Fortress of Deva

(Redirected from Cetatea Deva)

The Fortress of Deva (Romanian: Cetatea Devei, Hungarian: Déva vára) is a fortress located in the city of Deva, Hunedoara County, Romania, on top of a volcanic hill.

The Fortress of Deva
Cetatea Devei
Déva vára
Deva, Hunedoara County, Romania
Fortress of Deva as seen from above
Site information
Open to
the public
Conditionruins in reconstruction
Site history
Builtafter 1242
In use1269–1848
EventsPeter I Csák, Palatine of Hungary defeated the Cumans,
Ferenc Dávid died in the fortress's prison,
Horea, Cloșca and Crișan's revolt besieged (unsuccessfully) the fortress
Garrison information
OccupantsJohn Hunyadi, Gabriel Bethlen

Position edit

The fortress is located atop a volcano in the Poiana Ruscă Mountain Range within the Western Carpathian Mountains of Romania. From the foot of the hill, the city of Deva spreads out, beginning with Magna Curia and the public park. Nearby are the most of the buildings of the administrative institutions of the city: the Court House, the Prefecture, the County Hall, the Finance Administration, the old police headquarters, the City Hall and two of the oldest schools in Deva: the Decebal National College and the Pedagogic Lyceum.

The fortress is connected with the foot of the hill by an inclined lift which allows tourists to reach the fortress.[1][2]

History edit

The true story of this fortress begins in the glory days of Dacia. Here they built defense fortifications and an observation point from where they could see the Mures Valley, part of the Streiului Valley, and the Forest Land. The Roman conquerors strengthened the walls and defended this fortification, the trade road that connected with the rest of the empire, also called the salt road, passed right at the foot of the Hill. And the Mures basin experienced maximum economic prosperity at the time. In the great year 1269, Deva Fortress is mentioned in a deed of donation of the young Hungarian king Stefan, son of Bela IV, who makes a donation to a Wallachian count for the bravery shown in the battle fought under the walls of Deva Fortress. Then, in 1444, Hungarian John Hunyadi took possession of the Deva Fortress with all its riches: 56 villages and gold mines. Also during his time is mentioned for the first time in a written document the fair of Deva, a settlement at the base of the hill. The Hungarian Corvin family took control of the fortress and domain of Deva in 1504.[3] The first evidence of the medieval Deva Fortress dates back to the second half of the 13th century; in 1269, Stephen V, King of Hungary and Duke of Transylvania, mentioned "the royal castle of Deva" in a privilege-grant for the Count Chyl of Kelling.[4]

The first records regarding a military operation involving the fortress dates from 1273. Under its walls, the Cumans were defeated by Peter I Csák, Palatine of Hungary (Latin: Magister Petrus de genere Chak), who was rewarded for his victory by Ladislaus IV, King of Hungary. In his letter, Ladislaus IV mentioned the facts with the words sub castro Dewa contra Cumanorum exercitur viriliter dimicavit, "fought bravely against the Cumans under the Castle of Deva".[5][6]

At the end of the 13th century, the Deva Fortress was in the property of Ladislaus Kán, Voivode of Transylvania, who organized a court besides the military garrison.[4]

The Fortress of Deva is central to the Hungarian folk tale The Wife of Clement, the Mason.[7]

Gallery edit

References edit

  1. ^ "Citadel Deva / Romania". Abs Transportbahnen - Inclined Lift Systems, Lift Elevators & Funiculars. Retrieved 2019-02-19.
  2. ^ "Acces telecabină". Retrieved 2019-02-19.
  3. ^ "Cetatea Devei: "Încă de la dacii întemeietori…"". 4 August 2018.
  4. ^ a b Octavian, Floca; Ben Bassa (1965). Cetatea Deva. Monumentele patriei noastre (in Romanian). București: Editura Meridiane. p. 14.
  5. ^ Octavian, Floca; Ben Bassa (1965). Cetatea Deva. Monumentele patriei noastre (in Romanian). București: Editura Meridiane. p. 14. sub castro Dewa contra Cumanorum exercitur viriliter dimicavit
  6. ^ Veszprémy, László (January 2005). Erik Kooper (ed.). Chronicles in Charters. Historical Narratives (narrationes) in Charters as Substitutes for Chronicles in Hungary. Rodopi. p. 194. ISBN 90-420-1875-5. Retrieved 2008-08-20. Magister Petrus de genere Chak, 1273, in castrum Feketeholm sub castro Deva viriliter dimicavit, quosdam captivando, quosdam perimendo, triumphalem victoriam reportavit; {{cite book}}: |work= ignored (help)
  7. ^ Jones, Henry (1886). "A Hungarian Folk-Tale". The Academy and Literature. 30: 73.

45°53′19″N 22°53′50″E / 45.88861°N 22.89722°E / 45.88861; 22.89722