No[45] No
1862 The Simplest Game[46] N/A No No No
1863 Cambridge Rules[47] Free kick No direct[48] No
1863 Charterhouse School[49] N/A No No No
1863 Marlborough College[50] No direct[51]
1863 Winchester College[52] Yes No No
1863 Football Association[53] Free kick direct direct[54] No

The 1863 FA RulesEdit

The original laws of the Football Association, published in December 1863, awarded a free kick in two situations:[55]

  • Following a fair catch, which was defined as "when the ball is caught, after it has touched the person of an adversary, or has been kicked or knocked on by an adversary, and before it has touched the ground or one of the side catching it". The player making the fair catch had to claim it by "making a mark with his heel at once". As in the Rugby rules, opponents were allowed to come up to the mark in order to challenge the kick, with the player taking the kick being permitted to retreat backwards from the mark in order to evade the opponents' attentions. The player making the fair catch had to take the resulting free kick, from which a goal could be scored directly.
  • Following a touch down behind the opponents' goal-line, in a manner similar to the contemporary Rugby "try at goal" or modern rugby conversion. The kick had to be taken from a point 15 yards from the goal-line, in line with the place with the ball was touched down. The kick had to be taken at the goal, with opponents being obliged to remain behind their goal-line until the kick was taken. The kick could be taken by any member of the team who touched the ball down.

In both cases, the kick could be taken "in such manner as the kicker may think fit". This was interpreted as allowing a kick from hand (a punt or drop-kick), in addition to a place kick.[56] In the first ever game played under Football Association rules, (Barnes v Richmond, 19 December 1863), Barnes FC attempted six such "tries at goal", but missed all of them.[57]

Abolition (1866-1872)Edit

At the first revision of FA laws, in 1866, the free kick was removed from the game.[58] Reference to the fair catch disappeared from the laws (though catching was still permitted), while the touch down, rather than being rewarded with a free kick, became a tie-breaker to be used when an equal number of goals was scored by each team.[59]

In 1867, Sheffield Football Club proposed to the FA that handling should be banned, with a free kick awarded as punishment for handball.[60] Records of the FA's annual meeting do not indicate that this proposal received any formal discussion, and it was not adopted:[61] however, a similar proposal was incorporated into the inaugural laws of the Sheffield Football Association later that same year.[62]

In 1870, handling was completely banned in the FA laws, upon the basis of a proposal by Upton Park FC.[63] Wanderers FC and Civil Service FC both suggested that handling should be punished with a throw-in to the opposition, but their proposals were not adopted.[64]

Reintroduction (1872-3)Edit

In 1872, the free kick was reintroduced, on the basis of a proposal by Harrow Chequers F.C.. It was awarded for handball only, and was indirect, meaning that a goal could not be scored directly.[65] The 1872 laws neglected to define exactly how a free kick should be taken; this omission was made up in 1873, when it was specified that the ball must be on the ground, with opponents at least six yards from the ball, unless behind their own goal-line.[66] These restrictions were proposed by Clapton Pilgrims, and amended by Francis Marindin of Royal Engineers FC.

Subsequent developmentsEdit

Position of opponentsEdit

In 1913, the distance opponents were required to retreat was increased from six yards to ten yards.[67] In 1936, it was further specified that players could be less than ten yards away only if they were on the goal-line between the posts (rather than anywhere on the goal-line).[68]

In 1965, opponents were required to remain outside the penalty area when a free kick was being taken from within the kicking team's penalty area. (A similar change had been made to the laws for the goal kick in 1948).[69]

Position of teammatesEdit

In 2019, members of the team taking the free-kick were forbidden from standing within one metre of any "wall" made by the defensive team.

Putting the ball into playEdit

In 1887, it was specified that "[t]he ball must at least be rolled over before it shall be considered played".[70] This requirement was made more precise in 1895: the ball "must make a complete circuit or travel the distance of its circumference" before being in play.[71] In 1997, this requirement was eliminated: the ball became in play as soon as it was kicked and moved (and left the penalty area, if necessary; see below).[72] In 2016, it was specified that the ball must "clearly" move.[73]

In 1937, a free kick taken within the kicking team's own penalty area was required to leave the penalty area before being considered in play. This followed a parallel change in the goal-kick law the previous year.[74] Both changes were reversed in 2019.

DribblingEdit

In 1874, the player taking the free kick was forbidden from touching the ball again until it had been played by another player.[75]

Scoring a goal directlyEdit

When reintroduced in 1872, the free kick did not permit a goal to be scored.

In 1891, the penalty kick was introduced, for certain offences committed within 12 yards of the goal-line.[76] The penalty kick permitted a goal to be scored directly (unlike the free kick, which was still exclusively indirect). In 1903 the direct free-kick was reintroduced, for the same offences penalized by a penalty kick when committed in the penalty area.[77]

In 1927, the laws were amended to prevent an own goal from being scored directly from any free kick (whether direct or indirect).[78]

Awarded within the goal areaEdit

In 1978, it was specified that a free-kick awarded to a team within its own goal-area could be taken from any point within that half of the goal-area in which the offence occurred. This change was made in order to remove any disadvantage that might come from being forced to take the kick from a "restricted position" near the goal-posts.[79] In 1992, this provision was further widened to permit such a free-kick to be taken from any point within the goal-area.[80] This change, which was proposed "to reduce time-wasting", was made in conjunction with a parallel change to the goal kick law.[81]

In 1984, it was specified that an indirect free kick awarded for an offence within within the opposing team's goal area should be taken at the closest point on the six-yard line. This change was made in order to avoid "crowding" and "jostling".[82]

Offences for which the kick was awardedEdit

As mentioned above, the free kick was revived in 1872 exclusively to punish handball. Subsequently, the number of situations for which a free kick was awarded gradually grew. In 1874, after another proposal by Harrow Chequers, it was extended to punish offside and foul play.[75] In 1882, it was further extended to cover infringements from a throw-in, and illegal dribbling from a free-kick, goal kick, or kick-off. This extension was proposed by M. P. Betts of Old Harrovians FC, and seconded by C. H. Wollaston of Wanderers FC.[83]

In 1887, the first year that the laws were changed by the recently-established International Football Association Board, the free kick was extended to punish any offence from the kick-off.[70]

In 1891, the free-kick was also extended to cover offences resulting from a drop ball (at that time, defined as "throwing the ball up").[76]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c "Laws of the Game 2019/20" (PDF). p. 88.
  2. ^ a b c LAW 13 – FREE KICKS – The direct free kick -FIFA.com
  3. ^ "Free Kick and Restart Management" (PDF). United States Soccer Federation. 10 February 2009. Retrieved 10 July 2018.
  4. ^ The following situations are excluded:
    • starting the game, starting the second half, or restarting after a goal (this is discussed in the kick-off article)
    • returning the ball into play after it has gone over the sidelines of the field of play (this is discussed in the throw-in article)
    • returning the ball into play, by the defending side, after it has gone over the goal-line (this is discussed in the goal kick article).
  5. ^ Bloxam, Matthew Holbeche (22 December 1880). "Rugby School Football Play". The Meteor. Rugby (157): 155–156.. Emphasis added.
  6. ^ Laws of Football as played at Rugby School (1845) – via Wikisource.
  7. ^ Alcock, C. W. (8 January 1898). "Association Football: No. 1 -- Its Origin". The Sportsman. London (8851): 3. Well, sir, years afterwards some one took those rules, still in force at Cambridge, and with very few alterations they became the Association Rules. A fair catch, free kick (as still played at Harrow) was struck out. [emphasis added]
  8. ^ Cambridge Rules (1856) – via Wikisource.
  9. ^ Description of the Rules of Football as played at Shrewsbury School (1855) – via Wikisource. A player who caught the ball direct from a kick could take a 'hoist' (i.e. drop kick)
  10. ^ Rules of Harrow Football (1858) – via Wikisource. Whoever catches the Ball is entitled to a free kick if he calls Three yards
  11. ^ Sheffield Rules (1858) – via Wikisource. Fair Catch is a Catch from any player provided the Ball has not touched the ground and has not been thrown from touch and entitles a free kick
  12. ^ Melbourne Football Club (1859) – via Wikisource. Any player catching the ball directly from the foot may call 'mark'. He then has a free kick; no player from the opposite side being allowed to come inside the spot marked
  13. ^ Rules of Blackheath Football Club (1862) – via Wikisource. A fair catch is a catch direct from the foot, or a knock-on from the hand of one of the opposite side; when the catcher may either run with the ball or make his mark by inserting his heel in the ground on the spot where he catches it; in which case he is entitled to a free kick
  14. ^ Macrory, Jenny (1991). Running with the Ball: The Birth of Rugby Football. London: HarperCollins. p. 112-114. ISBN 0002184028. Technically, the touchdown was not rewarded directly with a free kick but with a "punt out" from the goal-line, which could be kicked backwards to a team-mate, who could then catch the ball, make a mark, and proceed with a free-kick as after a fair catch. The procedure is described in Tom Brown's School-Days: "An Old Boy" [Thomas Hughes] (1857). Tom Brown's School Days. Cambridge: Macmillan. pp. 119–120.:

    [Y]oung Brooke has touched it right under the School [opposition] goal-posts ... Old Brooke stands with the ball under his arm motioning the School back ... Crab Jones ... stands there in front of old Brooke to catch the ball. If [the opponents] can reach and destroy him before he catches, the danger is over ... Fond hope, it is kicked out and caught beautifully. Crab strikes his heel into the ground, to mark the spot where the ball was caught, beyond which the School line may not advance; but there they stand five deep, ready to rush the moment the ball touches the ground. ... Crab Jones ... has made a small hole with his heel for the ball to lie on, by which he is resting on one knee, with his eye on old Brooke. "Now!" Crab places the ball at the word, old Brooke kicks, and it rises slowly and truly as the School rush forward. Then a moment's pause, while both sides look up at the spinning ball. There it flies straight between the two posts, some five feet above the cross-bar, an unquestioned goal

    The simpler "conversion" that survives today in rugby and gridiron football was first used at Marlborough College, before being used in the first laws of the Rugby Football Union (1871).
  15. ^ Description of the Rules of Football as played at Marlborough College (1863) – via Wikisource. The most important points of difference between the two games [Rugby School and Marlborough] [...] are [...] the uniform distance of 30 yards in front of "touch" for the "place kick" at Marlborough, instead of the kick from an undefined place at Rugby
  16. ^ Cambridge Rules (1863) – via Wikisource. When a player has kicked the ball beyond the opponent's goal line, whoever first touches the ball when it is on the ground with his hand may have a free kick, bringing the ball 25 yards straight out from the goal line
  17. ^ Laws of Football as played at Rugby School (1845) – via Wikisource. If a player take a punt when he is not entitled to it, the opposite side may take a punt or drop, without running if the ball has not touched two hands
  18. ^ Laws of Football as played at Rugby School (1846) – via Wikisource. If a player take a punt when he is not entitled to it, the opposite side may take a punt or drop, without running, (after touching the ball on the ground) if the ball has not touched two hands, but such drop may not be a goal
  19. ^ Rules for Football at Uppingham School (1857) – via Wikisource. If any player kicks off-side, the opposite side may claim a fair kick from the place where it was kicked off-side
  20. ^ Rules of Melbourne Football Club (1860) – via Wikisource. In case of deliberate infringement of any of the above Rules by either side, the Captain of the opposing side may claim that any one of his party may have a free kick from the place where the breach of the Rules was made; the two Captains in all cases, save where Umpires are appointed, to be the sold judges of infringements
  21. ^ Old Rugbeian Society (1897). The Origin of Rugby Football. Rugby: A. J. Lawrence. p. 10. A boy of the name of Ellis — William Webb Ellis — a town boy and a foundationer, who at the age of nine entered the school after the midsummer holidays in 1816, who in the second half-year of 1823 was, I believe, a praepostor, whilst playing Bigside at football in that half-year, caught the ball in his arms. This being so, according to the then rule, he ought to have retired back as far as he pleased, without parting with the ball, for the combatants on the opposite side could only advance to the spot where he had caught the ball, and were unable to rush forward until he had either punted it or placed it for some one else to kick, for it was by means of these placed kicks that most of the goals were in those days kicked, but the moment the ball touched the ground, the opposite side might rush on.
  22. ^ Macrory, Jenny (1991). Running With the Ball. London: Collins Willow. p. 113.
  23. ^ Strictly speaking, the touch-down entitled the attacking team to a "punt-out", which could then be caught by a team-mate to set up a free kick as from a fair catch.
  24. ^ Laws of Football as played at Rugby School (1845) – via Wikisource.
  25. ^ Laws of Football as played at Rugby School (1846) – via Wikisource.
  26. ^ taken from the place the ball was caught after the "punt out" from goal
  27. ^ Illegal punt
  28. ^ Illegal punt
  29. ^ Laws of the Eton Field Game (1847) – via Wikisource.
  30. ^ The "rouge" entitled the attacker to a free kick one yard out from goal
  31. ^ Alcock, C. W. (8 January 1898). "Association Football: No. 1 -- Its Origin". The Sportsman. London (8851): 3.
  32. ^ Description of the Rules of Football as played at Shrewsbury School (1855) – via Wikisource.
  33. ^ Cambridge Rules (1856) – via Wikisource.
  34. ^ Rules for Football at Uppingham School (1857) – via Wikisource.
  35. ^ offside
  36. ^ Rules of Harrow Football (1858) – via Wikisource.
  37. ^ Sheffield Rules (1858) – via Wikisource.
  38. ^ Draft rules had free kick for handball, but removed from published version of laws
  39. ^ Rules of Melbourne Football Club (1859) – via Wikisource.
  40. ^ Rules of Melbourne Football Club (1860) – via Wikisource.
  41. ^ Any offence
  42. ^ Rules of Barnes Football Club (1862) – via Wikisource.
  43. ^ Rules of Blackheath Football Club (1862) – via Wikisource.
  44. ^ Laws of Football as played at Rugby School (1845) – via Wikisource.
  45. ^ Rouge now offers a "touch" rather than a kick
  46. ^ Laws of the Eton Field Game (1862) – via Wikisource.
  47. ^ Cambridge Rules (1863) – via Wikisource.
  48. ^ From 25 yards
  49. ^ Description of the Rules of Football as played at Charterhouse School (1863) – via Wikisource.
  50. ^ Description of the Rules of Football as played at Marlborough College (1863) – via Wikisource.
  51. ^ taken from 30 yards
  52. ^ Description of the Rules of Football as played at Winchester College (1863) – via Wikisource.
  53. ^ Laws of the Game (1863) – via Wikisource.
  54. ^ taken from 15 yards
  55. ^ This does not include the "free kick from the goal-line", which was awarded to the defending team after they touched the ball down behind their own goal-line. It is treated under the goal kick article.
  56. ^ See e.g. "Eleven of Barnes v. Mr. Greaves's Eleven". Sporting Life: 1. 27 January 1864. Hay, on the part of Barnes, touched the ball down behind his adversary's goal. Being by the new rules entitled to a free kick from fifteen yards outside the goal line, he punted the ball very neatly between the posts [emphasis added]
  57. ^ "Barnes v. Richmond". Field: 7. 26 December 1863.
  58. ^ Laws of the Game (1866) – via Wikisource.
  59. ^ The definition of a free kick remained in the 1866 laws, perhaps through oversight; the now-redundant definition was deleted in 1867.
  60. ^ "Football Association". The Sporting Life. London: 1. 3 February 1867.
  61. ^ "The Football Association". Bell's Life in London (2341): 9. 2 March 1867.
  62. ^ Sheffield Rules (March 1867) – via Wikisource. No player shall hold or carry the ball, or knock or push it on with the hand or arm. The side breaking this role forfeits a free kick to the opposite side
  63. ^ Laws of the Game (1870) – via Wikisource.
  64. ^ "Football Association". The Sportsman. London (748): 3. 2 February 1870.
  65. ^ Laws of the Game (1872) – via Wikisource.
  66. ^ Laws of the Game (1873) – via Wikisource.
  67. ^ Laws of the Game (1913) – via Wikisource.
  68. ^ "Minutes of the Annual Meeting of the International Football Association Board 1936" (PDF). p. 4. Retrieved 29 November 2019.
  69. ^ "Minutes of the Annual Meeting of the International Football Association Board 1965" (PDF). p. 2 [p. 7 of the PDF]. Retrieved 29 November 2019.
  70. ^ a b Laws of the Game (1887) – via Wikisource.
  71. ^ Laws of the Game (1895) – via Wikisource.
  72. ^ "International Football Association Board: 1997 Minutes of the Annual General Meeting" (PDF). p. 133. Retrieved 3 December 2019.
  73. ^ "IFAB: Law Changes 2016-17" (PDF). p. 42. Retrieved 3 December 2019.
  74. ^ "Minutes of the Annual Meeting of the International Football Association Board 1937" (PDF). p. 5. Retrieved 29 November 2019.
  75. ^ a b Laws of the Game (1874) – via Wikisource.
  76. ^ a b Laws of the Game (1891) – via Wikisource.
  77. ^ Laws of the Game (1903) – via Wikisource.
  78. ^ "Minutes of the Annual Meeting of the International Football Association Board 1927" (PDF). p. 3. Retrieved 29 November 2019.
  79. ^ "International Football Association Board: 1978 Minutes of the Annual General Meeting" (PDF). pp. 5-6 [p. 6-7 of PDF]. Retrieved 30 December 2019.
  80. ^ "International Football Association Board: 1992 Agenda of the Annual General Meeting" (PDF). pp. 10 [p. 12 of PDF]. Retrieved 30 December 2019.
  81. ^ "International Football Association Board: 1992 Minutes of the Annual General Meeting" (PDF). p. 14. Retrieved 23 October 2018.
  82. ^ "International Football Association Board: 1984 Minutes of the Annual General Meeting" (PDF). p. 4. Retrieved 16 October 2018.
  83. ^ Laws of the Game (1882) – via Wikisource.

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