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Ice core data of Glacial and Interglacial periods during the Quaternary.

Climate state describes a state of climate on Earth and similar terrestrial planets based on a thermal energy budget, such as the greenhouse or icehouse climate state.

The main climate state change is between periodical glacial and interglacial cycles in Earth history, studied from climate proxies. The climate system is responding to the current climate forcing and adjusts following climate sensitivity to reach a climate equilibrium, Earth's energy balance. Model simulations suggest that the current interglacial climate state will continue for at least another 100,000 years, due to CO
emissions - including complete deglaciation of the Northern Hemisphere.[1]



Timeline of glaciations (Ice Ages), shown in blue. The periods without glaciation are considered greenhouse states.

The orbital forcing from Milankovitch cycles is a periodical factor to determine Earth's energy budget and responsible for the glacial cycles on Earth, depending on the radiative equilibrium. Other factors include processes and change in geospheric systems. These include oceanic processes (such as oceanic circulation), biotic processes, variations in solar radiation received by Earth, plate tectonics, volcanism, albedo vegetation changes and human-induced alterations of the natural world.

The greenhouse has been the dominant state in Earth's past. Recovered ocean sediments of the past 120 million years contain evidence of the long-term transition from a greenhouse to icehouse climate state.[2] A time when there are no glaciers on Earth is considered a greenhouse climate state.[2][3][4] An ice age implies the presence of extensive ice sheets at Earth polar regions. The time during an Ice Age glacial period, when glaciers reach their maximum extent is referred to as icehouse climate state. There have been five known ice ages in the Earth's past, with the Earth experiencing currently an interglacial period (warming) during the present Quaternary Ice Age, identified as the "marine isotope stage 1" (MIS1) in the Holocene epoch (or recently the Anthropocene epoch).

The current climate state and evidence from the past of the climate system are important in determining the future evolution of climatic anomalies.[5][6] Dansgaard–Oeschger events are considered switches between states of the climate system.[7] Tipping points in the climate system describe thresholds, such as ice-albedo feedback[8][9] which can cause abrupt climate change, and possibly leading to a new state. The climate state affects the formation processes of large volcanic provinces.

Climate statesEdit

In the past the planet's climate has been fluctuating between two dominant states: the Greenhouse and the Icehouse state.[10]

In the past, weathering of silicate rocks sequestered CO2, a negative feedback loop which maintained Earth's climate within a habitable range over millions of years. When atmospheric CO2 concentration rise, temperature and precipitation increase and thereby enhance chemical weathering. The last time global temperature reached a long-term maximum was during the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum, 51–53 million years ago (See also Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum). Only over the past 34 million years have CO2 concentrations been low, temperatures relatively cool, and the poles glaciated. This long- term shift in Earth's climatic state resulted, in part from differences in volcanic emissions, which were particularly high during parts of the Palaeocene and Eocene epochs (about 40–60 million years ago) but have diminished since then.[11]


A Hothouse climate state refers to higher average global temperatures reached in Earth's geologic record, such as during the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum.[12] A 2018 study concluded that we soon could cross a temperature threshold that would initiate self-reinforcing feedbacks, leading to an additional temperature rise not seen for at least 1.2 million years. The BBC cites the researcher as saying, "The climate might stabilize with 4-5 degrees C of warming above the pre-industrial age. Thanks to the melting of ice sheets, the seas could be 10-60 metres higher than now. Essentially, this would mean that some parts of the Earth would become uninhabitable." The study tries to answer where exactly this temperature threshold is, suggesting that it could be below the 2 °C temperature target agreed upon by the Paris climate deal, with risks increasing sharply at higher temperatures.[13][14][15]

In astronomy, a runaway greenhouse effect can result in a planet's water boiling off, as happened on Venus.[16] On Earth, a forcing of 12–16 W m−2 would require CO2 to increase by a factor of 8–16 times, raising the global mean temperature by 16–24 °C. That would melt all the ice on the planet, and probably thaw methane hydrates and scorch carbon from global peat deposits and tropical forests. This forcing would not produce the extreme Venus-like baked-crust greenhouse state, which cannot be reached until the ocean is lost to space. A warming of 16–24 °C produces a moderately moist greenhouse, with water vapour increasing to about 1% of the atmosphere's mass, thus increasing the rate of hydrogen escape to space. However, if the forcing is by fossil fuel CO2, the weathering process would remove the excess atmospheric CO2 on a time scale of 104–105 years, well before the ocean is significantly depleted. Baked-crust hothouse conditions on the Earth require a large long-term forcing that is unlikely to occur until the sun brightens by a few tens of per cent, which will take a few billion years.[17]


Snowball Earth describes the Icehouse climate state during the Neoproterozoic which caused glaciation from the planet's poles to the Equator.

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ A. Ganopolski; R. Winkelmann; H. J. Schellnhuber (2016). "Critical insolation–CO2 relation for diagnosing past and future glacial inception". Nature. 529 (7585): 200–203. Bibcode:2016Natur.529..200G. doi:10.1038/nature16494. PMID 26762457.
  2. ^ a b Bralower, T.J.; Premoli Silva, I.; Malone, M.J. (2006). Leg 198 Synthesis : A Remarkable 120-m.y. Record of Climate and Oceanography from Shatsky Rise, Northwest Pacific Ocean. Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program. 198. Proceedings of the Ocean drilling program. p. 47. doi:10.2973/ ISSN 1096-2158. Retrieved April 9, 2014.
  3. ^ Christopher M. Fedo; Grant M. Young; H. Wayne Nesbitt (1997). "Paleoclimatic control on the composition of the Paleoproterozoic Serpent Formation, Huronian Supergroup, Canada: a greenhouse to icehouse transition". Precambrian Research. 86 (3–4): 201–223. Bibcode:1997PreR...86..201F. doi:10.1016/S0301-9268(97)00049-1.
  4. ^ Miriam E. Katz; Kenneth G. Miller; James D. Wright; Bridget S. Wade; James V. Browning; Benjamin S. Cramer; Yair Rosenthal (2008). "Stepwise transition from the Eocene greenhouse to the Oligocene icehouse". Nature Geoscience. 1 (5): 329–334. Bibcode:2008NatGe...1..329K. doi:10.1038/ngeo179.
  5. ^ Barnett, T. P.; Preisendorfer, R. W. (1978). "Multifield Analog Prediction of Short-Term Climate Fluctuations Using a Climate State vector". J Atmos Sci. 35 (10): 1771–1787. Bibcode:1978JAtS...35.1771B. doi:10.1175/1520-0469(1978)035<1771:MAPOST>2.0.CO;2.
  6. ^ Kyle L. Swanson; Anastasios A. Tsonis (2009). "Has the climate recently shifted?". Geophysical Research Letters. 36 (6): L06711. Bibcode:2009GeoRL..36.6711S. doi:10.1029/2008GL037022.
  7. ^ V. N. Livina; F. Kwasniok; T. M. Lenton (2009). "Potential analysis reveals changing number of climate states during the last 60 kyr" (PDF). Climate of the Past. 5 (5): 2223–2237. doi:10.5194/cpd-5-2223-2009.
  8. ^ "Albedo definition by the National Snow and Ice Data Center". Archived from the original on 2011-12-03. Retrieved 2013-09-17.
  9. ^ Croll, James (1885). Climate and Time in Their Geological Relations. A Theory of Secular Changes of the Earth's Climate. New York: Appleton.Online
  10. ^ Ian Harding (2010). "Greenhouse to icehouse: arctic climate change 55–33 million years ago" (PDF). 35 (1). Teaching Earth Sciences. A striking picture of Arctic climatic perturbations has started to emerge from these cores, specifically three major events (Thomas et al., 2006; Zachos et al., 2001): the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), the mid-Eocene Azolla Event and the greenhouse to icehouse transition at the Eocene-Oligocene boundary (EOB).
  11. ^ James C. Zachos; Gerald R. Dickens; Richard E. Zeebe (2008). "An early Cenozoic perspective on greenhouse warming and carbon-cycle dynamics". Nature. 451 (7176): 279–283. Bibcode:2008Natur.451..279Z. doi:10.1038/nature06588. PMID 18202643.
  12. ^ Michael Marshall (2011). "Humans could turn Earth into a hothouse". New Scientist. 212 (2839): 10–11. Bibcode:2011NewSc.212...10S. doi:10.1016/S0262-4079(11)62759-0.
  13. ^ Steffen; et al. (2018). "Trajectories of the Earth System in the Anthropocene". PNAS. 115 (33): 8252–8259. Bibcode:2018PNAS..115.8252S. doi:10.1073/pnas.1810141115. hdl:2078.1/204292. PMC 6099852. PMID 30082409.
  14. ^ "Climate change: 'Hothouse Earth' risks even if CO₂ emissions slashed". BBC. 2018.
  15. ^ "Domino-effect of climate events could push Earth into a 'hothouse' state". The Guardian. 2018.
  16. ^ Kasting, J. F. (1988). "Runaway and moist greenhouse atmospheres and the evolution of Earth and Venus". Icarus. 74 (3): 472–494. Bibcode:1988Icar...74..472K. doi:10.1016/0019-1035(88)90116-9. PMID 11538226.
  17. ^ James Hansen; Makiko Sato; Gary Russell; Pushker Kharecha (September 2013). "Climate sensitivity, sea level and atmospheric carbon dioxide". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences. 371 (2001): 20120294. arXiv:1211.4846. Bibcode:2013RSPTA.37120294H. doi:10.1098/rsta.2012.0294. PMC 3785813. PMID 24043864.