National Council of Ayllus and Markas of Qullasuyu

  (Redirected from CONAMAQ)

The National Council of Ayllus and Markas of Qullasuyu (Spanish: Consejo Nacional de Ayllus y Markas del Qullasuyu; CONAMAQ) is a confederation of traditional governing bodies of Quechua-, Aymara- and Uru-speaking highland indigenous communities in the departments of La Paz, Oruro, Potosí, Cochabamba, Chuquisaca and Tarija, Bolivia. Specifically, it represents the following 16 suyus: Jacha Carangas, Jatun Quillacas, Asamajaquis, Charcas Qara Qara, Council of Ayllus of Potosí, Qara Qara Suyu, Sora, Kallawaya, Leco, Larecaja, Colla, Chui, Paca Jake, Ayllus of Cochabamba, Kapaj Omasuyus and Yapacaní.[1] CONAMAQ was founded on March 22, 1997, with the purpose of restoring the self-governance of "original nations" including "collective rights to land and natural resources, re-definition of administrative units and self-determination exercised through indigenous autonomies and direct representation in state institutions."[2] CONAMAQ is a member of the National Coordination for Change, and of the Andean Coordination of Indigenous Organizations. It was a member of the Pact of Unity in Bolivia from its founding until December 2011.[3]

Full nameNational Council of Ayllus and Markas of Qullasuyu
Native nameConsejo Nacional de Ayllus y Markas del Qullasuyu
Founded22 March 1997
AffiliationAndean Coordination of Indigenous Organizations (COAI)
Key peopleSergio Hinojosa Singuri, Jiliri Apu Mallku
Herminia Colque, Jiliri Mama T’alla
Office locationLa Paz, Bolivia

Structure and LeadershipEdit

The organization's maximum governing body is its Jach'a Tantachawi, or Congress, six of which have been held so far, most recently in August 2009 in Oruro. These gatherings elect a leadership which includes two pairs of men and women: the Jiliri Apu Mallku and Jiliri Mama T’alla (first male and female leaders) and Arquiri Apu Mallku and Arquiri Mama T’alla (second male and female leaders). While theoretically equal, the male leaders represent the organization more often.

Term Chosen by Jiliri Apu Mallku Jiliri Mama T’alla Representing Arquiri Apu Mallku Arquiri Mama T’alla Representing
1997–2000 First Jacha T'antachawi, March 1997 Vicente Choqueticlla Segundina Quispe FASOR (now Jatun Killakas) Simon Cusi Cusi Pakajaqi[4]
2001–2003 Faustino Zegarra Juana Calle Apata Jach’a Karanga[4]
2003–2005 Vicente Flores Romero Lorenza Mostacedo Qhara Qhara Antonio Machaka Ajhuachu Daria Chambi Cotaña Sura[4]
2005–2007 Martin Condori Flores Erminia Sandoval Mamani FAOI-NP Mauricio Arias Alave Maria Delgado Cunurana Ayllus of Cochabamba[4]
2007–2009 Elías Quelca Mamani Ana Nieves Tarqui de Quelca Pakajaqi Domingo Cuentas Huayllani Natalia Pizarro Morales Killaka Asanajaqi (JAKISA)[4]
2009–2011 Sergio Hinojosa Singuri Herminia Colque Council of Ayllus of Potosí Gavino Apata Uvaldina Quispe Carangas Suyu of Oruro[4][1]
2011–2013 VII Jacha T'antachawi Félix Becerra Gabina Coro de Becerra Sura Aransaya Froilán Puma Carmona Elva Colque Puma Qhara Qhara Suyu[4]

Internal conflictEdit

Long a close ally of the government of Evo Morales, CONAMAQ became increasingly critical of it from 2011 onwards. The organization co-sponsored the Eight Grand National Indigenous March with the Confederation of Indigenous Peoples of Bolivia (CIDOB), backing the right of indigenous communities in the Isiboro Sécure National Park and Indigenous Territory to refuse a highway project through their land. Following the government's failed attempt to stop the march on September 25, 2011, CONAMAQ's leadership took an overtly critical tone toward the government, and left the pro-government Pact of Unity by a decision taken at its Seventh Jach'a T'antachawi.[5] Under the leadership of Felix Becerra, CONAMAQ continued to coordinate closely with CIDOB and to jointly advance a draft law on indigenous consultation authorizing local indigenous communities to exercise free, prior, and informed consent over projects on their lands.[6]

In 2013, several pro-government indigenous leaders, among them Hilarion Mamani Navarro (cacique mayor of Chichas, in Potosí Department) and Gregorio Choque Quispe (apu mallku of Kapaomasuyu, in La Paz department) campaigned to realign the movement with the government, demanding early elections to replace its national leaders. They are joined by Félix Lira of Charcas Qhara Qhara, Potosí; Jhonny Huanca of Larecaja, La Paz; Plácido Suntura of Jach’a Pakajaqi, La Paz; and Afro-Bolivian Renán Paco.[7] These leaders and their supporters briefly took over CONAMAQ's office in September,[8] one of six attempts they made to do so.[7] In December, the pro-government faction and the existing organization each held an Eighth Jach'a T'antachawi in La Paz, the former on December 9 and 10, and the latter on December 12 and 13.[9] The pro-government gathering designated Mamani and Choque as senior male leaders of the organization.[9] The organization's Jach'a T'antachawi, organized by the incumbent leadership, designated Freddy Bernabé as its leader, with Cancio Rojas as the second male leader.[10][7] On January 14, 2014, the pro-government faction, helped by the police, took the office of the organic CONAMAQ over by force. The National Assembly of Human Rights of La Paz granted the organic[11] leaders a temporary office space, but days later the pro-governmental faction, again helped by the police, invaded this office too, and the organic CONAMAQ leaders had to vacate the office space that the Assembly of Human Rights of La Paz had given to them.[12]

The Bernabé-led organization is recognized by the Andean Coordination of Indigenous Organizations and the Coordination of Indigenous Organizations of the Amazon Basin.[13] The Pact of Unity recognizes Hilarion Mamani's leadership of CONAMAQ.[14]


  1. ^ a b "Conamaq pide cumplir los convenios internacionales". Cambio. 2009-09-01.
  2. ^ Schilling-Vacaflor, Almut (2008). "Indigenous identities and politico-juridical demands of CSUTCB and CONAMAQ in the constitutional change process of Bolivia". T'inkazos. 11 (23–24). Retrieved 13 October 2010.
  3. ^ Rojas M., July (2011-12-22). "El Pacto de Unidad se debilita y se fortalece la alianza Cidob y Conamaq". Los Tiempos. Archived from the original on 2013-12-26. Retrieved 2011-12-25.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g Apaza, Ana (2013-12-19). "No respetaron rotación al elegir a Mamani y Choque". Erbol Digital. Retrieved 2013-12-26.
  5. ^ Rojas M., July (2011-12-22). "Conamaq se va del Pacto de Unidad". Los Tiempos. Archived from the original on 2013-12-27. Retrieved 2013-12-26.
  6. ^ "Pugna interna del Conamaq se reaviva". Los Tiempos. 2013-09-17. Archived from the original on 2013-12-27. Retrieved 2013-12-26.
  7. ^ a b c "Dos de 16 suyus afines al MAS quieren el control del CONAMAQ". Erbol Digital. 2013-12-17. Retrieved 2013-12-26.
  8. ^ "Pugna interna del Conamaq se reaviva". Los Tiempos. 2013-09-17. Archived from the original on 2013-12-27. Retrieved 2013-12-26.
  9. ^ a b "Hilarión Mamani, jiliri de Conamaq". Cambio. 2013-12-11. Retrieved 2013-12-26.
  10. ^ Layme, Beatriz (2013-12-24). "Mayoría de suyus reconoce a Freddy Bernabé como su líder". Página Siete. Retrieved 2013-12-26.
  11. ^ "Golpe del Estado boliviano a CONAMAQ y CIDOB". Rebecca Sommer, Sommerfilms. 2014-04-02. Retrieved 2014-04-02.
  12. ^ "Grupo del oficialista MAS asalta congreso de asamblea de DDHH de La Paz". Los Tiemposl. 2014-01-18. Retrieved 2014-04-02.
  13. ^ "CAOI respalda y ratifica a CONAMAQ de Becerra". Erbol Digital. 2013-12-12. Retrieved 2013-12-26.
  14. ^ "Pacto de Unidad del MAS: Mamani es líder de Conamaq". Erbol Digital. 2013-12-21. Retrieved 2013-12-26.

See alsoEdit

External linksEdit