Confederate States presidential election
The Confederate States presidential election of November 6, 1861 was the only presidential election held under the Permanent Constitution of the Confederate States of America. Jefferson Davis, who had been elected president and Alexander H. Stephens, who had been elected vice president, under the Provisional Constitution, were elected to six-year terms (February 22, 1862 – February 22, 1868) as the Confederate States' first permanent president and vice president.
Presidential election results map. Green denotes states won by Davis/Stephens. Numbers indicate the number of electoral votes allotted to each state.
On February 9, 1861, Jefferson Davis was elected Provisional President and Alexander H. Stephens was elected Provisional Vice President. Stephens took office on February 11 and Davis took office on February 18, 1861. On March 11, 1861, a permanent Constitution was adopted.
Article II Section 1(1) reads: "The executive power shall be vested in a President of the Confederate States of America. He and the Vice President shall hold their offices for the term of six years; but the President shall not be re-eligible."
Article II Section 1(7) of the Confederate Constitution provides citizenship to people "born in the United States prior to the 20th of December, 1860" and also requires candidates for the President of the Confederacy to have resided "within the limits of the Confederate States" for 14 years.
Article VII Section 1(2) includes instructions for electing permanent officials after the ratification of the Confederate Constitution:
When five states shall have ratified this Constitution, in the manner before specified, the Congress under the Provisional Constitution, shall prescribe the time for holding the election of President and Vice President; and, for the meeting of the Electoral College; and, for counting the votes, and inaugurating the President.
Davis and Stephens ran without opposition.
The election simply confirmed the decision that had been made by the Provisional Confederate Congress earlier in the year. Davis remained president until May 5, 1865, when the Confederate government was officially dissolved.
|Presidential candidate||Party||Home state||Popular vote(a)||Electoral
|Count||Percentage||Vice-presidential candidate||Home state||Electoral vote(b)|
|Jefferson Davis||Nonpartisan||Mississippi||47,057||97.0%||109||Alexander H. Stephens||Georgia||109|
|Needed to win||55||55|
(a) Totals reflect the popular vote in North Carolina only.
(b) Missouri and Kentucky did not participate in this election. Missouri was admitted November 28, 1861 and Kentucky December 10, 1861.
The president and vice president were not elected directly by the voters. Instead, they were elected by electors who were chosen by popular vote on a state-by-state basis. This system was established by the Confederate States Constitution, in emulation of the United States Constitution. Like the U.S. Constitution, the Confederate Constitution provided that each state would have a number of electors "equal to the whole number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress" (Article II, Section 1).
The Electoral College consisted of 109 electors. The electors (chosen in the November 6 elections) met in their respective states to cast their votes on December 4, 1861 (Confederate law mandated that electors meet on the first Wednesday in December). The Congress met in joint session on February 19, 1862 and certified the result.
|Presidential election||Electoral College vote||Electoral vote tabulated
by a joint session of Congress
|November 6, 1861||December 4, 1861||February 19, 1862||February 22, 1862|
Journal of the Congress of the Confederate States of America, 1861-1865 [Volume 5], Journal of the House of Representatives of the First Congress of the Confederate States of America, Second Day—Wednesday, February 19, 1862, page 12 and page 13
- Hart, William Octave (1916). The Democratic conventions of 1908, 1912, 1916: Republican conventions of 1912, 1916, and Progressive Convention of 1912, with other political and historical observations. Princeton University.
- "Constitution of the Confederate States of America". Wikisource. Retrieved 3 July 2013.
- "Jefferson Davis elected president of the Confederacy". This Day in History. History Channel. Archived from the original on 28 August 2013. Retrieved 3 July 2013.
- Library of Congress
- The Statutes at Large of the Provisional Government of the Confederate States of America, from the Institution of the Government, February 8, 1861, to its Termination, February 18, 1862, Inclusive
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