"Circus" is the second single from American singer Britney Spears' sixth studio album of the same name (2008). It was released on December 2, 2008 (Spears' 27th birthday), by Jive Records. Written by Dr. Luke, Claude Kelly and Benny Blanco, "Circus" is a metaphor for the public's perception of Spears' life. After she listened to the track for the first time, she felt inspired to create an album and a tour with a circus theme. "Circus" is an uptempo electropop and dance-pop song with elements of pop rock and "half-rapped" vocals. The song's lyrics talk about being an entertainer and putting on shows.
|Single by Britney Spears|
|from the album Circus|
|Released||December 2, 2008|
|Britney Spears singles chronology|
"Circus" was well received by contemporary critics, with reviewers complimenting Spears' confident persona and praising the song's electronic production. "Circus" was a commercial success, peaking inside the top-ten in Australia, Canada, Denmark, New Zealand, and Sweden, while reaching top-twenty positions in many European countries. The song reached number three on the Billboard Hot 100 and number one on American pop radio and is her second best-selling digital song in the United States, having sold over 3.2 million downloads as of July 2016. On a global scale, "Circus" was one of the top 10 best selling songs of 2009 with 5.5 million digital copies sold that year across the world, according to the IFPI.
The music video, directed by Francis Lawrence, was released on December 4, 2008. It portrays Spears as the ringmaster of a circus accompanied by different performers, and it is interspersed with scenes of Spears in different circus settings. The video received positive reviews from critics, but was criticized by PETA for featuring "cruelly trained animals". However, the exhibitors denied these claims. Spears performed the song on Good Morning America on December 2, 2008. It was also the opening number of The Circus Starring Britney Spears (2009), where she was dressed in a ringmistress outfit, designed to represent a metamorphosis. Spears has also performed the song during her residency concert Britney: Piece of Me. The song appears in Just Dance 2016.
"Circus" was written by Dr. Luke, Benny Blanco and Claude Kelly, while produced by Luke and Blanco. Luke and Kelly were initially commissioned to work on a new track for Spears, and entered the studio with no concept prepared, as Kelly explained, "just knowing her style and knowing what she does." After Luke came up with the music, they based the song on the public's perception of her life at the time. Spears explained that after listening to "Circus" for the first time, she felt inspired and imagined a story behind it. She also stated, "['Circus'] put the whole album together as far as what I wanted my show to be like. You can play with a circus in so many different ways". "Circus" was recorded at Conway Recording Studios and Chalice Recording Studios in Los Angeles, California, and at Glenwood Place Studio in Burbank, California. Background vocals were provided by Cathy Dennis, Kelly and Myah Marie. Main instrumentation was done by Luke and Blanco. The song was mixed by Serban Ghenea at MixStar Studios in Virginia. "Circus" was announced on October 31, 2008, as the second single from the album, and was officially serviced to American radio stations on December 2, 2008.
Music and lyricsEdit
"Circus" is an uptempo electropop and dance-pop song, with a stomp box beat and elements of pop rock. The song opens with the sound of a drum and builds until Spears starts singing, "There's only two types of people in the world/The ones that entertain and the ones that observe". Spears delivers confident and "half-rapped" vocals, with the verses having usage of synthesizers. Lyrically, the song talks about being an entertainer and putting on shows. She explains her emotions while performing in lines such as: "I feel the adrenaline moving through my veins / Spotlight on me and I'm ready to break". The chorus begins with an electronic sound, while she compares herself, as well as performing to being on the center of a circus ring. According to the sheet music published at Musicnotes.com by Alfred Publishing, "Circus" is composed in the key of F# minor with 120 beats per minute, however on the album the song is 115 beats per minute. Spears's vocal range spans from G#2 to C#5. Kelly commented that "Circus" was "a cool way to get people dancing and having fun", but also have a slight message.
Nick Levine of Digital Spy described it as "a rampaging monster of a song whose chorus kicks off with a Max Martin-style and Timbaland thump". Popjustice praised the production of the song, compared it to "Break the Ice" and added, "there's a lot of stopping and starting, including a built-in MTV-style dance breakdown segment." Chris Williams of Billboard in its single review appreciated the song for surrounding Spears with "an electronic cyberpop landscape". In the album review, Ann Donahue of Billboard criticized the lyrics for rehashing the theme of fame and compared it to "Lucky" (2000) and "Piece of Me" (2007). Dave De Sylvia of Sputnikmusic said that while "Womanizer" sounded like a Blackout track, "Circus" is more reflective of the album's general mood. Dan Cairns of The Sunday Times named it one of the standout tracks of the album, along with "If U Seek Amy" and "Mannequin". Entertainment Weekly writer Chris Willman noted that, despite the album being titled Circus, the title track is "not about the madhouse her life has become but just a brag about her prowess as a whip-cracking sexual ringmaster."
BBC Music's Talia Kraines thought that the singer "loves the attention being shone directly on her as the 'ringleader' as she sings of adrenaline flowing through her veins when it's time to put on a show." Ben Norman of About.com considered the song a "true and triumphant Britney Spears pop song with a pensive underbelly (the first verse in particular) and a supremely executed hook." Jonny Mugwump of The Quietus said, "a paean to her performance adrenalin, ["Circus" is] a medium-paced, big power-popper topped with an orbit-esque guitar," and commented that the song's lyrics highlight Spears' uniqueness – "the fuck you attitude. Despite everything, regardless of the personal destruction and undoubted hell she might still be haunted by, within the fictional space of the music, this woman couldn't give a damn. She rightly taunts the world around her, sounding utterly defiant. There is no place for apology or humble platitudes." John Murphy of musicOMH also praised its lyrics, describing them as "a confident, and encouraging, return to form." "Circus" was nominated at the 2009 Teen Choice Awards in the category of Choice Music: Single, but lost to Miley Cyrus's "The Climb".
On December 20, 2008, "Circus" debuted at number three on the US Billboard Hot 100 due to digital sales of over 212,000 units. It was her first top-ten debut on the chart. On the week of March 7, 2009, the song reached number one on the Pop Songs chart and number three on the Hot Dance Club Songs chart. As of March 2015, "Circus" has sold 3.2 million digital downloads in the United States according to Nielsen Soundscan. It is her second best-selling digital single in the country.
In Canada, the track debuted at number two based solely on digital downloads, being blocked from ascending to the top spot by Lady Gaga's "Poker Face". On December 8, 2008, "Circus" entered the Australian Singles Chart at number fifteen, becoming the "Highest Debut" of the week. On December 22, 2008, the song peaked at number six. It was certified platinum by the Australian Recording Industry Association (ARIA) for sales over 70,000 units. In New Zealand, "Circus" peaked at number four, and was certified gold by the Recording Industry Association of New Zealand (RIANZ) for selling over 7,500 copies. The song was also successful in Europe, peaking at number twelve on the European Hot 100 Singles on March 21, 2009. "Circus" also reached the top ten in Sweden and the top twenty in Austria, Czech Republic, Finland, Norway, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. According to The Official Charts Company, the song has sold 223,000 copies in the United Kingdom and is her thirteenth best selling single in the country. It became the tenth best selling digital single of 2009, selling 6 million copies worldwide. As of May 2020, "Circus" has generated over 212 million streams in the US.
Development and synopsisEdit
The music video for "Circus" was filmed from October 28 to November 2, 2008 in Los Angeles, California. It was directed by Francis Lawrence, who previously worked with Spears on the music video for her 2001 single "I'm a Slave 4 U". Spears chose Lawrence, since he was the "only person who could capture it, make it really twisted, eccentric and different". On November 17, 2008, an exclusive three-second clip premiered during a promo for her documentary Britney: For the Record. The video was set to be released on December 5, 2008 on Entertainment Tonight, but it was moved at the last minute to December 4, 2008.
The video begins with Spears at a vanity, putting Curious on and earrings by Bulgari. She is then seen holding a top hat in front of her face, while doves fly out of another hat. Spears starts singing in the vanity but stands up and puts on a ringmaster jacket. She walks through an aisle while dancing suggestively with several circus dancers. Throughout the video, there are interspersed scenes of different circus performers, including ribbon dancers, contortionists, clowns and a mime on stilts. There are also scenes of Spears singing with the top hat, wearing a nude body stocking in front of a red curtain, with a spotlight on her. This is followed by a group dance scene in the middle of a circus ring, where Spears wears the ringmaster jacket, sequined hot pants and a feathered top hat. In the second verse, she dances with a chair and a whip wearing a nude bra covered in leaves. The video continues with a series of intercut scenes, such as Spears in slow motion in front of a shower of sparks, her surrounded by a pair of lions and in front of an elephant. During the bridge, Spears and her dancers perform a routine in front of flames. In the last chorus, Spears returns to the circus ring, surrounded by two elephants, many more circus performers, dancers and fire breathers. The video ends with Spears in the spotlight, laughing with the top hat over her head.
Davil Balls of Digital Spy described the music video as being "cheeky, seductive and more than a little bit ridiculous" and said that Spears "delivers some killer dance routines". Tim Stack of Entertainment Weekly compared the dance in the chair with the music video of "Stronger" and added that "best of all, she actually looks animated in this video and appears to be having fun". James Montgomery of MTV said that after watching the video "you are overcome with the sudden urge to go to the Big Apple Circus. Or pick up some Curious perfume. Or you know, possibly both". The music video won the category of Best Moves at the MTV Australia Awards 2009. It was also nominated for four VMAs at the 2009 awards in the categories of Best Art Direction, Best Choreography, Best Cinematography and Best Editing. It was also nominated for Best Video in the MTV Europe Music Awards 2009, but lost to Beyoncé's "Single Ladies". The video won Best Video of 2009 in Fuse TV, making Spears the only artist to win two years in a row.
On December 9, 2008, animal rights organization People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) issued a press release condemning Spears for using "cruelly trained lions and elephants" and demanding her to "stop using exotic animals in her videos and concerts once and for all". Spears had previously received criticism from the organization when she used an albino python and a caged tiger during a performance of "I'm a Slave 4 U" at the 2001 MTV Video Music Awards. Kari Johnson from Have Trunk Will Travel responded, saying, "[the company] has never issued a written endorsement, nor does it condone using electrical devices to discipline and control elephants except in situations where elephant or human safety is at risk. [...] The American Humane Association monitors animal action in film and television. A representative was on the set of the Britney Spears 'Circus' video with our elephants, Tai and Kitty, to ensure their safety and welfare [...] Britney, the director, producers and the entire crew were respectful of the elephants' needs and comfort and a pleasure to work with." Circus got a certified in the digital platform VEVO after reach 100 million views on YouTube.
"Circus" was performed on December 2, 2008 at American morning talk show Good Morning America, along with "Womanizer". She wore a midriff-baring shirt, leather pants, a ringmaster jacket and a top hat. "Circus" was a major part on The Circus Starring Britney Spears (2009), as the opening number of the show. The costumes of the performance were selected to show a metamorphosis. The show began with a video introduction featuring Perez Hilton as Queen Elizabeth I, welcoming the audience to the circus. In the middle of the video, the cylinder screen surrounding the stage started to rise, while Spears appeared on the video and shot Hilton with a crossbow, causing him to fall backwards onto the floor. As the video ended, Spears started to descend from the ceiling on a suspended platform, wearing a cheetah headdress, a ringmaster jacket, black shorts, high-heeled boots and carrying a whip. The headdress represented an animal. When she reached the stage, she took it off to represent both a ringmaster and a lion tamer and "Circus" started. It featured acrobats taking the stage and spinning on giant rings in the air. The performance ended with Spears taking off her ringleader jacket to reveal a Swarovski-crystal corset, representing a slave. She then ran into the center of the main stage, surrounded by jets of smoke, to enter a golden cage and perform "Piece of Me". People writer Chuck Arnold wrote that Spears, "descending from above in a red ringmaster-meets-dominatrix outfit" to sing the song, "showed that her body was tight, even if her dancing always wasn't." James Montgomery of MTV considered both "Circus" and "Radar" performances "great". Spears included the song on her current residency show in Las Vegas, Britney: Piece of Me. For the performance, Spears appears from the back of the stage, in the center of a fiery ring, resembling a circus showgirl.
Credits and personnelEdit
- Britney Spears – lead vocals
- Lukasz Gottwald – songwriting, production, drums, keyboards, programming, guitar
- Claude Kelly – songwriting, background vocals
- Benjamin Levin – songwriting, production, drums, keyboards, programming
- Serban Ghenea – mixing
- John Hanes – Pro Tools editing
- Cathy Dennis – background vocals
- Myah Marie – background vocals
|New Zealand (RMNZ)||Gold||7,500*|
|United Kingdom (BPI)||Silver||223,000|
*sales figures based on certification alone
|United States||December 2, 2008||Rhythm crossover radio||Jive|||
|Spain||February 17, 2009||Digital download (EP)||Sony|||
|Austria||February 20, 2009|||
|France||February 23, 2009||Digital download (Remix EP)|||
|Canada||February 24, 2009|||
|Austria||February 27, 2009||CD single||Sony|||
|United States||November 9, 2009||Digital download (Digital 45)||Jive|||
|Austria||August 30, 2013||Digital download (Twister Rave Remix)||Sony|||
|United States||September 6, 2013||RCA|||
- Trust, Gary (July 17, 2016). "Ask Billboard: Britney Spears' Career Sales & How Big a Hit Will 'Make Me' Be?". Billboard. Prometheus Global Media. Retrieved July 17, 2016.
- "Digital Music Sales Around The World" (PDF). International Federation of the Phonographic Industry. January 21, 2010. p. 10. Retrieved December 15, 2010.
- Circus liner notes. Jive Records (2008)
- Bouwman, Kimbel (May 24, 2010). "A&R, Record Label / Company, Music Publishing, Artist Manager and Music Industry Directory". HitQuarters. Archived from the original on November 19, 2010. Retrieved November 9, 2010.
- Britney Spears (2008). Circus (Bonus DVD). Jive Records.
- Reporter, Jennifer (October 31, 2008). "Britney's Next Single: 'Circus'". BritneySpears.com. Brandcasting Unlimited. Archived from the original on December 17, 2008. Retrieved November 9, 2010.
- "Available for Airplay". FMQB. Retrieved January 4, 2010.
- Kelly, Claude; Gottwald, Lukasz; Blanco, Benny (2008). "Digital Sheet Music – Britney Spears – TCircus". Musicnotes.com. Kobalt Music Publishing Inc.
- Reporter, Pop Justice (November 11, 2008). "It's some Britney bits". Popjustice. Archived from the original on December 19, 2008. Retrieved January 4, 2010.
- MacBain, Hamish (November 28, 2008). "Circus Review". NME. Retrieved December 26, 2011.
- Murphy, John (December 1, 2008). "Britney Spears — Circus (RCA)". musicOMH. Retrieved December 26, 2011.
- De Sylvia, Dave (November 30, 2008). "Britney Spears Circus". Sputnikmusic. Jeremy Ferwerda. Retrieved January 4, 2010.
- "Digital Sheet Music – Britney Spears Circus". MusicNotes.com. Alfred Publishing Company. Missing or empty
- Levine, Nick (November 10, 2008). "Music — The Sound — Notes on the new Britney album". Digital Spy. Hachette Filipacchi (UK) Ltd. Retrieved November 9, 2010.
- Williams, Chris (January 17, 2009). "Circus Single Review". Billboard. Nielsen Company. ISSN 0006-2510.
- Donahue, Ann (December 6, 2008). "Circus Album Review". Billboard. Nielsen Company. ISSN 0006-2510.
- Cairns, Dan (November 30, 2009). "Britney Spears: Circus — the Sunday Times review". The Sunday Times. News Corporation. Retrieved November 9, 2010.
- Willman, Chris (November 29, 2008). "Circus Review". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved December 26, 2011.
- Kraines, Talia (November 28, 2008). "Britney Spears Circus Review". BBC Music. Retrieved December 26, 2011.
- Norman, Ben (December 2, 2008). "Britney Spears – 'Circus'". About.com. Rovi Corporation. Archived from the original on July 7, 2011. Retrieved December 26, 2011.
- Mugwump, Jonny (December 2, 2008). "Reviews: Britney Spears — Circus". The Quietus. Retrieved December 26, 2011.
- Lamb, Bill (2009). "Teen Choice Awards 2009 Music — Your Guide to Music at the 2009 Teen Choice Awards". About.com. The New York Times Company. Retrieved December 18, 2010.
- Hasty, Katie (December 10, 2008). "Britney's 'Circus' Debuts Atop Album Chart". Billboard. Nielsen Company. Retrieved January 4, 2010.
- "Circus — Britney Spears". Billboard. Nielsen Company. Retrieved January 4, 2010.
- "Canada Singles Top 100". Canadian Hot 100. acharts.us. December 20, 2008. Retrieved November 9, 2010.
- "Australia Singles Top 50 (December 8, 2008) – Music Charts". Australian Singles Chart. acharts.us. December 8, 2008. Retrieved November 9, 2010.
- "Australia Singles Top 50 (December 22, 2008) – Music Charts". Australian Singles Chart. acharts.us. December 8, 2008. Retrieved November 9, 2010.
- "Britney Spears — Circus ARIA certification". Australian Recording Industry Association. Archived from the original on February 12, 2012. Retrieved November 9, 2010.
- "Chart: Circus gold certification". Recording Industry Association of New Zealand. Archived from the original on December 16, 2008. Retrieved November 9, 2010.
- "Circus on world charts". Ultratop 50. 2009. Retrieved January 4, 2010.
- "UK Singles Top 75". The Official Charts Company. acharts.us. February 1, 2009. Retrieved January 4, 2010.
- "Britney Spears: her biggest selling singles and albums revealed". Official Charts Company. Retrieved July 11, 2015.
- "IFPI Digital Music Report 2010" (PDF). International Federation of the Phonographic Industry. ifpi.org. 2010. Retrieved January 22, 2010.
- Trust, Gary (May 15, 2020). "Britney Spears' Career Sales & Streams, In Honor of 20 Years of 'Oops!...I Did It Again': Ask Billboard Mailbag". Billboard. Prometheus Global Media. Retrieved May 15, 2020.
- Vena, Jocelyn; Elias, Matt (November 21, 2008). "Britney Spears Doc Shows 'Where She Is And Where She Is Going,' Manager Larry Rudolph Says". MTV. MTV Networks. Retrieved January 5, 2010.
- Staff Reporter (November 17, 2008). "Get Excited For the New For the Record Promo". BritneySpears.com. Brandcasting Unlimited. Archived from the original on March 7, 2009. Retrieved November 10, 2010.
- Montgomery, James (December 5, 2008). "Britney Spears' 'Circus' Video — Check It Out Here!". MTV. MTV Networks. Retrieved November 9, 2010.
- Balls, David (December 5, 2008). "Britney cracks her whip for 'Circus' video!". Digital Spy. Hachette Filipacchi (UK) Ltd. Retrieved January 4, 2010.
- Stack, Tim (December 5, 2008). "Britney's 'Circus' video: Sensation or sideshow?". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved January 4, 2010.
- James, Sarah Louise (March 27, 2009). "Best Bits and Winners: the Vodafone MTVAAs!". MTV Australia. MTV Networks. Retrieved October 11, 2010.
- MTV News Staff (August 4, 2009). "Complete List Of MTV Video Music Award Nominees". MTV. MTV Networks. Retrieved November 10, 2010.
- MTV News Staff (September 21, 2009). "EMA Nominations Announced". MTV. MTV Networks. Retrieved January 5, 2010.
- Britannica (December 14, 2009). "Britney Wins Fuse TV's "Best of 2009"". Britney.com. Brandcasting Unlimited. Archived from the original on December 20, 2009. Retrieved November 10, 2010.
- Montgomery, James (December 9, 2008). "Britney Spears' 'Circus' Video Taken To Task By PETA, But Trainers Insist Animals Were Treated Well". MTV. MTV Networks. Retrieved January 5, 2013.
- "Britney Spears - Circus - YouTube". Vevo.com. October 25, 2009. Retrieved August 15, 2019.
- Vena, Jocelyn (December 2, 2008). "Britney Spears Wows Fans, Family With 'Good Morning America' Birthday Performance". MTV. MTV Networks. Retrieved January 5, 2010.
- Alexander, Hilary (March 2, 2009). "Britney Spears kicks off Circus world tour in New Orleans". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved December 11, 2009.
- Shriver, Jerry (March 4, 2009). "Britney in concert: The Circus is finally back in town". USA Today. Gannett Company, Inc. Retrieved December 11, 2009.
- Arnold, Chuck (March 4, 2009). "CONCERT REVIEW: Britney Yet to Hit Stride". People. Retrieved March 21, 2009.
- Montgomery, James (March 4, 2009). "Britney Spears Fits Just About Everything Into First Circus Tour Stop". MTV. MTV Networks. Retrieved March 21, 2009.
- Caulfield, Keith (December 28, 2013). "Britney Spears' Hits-Filled 'Piece of Me' Show Opens In Las Vegas: Live Review". Billboard. Retrieved December 28, 2013.
- "NMC Airplay TOP 10 Week08 (16.02.2009 - 22.02.2009)". BAMP. Archived from the original on April 9, 2009. Retrieved May 4, 2019.
- "Britney Spears Chart History (Canada CHR/Top 40)". Billboard. Retrieved November 28, 2019.
- "Britney Spears Chart History (Canada Hot AC)". Billboard. Retrieved July 10, 2020.
- "Britney Spears — Circus (Czech Airplay Chart)". Czech Airplay Chart. Archived from the original on July 5, 2006. Retrieved January 5, 2010.search
- "Britney Spears - Circus". top40.nl. Retrieved January 5, 2010.
- "Europe Official Top 100". top40-charts.com. Retrieved January 5, 2010.
- "European Radio Top 50" (PDF). Billboard. March 14, 2009. p. 51. OCLC 29800226. Retrieved June 18, 2020 – via American Radio History.
- "Les charts français". lescharts.com. Retrieved January 5, 2010.
- "Britney Spears – Global Dance Songs". Billboard. Retrieved November 25, 2020.
- "Hungarian Singles Chart" (in Hungarian). Mahasz. Retrieved November 10, 2010.
- "Media Forest: Airplay chart". mediaforest.biz. Archived from the original on April 7, 2014. Retrieved March 30, 2012.
- "Tutti i successi del 2009" (in Italian). Hit Parade Italia. Retrieved June 13, 2019.
- "Britney Spears - Circus". Tophit. Retrieved June 24, 2019.
- "Official Scottish Singles Sales Chart Top 100". Official Charts Company. Retrieved September 6, 2018.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on January 10, 2007. Retrieved February 10, 2011.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) Please insert 200904 into search
- "Britney Spears Chart History: Adult Pop Songs". Billboard.com.
- "Aria Top 100 Singles 2008". Australian Recording Industry Association. aria.com.au. Archived from the original on April 13, 2010. Retrieved January 10, 2010.
- "Aria Top 100 Singles 2009". Australian Recording Industry Association. aria.com.au. Archived from the original on November 12, 2010. Retrieved January 10, 2010.
- "Aria Top 100 Singles 2008". Billboard. Nielsen Company. Retrieved December 31, 2009.
- "Rapports annuels 2009". ultratop.be. Retrieved March 4, 2010.
- "Dutch Top 40 Year End". MegaCharts. Retrieved May 6, 2010.
- "Airplay Detection Tophit 200 Yearly – 2009". Tophit. Archived from the original on March 28, 2010. Retrieved August 9, 2019.
- "Árslistor — Árslista Singlar — 2009" (in Swedish). hitlistan.se. Archived from the original on July 27, 2010. Retrieved June 26, 2010.
- "Charts Plus Year end 2009" (PDF). Charts Plus. Retrieved July 19, 2010.
- "Billboard end of year charts". Billboard. Nielsen Company. 2009. Retrieved January 4, 2010.
- "Best of 2009: Pop Songs". Billboard. Prometheus Global Media. 2009. Retrieved December 9, 2009.
- "Best of 2009: Digital Songs". Billboard. Prometheus Global Media. 2009. Retrieved December 9, 2009.
- "ARIA Charts – Accreditations – 2009 Singles". Australian Recording Industry Association. Archived from the original on August 10, 2020. Retrieved January 10, 2015.
- "New Zealand single certifications – Britney Spears – Circus". Recorded Music NZ. Retrieved January 10, 2015.
- Myers, Justin (June 13, 2015). "Britney Spears: her biggest selling singles and albums revealed". Official Charts Company. Retrieved July 2, 2015.
- "British single certifications – Britney Spears – Circus". British Phonographic Industry. Retrieved January 10, 2015. Select singles in the Format field. Select Silver in the Certification field. Type Circus in the "Search BPI Awards" field and then press Enter.
- Trust, Gary (July 17, 2016). "Ask Billboard: Britney Spears' Career Sales & How Big a Hit Will 'Make Me' Be?". Billboard. Retrieved July 17, 2016.
- "IFPI Digital Music Report 2010" (PDF). IFPI. 2010. p. 10. Retrieved October 3, 2020.
- "available for airplay". fmqb.com. Archived from the original on January 1, 2010. Retrieved September 21, 2016.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on April 2, 2015. Retrieved March 22, 2015.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Circus - Remix EP". amazon.fr. Retrieved September 21, 2016.
- [dead link]
- Britney Spears, Circus - Remix EP, retrieved September 21, 2016
- Your name here. "Circus - Remix EP by Britney Spears on Amazon Music". Retrieved August 15, 2019.
- "Circus/Basic - Britney Spears: Amazon.de: Musik". Amazon.de. Retrieved August 15, 2019.
- "Circus/Premium - Britney Spears: Amazon.de: Musik". Amazon.de. Retrieved August 15, 2019.
- [dead link]
- Britney Spears, Circus, retrieved September 21, 2016
- http://www.ca.7digital.com/artist/britney-spears/release/circus-10[permanent dead link]
- Britney Spears, Circus, retrieved September 21, 2016
- Britney Spears, Circus, retrieved September 21, 2016