Carry the Kettle Nakoda First Nation
Carry the Kettle Nakoda Nation (Assiniboine: Cegha Kin [Chay-gah-keen] 'Carries the Kettle', also known as Assiniboine First Nation or Assiniboine 76) is a Nakota (Assiniboine) First Nation located approximately 80 km (50 mi) east of Regina, Saskatchewan, and 13 km (8.1 mi) south of Sintaluta, Saskatchewan. The reservation is in the Treaty 4 territory.
|Main reserve||Assiniboine 76|
|On other land||0|
|File Hills Qu'Appelle Tribal Council|
- 1 History
- 1.1 Earliest relations with Canada
- 1.2 Head of the Mountain (Hey He Pa)
- 1.3 First survey for Assiniboine
- 1.4 Indian farming at Head of the Mountain
- 1.5 Removal from the Assiniboine Reserve in Cypress Hills
- 1.6 Land Claims
- 1.7 After Cypress Hills removal, new reserves
- 1.8 Assiniboine Agency (1882-1897)
- 2 Reserves
- 3 Modern day Carry the Kettle #76 or Assiniboine #76
- 4 References
The ancestors of the modern "Carry the Kettle #76" First Nation/Reserve signed adhesion to Treaty 4 at Fort Walsh on September 25, 1877. The three Assiniboine chiefs who signed the treaty 4 adhesion were Man Who Takes The Coat (Cuwiknaga Je Eyaku, in the Assiniboine/Nakoda language), Long Lodge (Teepee Hoksa), and Lean ManMosquito-Grizzly Bear's Head-Lean Man (Wica Hostaka).
Today's modern descendants of Carry the Kettle Nakoda Nation #76 are of Chief Man Who Takes the Coat's and Chief Long Lodge's bands. Chief Man Who Takes the Coat's Reserve #76 was later taken over in leadership by Carry the Kettle (Cegha Kin) after his death in 1891. Carry the Kettle was not an original signatory chief of Treaty 4.
Historically, First Nations bands signed treaties in their traditional territories or homelands. One might assume that if Carry the Kettle was in their current traditional homelands/territory (south of Sintaluta, SK), they would have been present at the initial signing of treaty 4 in Fort Qu'Appelle in 1874 or any of the other subsequent adhesions of 1875 and 1876 in the area of the prairies in treaty 4 or what is now known as southern Saskatchewan. But by signing adhesion at Fort Walsh, the Assiniboine tribes are clearly far from their traditional, ancestral lands.
A 1972 book written by Chief Dan Kennedy (Ochankugahe) entitled "Recollections of an Assiniboine Chief" recounts his people's history - when the buffalo herds began disappearing, the first white settlers, the building of the railroad, demoralizing change, and the signing of the treaties.
Earliest relations with CanadaEdit
One of the earliest encounters that Canada had with the ancestors of the modern day Assiniboine 'Carry the Kettle' First Nations band/tribe was in 1875. It was shortly after the great march west, when the newly formed NWMP came west they avoided the Cypress Hills and went around the north side of the hills, on their way to set up Fort McLeod. But it was in 1875 when the NWMP ventured into the hills from the west end under the leadership of James Morrow Walsh and the 'F' Division to investigate the 'Cypress Hills Massacre', at time, the tribe was referred to and recognized as 'The Cypress Mountain Assiniboine'. Walsh and the 'F' division did eventually make their way into the hills and to the site of the Cypress Hills Massacre, that is when they built a fort and called it 'Fort Walsh', just a mile north of the massacre site in the summer of 1875.
Upon signing an adhesion to Treaty 4 in 1877, the Assiniboine wanted a reservation in their traditional home territory of the western end of the Cypress Hills. The Head of the Mountain (Hay He Pa) 18 miles west of Fort Walsh, was and is a place of great spiritual significance to the Assiniboine. Here just south of the Head of the Mountain is Medicine Lodge Coulee, this is where the Assiniboine would hold their annual Sundance and once even invited and hosted Sitting Bull (Tatanka Iyotake) and his Lakota tribe for ceremony in 1877.
Plans for this reservation did not get underway until 1879 when the newly appointed Indian Commissioner Edgar. E. Dewdney would make an appearance in the great North West at Fort Walsh that summer. He was visiting the tribes in all of treaty 4,6 and 7 areas as the chiefs were setting up their reservations. This process was called the duty to consult or reservation creation process. He visited the Assiniboine reserve twice in 1879 at Head of the Mountain. That fall an Indian Affairs office was set up at Fort Walsh and the Indian Agent was Edwin Allen. The Department of Indian Affairs office also covered half of Dr. George Kittson's (Surgeon) salary that fall. Farm instructors as per the reserve home farm policy also filtered into the north west through Fort Walsh that fall as well. Individuals such as Norrish, Patterson, English and Setter would instruct the various First Nations bands on farming on their reservations throughout the treaty 4 and treaty 7 territories. The Farming instructor for the Assiniboine Reserve at the Head of Mountain was J.J. English.
Head of the Mountain (Hey He Pa)Edit
The Head of the Mountain (Elk Water Provincial Park-Alberta/SK Inter-provincial Cypress Hills Park) was and still is a very important place of spiritual significance for the Cypress Mountain Assiniboine (Carry the Kettle First Nations). Elder's on Carry the Kettle claimed Head of the Mountain is "an area where the reserve was established and is where many of the Nakota's ancestors were buried and it was the site of their Medicine Lodge Dance Ceremony (Sundance)".
First survey for AssiniboineEdit
The DLS in charge of surveying the reservation for the Assiniboine in the Cypress Hills was Allan Ponytz Patrick. In 1880, after consultation with the chiefs of the Assiniboine bands, A.P. Patrick, surveyed a reserve for Man Who Took the Coat, Long Lodge and Lean Man. The size of the reserve was 340 square miles. Under the reserve creation process as per the Indian Act and Treaty 4 provisions, a reserve 340 square miles was enough for 1700 band members.
The farm instructor designated to teach the Assiniboine about farming on their reservation at Head of the Mountain was J.J. English.
Indian farming at Head of the MountainEdit
The Cypress Mountain Assiniboine (now Carry the Kettle of chiefs Man Who Takes the Coat and Long Lodge & Lean Man) planted their first crops at their home farm at Head of the Mountain in both 1880 and 1881. It was in May 1881 when Canada decided to reroute the new railway in a new southerly route instead of the initial route, which would have been where today's Yellow Head Highway is. After this decision was made, fortunes turned for all tribes in the Cypress Hills. The southern farm for the Assiniboine was located in Medicine Lodge coulee as J.J. English believed that potatoes and barley could survive in the coulees environment.
Removal from the Assiniboine Reserve in Cypress HillsEdit
After five attempts by Indian Agent Edwin Allen to obtain a valid land surrender from the Assiniboine Chiefs of Long Lodge, Takes the Coat and Lean Man for their Assiniboine Reserve at Head of the Mountain, they had no choice but to remove them as railway construction was fast approaching. On two occasions the Assiniboine led by Chiefs Man who takes the Coat and Long Lodge were removed from their reserve at Head of the Mountain once in 1882 and again for good in 1883. They were forced to moved away from their reserve in the spring of 1882, they went back in 1882 and then were finally removed in 1883. Lean Man (Wica Hostaka) and Grizzley Bears Head (wahansija pa) joined the Mosquito Stoney tribe of Treaty 6 near Battleford.
The first time was in the spring of 1882, the Assiniboine Tribe arrived south of Indian Head to the surveyed reserve lands that were not consulted with by the Chiefs of the bands. The Chiefs decided to go back to their Cypress Hills Reserve in July 1882. After a very harsh winter in which rations and treaty implements were not granted, the Assiniboine tribes suffered greatly in the Cypress Hills. In May 1883, as the Canadian Pacific Railway was approaching their Assiniboine Reserve as the now modern day Alberta/Saskatchewan border, the band defended their lands. Defeated, the Assiniboine tribe of Long Lodge and Man Who Takes the Coat were loaded up on railway carts at the newly created Maple Creek town and shipped back east to these new Indian Head Reserves. Shortly after, the train derailed, leaders felt intentionally. Many died, the leaders instead walked the rest of the way to these new Reserves south of Qu'Appelle and Indian Head, SK.
In 2000 the Office of Native Claims and the Office of the Indian Claims Commissioner concluded that Canada did not owe a lawful obligation to Carry the Kettle and that there was no reservation established the Cypress Hills for the modern day descendants of the Assiniboine band back in 1879-1882.
In 2008 the band brought forward the 1905 surrender claim to the Office of the Indian Claims Commissioner and it was ruled that the Canada didn't breach any of its fiduciary obligations to the band on the 1905 surrender. However, in November 2015 the band submitted the claim for adjudication with the Specific Claims Tribunal.
After Cypress Hills removal, new reservesEdit
After being removed from their reserve in the Cypress Hills, the band was now led by Chiefs Man Who Takes the Coat and Long Lodge. Each chief had a reserve surveyed for them south of Indian Head, Saskatchewan. Each reserve was 72 square miles. Chief Long Lodge died in later in December of 1883 just south of Qu'Appelle. He was given salted pork rations and him and three of his children died shortly after pleading with Edgar Dewdney for fresh meat at Qu'Appelle.
After the death of Chief Man Who Takes the Coat in 1891, the band was led by Carry the Kettle (who was not his brother) (CeghaKin).
Assiniboine Agency (1882-1897)Edit
Upon settling on the new Assiniboine Agency, south of Indian Head, Sask in 1882 chiefs Piapot #75, Man Who Takes the Coat #76 and Long Lodge #77 were each allotted a reserve. The entire size of this agency for three Reserves was 216 square miles, each reserve being 72 square miles. Each reserve being 6 miles east to west and 12 miles north to south. By 1884 Piapot was dissatisfied with his reserve and requested to be moved elsewhere. Piapot First Nation #75 is now west of the Muscowpetung Saulteaux #80 Nation in treaty 4. Chiefs Man Who Took the Coat and Long Lodge who were each given their own reserves and the handling and administration of their lands by the department of the Department of Indian Affairs is quite murky after that, though must not be different from the fate of other reservations of other reserves in the treaty 4 area with land surrenders and such.
Modern day Carry the Kettle #76 or Assiniboine #76Edit
The reserve sits on a 72 square mile base (9 miles wide by 8 miles long) just south of Indian Head and Sintaluta, SK. The band signed Treaty Land Entitlement in 1996 with the Province of Saskatchewan and Canada. The land amount in the agreement was for 555 people or 111 square miles. Still well short of the 1700 Assiniboine who signed treaty in the Cypress Hills and had the 340 square mile reserve surveyed for them in 1880. Some 850 band members live on the reserve and the total reserve members is just under 3000. Carry the Kettle has the descendants of both Chief Man Who Takes the Coat Band and Reserve and Chief Long Lodge's band and reserve. Canada claims that Long Lodge's Band/Reserve was supposedly 'amalgamated' into Man Who Takes the Coat's (Later Carry the Kettle) Band.
Carry the Kettle currently has a land claim filed with the Specific Claims court of Canada in November 2015. This is the 1905 Surrender. The band alleges that the nine most southerly sections (along today's current 9 mile southern border) of the band's Carry the Kettle or Assiniboine #76 were illegally surrendered in 1905 by Thomas Aspin.
Carry the Kettle First Nation is a leader and is a part of the File Hills Qu'Appelle Tribal Council.
- "First Nation Detail". Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada. Government of Canada. Retrieved September 10, 2019.
- Carry the Kettle First Nation Inquiry: Cypress Hills Claim (PDF) (commission inquiry report), P.E. James Prentice, Roger J. Augustine, and Carole T. Corcoran (panel), Indian Claims Commission, July 2000, pp. 209–326, retrieved September 17, 2014CS1 maint: others (link)
- A.P. Patrick to E. Dewdney, Dec. 16 1880 in PAC, RG 10, Vol. 3730 file 26219
- Band loses bid for Cypress Hills Reserve, August 9th 2000. cbc.ca, http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/band-loses-bid-for-cypress-hills-reserve-1.238306 Retrieved: September 26, 2014
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