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Not to be confused with the former Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) from 1996–2009, currently named Unified Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) (UCPN-M) from 2009 onwards, nor the new 2014 breakaway faction officially deemed CPN (M) and renamed Communist Party of Nepal in 2017 form its 8th national congress (Thabang Congress), led by Bikram Chand.

The Communist Party of Nepal (Nepali: नेपाल कम्युनिष्ट पार्टी), or CPN, is a communist party in Nepal. It was founded on November 24, 2014 and is currently led by General Secretary Netra Bikram Chand (commonly known as Biplav). The faction was compelled to form a new party as the UCPN-M Chairman Prachanda (Pushpa Kamal Dahal), Vice-Chairman and Prime Minister Baburam Bhattarai and CPN-Revolutionary Maoist led by Mohan Bidhya "Kiran" deviated from the party line.[1]

Communist Party of Nepal

नेपाल कम्यूनिष्ट पार्टी
SpokespersonKhadga Bahadur Vishwakarma "Prakanda"
Political positionFar-left



Leaders of the Communist Party of Nepal

The term Communist Party of Nepal Maoist, abbreviated CPNM, has been used by many independent groups since 1995 and has become a major source of confusion for observers with so much name swapping and trivial syntax matters: dashes, spaces, double dashes, parenthesis can be all that differentiate different parties. Technically, Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) (CPN (M)), officially with parenthesis, not dashes, was first formed in 1995 following a split in the Communist Party of Nepal (Unity Centre), through the use of the dashed abbreviation CPN-M though syntactically incorrect, had been widespread. A radical faction led by Pushpa Kamal Dahal alias Comrade Prachanda and Baburam Bhattarai set up the CPN (Maoist) and denounced the Communist Party of Nepal-Unified Marxist-Leninists (CPN-UML) and other mainstream communist factions as 'renegades' and 'revisionists' due to their participation in the parliamentary process. It resorted to an armed struggle on February 13, 1996, by attacking police stations in the Rukum and Rolpa districts in northwestern Nepal and thereby declaring a 'People's War' in Nepal.[2] CPN (M) took power in Nepal after winning the war and the agreement with the seven Party alliance and ending imperial rule and has been a part of the Government in Nepal since then. On January 13, 2009, joint meeting of the central committees of CPN (Maoist) and Communist Party of Nepal-Unity Centre (CPN-Unity Centre) decided to name the new party as Unified CPN-Maoist (UCPN-M). Ironically, Prachanda and Baburam Bhattarai both are now major players and supporters of the parliamentary process, major factors that have won their party removal from US list of terrorist organizations.[3]

On 19 June 2012, a dissident group around Unified Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) (UCPN-M) vice-president Mohan Baidya (alias Kiran) announced the formation of a new party: Communist Party of Nepal - Maoist or Nepal Communist Party (Maoist) or CPN-M. Baidya said the UCPN-M was destroying the achievement of the "People's War" and he announced a vertical split. The party is registered as SN 6 with the Election Commission of Nepal and has as election symbol the "Hammer and Sickle inside a circle." The announcement of the split from the UCPN-M and formation of the new outfit came at the end of the three-day national gathering of the followers in Kathmandu. The dissident party decided to split as they thought it's not fit to be associated with the mother party which is filled with opportunists. Echoing Prachanda's group in its early years, it enforced many a banda, yet unlike its predecessor, it capitalized on popular anti-India sentiment and claimed the mother party gives away too much sovereignty to India. CPN-M enforced trade stoppage with India confiscated Hindi popular music and movies. This agitation had continued numerous times until the April 2015 Nepal earthquake interrupted politics with its destruction.

In November 2015 Communist Party of Nepal was formed in the leadership of Netra Bikram Chand "Biplav" splitting from CPN-M lead by Mohan Baidhya. Biplav Said that CPN-M now CPN-Revolutionary Maoist couldn't prove its splitting from Prachanda and Baburam. He blamed that Kiran couldn't lead the party to a new stage of the revolution.


The party leaders say that the party has adopted the line of unified people's revolution. Scientific socialism is their political program.[4]

Organizational structureEdit

Standing committee
Central committee
Regional bureaus
Sub-regional bureaus
District committees
Area committees
Cell committee

General secretary is Netra Bikram Chand (alias Biplav), spokesperson is Khadga Bahadur Vishwakarma (alias Prakanda). Among the most prominent of the representatives for the international bureaus is Dharmendra Raj Bastola (alias Kanchan). Spokesperson Khadga Bahadur Vishwakarma "Prakanda" 2008 Constituent Assembly election was elected from the Kalikot-1 constituency, winning 27629 votes.[5]

Recent activitiesEdit

The Communist Party of Nepal has issued a warning against the screening of Hindi films and operation of vehicles bearing Indian number plates in 10 districts, saying that anybody defying its ban will face the consequences. The party imposed the ban in the districts under the Tamsaling Ethnic State Committee, including Chitwan, Makwanpur, Dhading, and Kavre. It is claimed that the move was aimed at protecting national sovereignty.

As claimed, the party has banned the screening of Hindi movies and broadcast of Hindi songs in these districts in an attempt to promote Nepali films and songs. The ban on operation of vehicles with Indian number plates has also been imposed as a large number of such vehicles are found transporting agriculture goods from India, which has resulted in the domestic produce losing out the market in the country. The party has warned that anybody defying the ban will face the consequences.

Following the CPN's ban order, different broadcast media based in Chitwan and Makawanpur have stopped playing Hindi songs. Meanwhile, a delegation comprising representatives from the broadcast media based in the districts have urged the CPN's Chitwan District committee to withdraw the ban.[6]


The CPN leaders claim that they are not taking the issue lightly. General Secretary Netra Bikram Chand claims that the party will raise arms if the government remained indifferent towards their demands. The CPN warns everyone should take the statements of their General Secretary seriously.

The CPN warns the government that they could also take a risky way to ensure that their demands were fulfilled. The party claimed the right to revolt if the government ignored their needs and kept on lingering. The party has not taken any decision of registering the party with the Election Commission, giving space for the people to doubt over their intention. The party committees have also been providing training to their lower members to remain alert for the upcoming storm.

General Secretary of the party Netra Bikram Chand, who is said to be the brain behind the split from UCPN-Maoist led by Prachanda and CPN-Maoist led by Kiran, visited China several times before splitting. On his China visit, it is said that it was courtesy of all the diplomats to say that the parties should remain united. Sources in the party said Biplav is on vigorous preparation of armed revolution at a time when the United States has just removed the UCPN-M from its terrorist list.

However, the party leaders say that the party has adopted the line of unified people's revolution but will not take up arms immediately and it may take time. Prakanda, the spokesperson of the party, said the fight of Nepalese people for their rights, freedom, and sovereignty had not completed yet.

The government has said that there were three types of demands: Firstly, the ones that could be fulfilled immediately. Second, the variety of requests were to be fulfilled along with the revolution with publicity, and the third ones were misleading. He had said that the demands, including the one regarding the Tribhuvan International Airport, were misleading.

Explaining the significance of the demands, Dharmendra Raj Bastola said that would be the basis for the party to begin struggle throughout the nation and attract public sentiment. "We will begin struggle from the common household problems including increasing inflation and then talk about national independence among others," he said.

2014 splitEdit

On November 24, 2014, secretary Netra Bikram Chand "Biplav" left the party. On 29 of November, he announced the formation of a new party named Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) now Communist Party of Nepal. Removing the dash and using the previous name of UCPN(m), used during the People's war. A three-day long gathering was held where Biplav was appointed as a coordinator. The gathering called on a national gathering to finalize the party structure.

Biplav's faction included 12 members of the central committee.

See alsoEdit


  1. ^
  2. ^
  3. ^ "Archived copy". Retrieved 24 June 2017.
  4. ^ [1]
  5. ^ Election Commission of Nepal
  6. ^ [2]