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The Krivak class, Soviet designation Project 1135 Burevestnik (storm petrel), were a series of frigates and guard ships (patrol boats) built in the Soviet Union primarily for the Soviet Navy since 1970. Later some sub-branch, like the Nerey (Nereus) was designed for coastal patrol by the KGB Border Troops. Until 1977, the ships in the class were considered to be large anti-submarine warfare vessels.

Project 1135M Pytlivyy 2009 G1.jpg
A Krivak II-class frigate Pytlivyy in Sevastopol Bay, 2009.
Class overview
Name: Krivak class (Project 1135)
Builders:
Operators:
Preceded by: Riga class
Succeeded by:
Subclasses:
Planned: 41
Completed: 40 (32 1135, 1135M, 11352/11353 and 8 11351)
Cancelled: 1 (1 11351)
Active: 4 active in Russia (1 1135, 1 1135M, 2 11351), 1 active in Ukraine (1 11351)
Retired: 35
Preserved: 1
General characteristics
Type: Frigate / Guard ship SKR (Russian classification)
Displacement:
  • Standard: 3,300 tons
  • Full: 3,575 tons
Length: 405.3 ft (123.5 m)
Beam: 46.3 ft (14.1 m)
Draught: 15.1 ft (4.6 m)
Propulsion:
  • 2 shaft; COGAG
  • 2 x M-8k, 40,000 shp (30,000 kW) or DK59 13.5 MW or DT59 16.9 MW gas-turbines
  • 2 x M-62 7.4 MW or DS71 13.4 gas-turbines (cruise), 14,950 shp (11,150 kW)
Speed: 32 knots (59 km/h)
Range: 4,995 nmi (9,251 km) at 14 knots (26 km/h)
Complement: 200
Sensors and
processing systems:
  • Radar: 1 MR-755 Fregat-M/Half Plate air/surf search
  • Sonar: Zvezda-2 suite with MGK-345 Bronza/Ox Yoke bow mounted LF, Ox Tail LF VDS
  • Fire control: Purga ASW combat system, 2 Drakon/Eye Bowl SSM targeting, 2 MPZ-301 Baza/Pop Group
Electronic warfare
& decoys:
Start suite with Bell Shroud intercept, Bell Squat jammer, 4 PK-16 decoy RL, 8 PK-10 decoy RL, 2 towed decoys
Armament:
Aircraft carried: Ka-27 on Krivak III only

These ships are commonly known by their NATO reporting class name of Krivak and are divided into Krivak I, Krivak II, Krivak IV (navy), and Krivak III (coast guard) classes.

They were designed as a successor to the Riga class. The design started in the late 1950s and matured as an anti-submarine ship in the 1960s. The first ship was Bditelnyy that was commissioned in 1970.

A total of 40 ships were built, 32 ships for the Soviet Navy and 8 modified ships of the Nerey (Krivak III) subclass for the KGB Maritime Border Guard. Currently 2 vessels of the Nerey subclass are in service with the FSB Coast Guard and one is part of the Ukrainian Navy.

The ship's unique features — the bow missile box, the stack and the angled mast, earned it a rap-like nickname among U. S. sailors that comes from their foreign ship silhouette identification training — "Hot dog pack, Smokestack, Guns in Back — Krivak."[1][2]

How many ships remain in active duty is uncertain. According to some sources Russia has four units in service and the Ukrainian Navy, one.[3][4] Russian press listed three units operational in February 2008, one with the Baltic Fleet and two with the Black Sea Fleet (BSF).[5]

The Indian Navy ordered six frigates of upgraded Krivak III class as the Talwar class. Three ships were delivered in 2003–2004. Three more were delivered in 2011–2012.

On 12 October 2010, it was announced that the Yantar Shipyard at Kaliningrad had won a contract for construction of three new warships for the Russian Navy. The construction of the frigates for the Russian Navy will be carried out in parallel with the construction of the same-type frigates for the Indian Navy.[6][7]

VariantsEdit

  • Project 1135 Burevestnik (Krivak I): Design process started in 1956 as an anti-surface frigate successor to the Riga-class frigate. The role changed to an anti-submarine ship powered by gas turbines and armed with the SS-N-14 missile. The main building yards were Zhdanov Yard (now known as Northern Shipyard) (Leningrad), Yantar Yard (Kaliningrad) and Kamysh Burun Yard, (Kerch, Crimea). NATO referred to these ships as Krivak I-class. (21 ships built).
  • Project 1135M Burevestnik M (Krivak II): This group of ships were fitted with single 100 mm guns instead of the twin 76 mm weapons of the Burevestnik design. They also had a redesigned Variable Depth Sonar (VDS) installation. All of these ships were built in Kaliningrad. NATO referred to these ships as Krivak II-class. (11 ships built).
  • Project 11351 Nerey (Krivak III): These ships lacked the SS-N-14 missile system, which was replaced by a helicopter and hangar, and only one 100 mm gun at the bow of the ship. All ships were built in Kerch and were intended for the Soviet Coast Guard under KGB. Nowadays, 2 ships remain in service with the Russian FSB Coast Guard and 1 ship is in service with the Ukrainian Navy. It is believed that a single incompleted Krivak III hull (Hetman Bayda Vyshnevetsky c. 1995) from Ukraine was transferred to Russia and then to the Korean People's Navy. NATO referred to these ships as Krivak III-class. (8 ships built).
  • Project 11352/11353 (Krivak IV): This was a modernization of the Project 1135 (Krivak I) ships Leningradski Komsomolets (renamed Legkiy in 1992), Letuchiy, Pylkiy and Zharkiy of the Krivak I group. The refit involved replacing the RBU-6000 anti-submarine mortars with SS-N-25 anti-ship missiles, new radar, sonar and ECM equipment. These ships completed their refits in 1990–92, and others were to have been modernised but the programme was cancelled with the collapse of the Soviet Union. NATO referred to these ships after their modernization as Krivak IV-class.
  • Project 11356 (Talwar class): This is an advanced derivative built for the Indian Navy from 1999 to 2012. Three improved Nerey frigates were ordered by the Indian Navy on 17 November 1997. They are known as Talwar-class frigates in Indian naval service. Three more, armed with the Brahmos missile, were ordered on 14 July 2006.[8] (6 ships built).
  • Project 11356P/M (Admiral Grigorovich class): Derivative of the Talwar-class intended for the Russian Navy. Six ships were ordered for the Russian Black Sea Fleet under two contracts signed in 2010–2011, with the first ship laid down on 18 December 2010. However, due to the non-delivery of the Ukrainian gas-turbines, construction of frigates Admiral Butakov and Admiral Istomin was suspended in spring 2015.[9] Despite earlier reports about the resumption of construction of the incomplete frigates,[10] in October 2018, it was announced the frigates Admiral Butakov and Admiral Istomin will be sold to India under a $950 million contract signed the same month.[11] The last frigate, Admiral Kornilov, is to join the Russian Navy after 2020. (3 ships built, 3 ships under construction).
 
Soviet Krivak-class frigate Bezzavetnyy collides with the US cruiser USS Yorktown in the 1988 incident.

ShipsEdit

 
Soviet Krivak II-class guided missile frigate Pytlivyy.
 
Soviet KGB Border Troops Krivak III-class frigate Imeni 70-Letiya Pogranichnykh Voisk (renamed Anadyr in Russian Coast Guard service) in 1988. KGB ensign is risen.
 
Krivak III-class frigate Hetman Sahaydachniy is the current flagship of the Ukrainian Navy.[12]
 
FSB Coast Guard Krivak III-class frigate Vorovskiy in Port Angeles, 2009.
Name Namesake Builders Laid down Launched Commissioned Fleet Status Notes
Project 1135 (Krivak I)
Bditelnyy Watchful Yantar, Kaliningrad 21 July 1968 28 March 1970 31 December 1970 Baltic Decommissioned in 1996
Bodryy Brisk Yantar, Kaliningrad 15 January 1969 28 April 1971 31 December 1971 Baltic Decommissioned in 1997
Dostoynyy Virtuous Zaliv, Kerch 11 August 1969 8 May 1971 31 December 1971 Northern Decommissioned in 1993
Svirepyy Fierce Yantar, Kaliningrad 15 June 1970 27 January 1971 29 December 1972 Baltic Decommissioned in 1993
Silnyy Strong Yantar, Kaliningrad 15 March 1971 29 August 1972 30 June 1973 Baltic Decommissioned in 1994
Doblestnyy Valorous Zaliv, Kerch 30 November 1970 22 February 1973 28 December 1973 Northern Decommissioned in 1992
Storozhevoy Vigilant Yantar, Kaliningrad 20 July 1972 21 March 1973 30 December 1973 Pacific Decommissioned in 2002 This ship was involved in a mutiny in 1975, which inspired the novel The Hunt for Red October
Razumnyy Clever Yantar, Kaliningrad 26 June 1972 20 July 1973 30 September 1974 Pacific Decommissioned in 1998
Razyashchiy Striking Yantar, Kaliningrad 28 September 1972 22 July 1974 30 December 1974 Pacific Decommissioned in 1992
Druzhnyy Friendly Yantar, Kaliningrad 12 October 1973 22 January 1975 30 September 1975 Baltic Decommissioned in 2002 Currently on the Moscow River in northwest Moscow, intended to become a floating museum[13]
Deyatelnyy Active Zaliv, Kerch 21 June 1972 5 April 1975 25 December 1975 Black Sea Decommissioned in 1995
Retivy Ardent Zhdanov, Leningrad 12 June 1974 14 August 1976 28 December 1976 Pacific Decommissioned in 1995
Bezzavetnyy Serene Zaliv, Kerch 28 May 1976 7 May 1977 30 December 1977 Balck Sea Decommissioned in 2000 Collided with USS Yorktown in February 1988 in the Black Sea bumping incident.[14] Transferred to Ukrainian Navy on 1 August 1997
Zadornyy Passionate Zhdanov, Leningrad 10 November 1977 25 March 1979 31 August 1979 Northern Decommissioned in 2005
Bezukoriznennyy Irreproachable Zaliv, Kerch 12 July 1978 3 June 1979 29 December 1979 Black Sea Decommissioned in 2000 Transferred to Ukrainian Navy on 1 August 1997
Ladnyy Harmonious Zaliv, Kerch 25 May 1979 7 May 1980 29 December 1980 Black Sea Active
Poryvistyy Impetuous Zaliv, Kerch 21 May 1980 16 May 1981 29 December 1981 Pacific Decommissioned in 1994 Transferred to Vladivostok 25 November 1994 as a training base
Project 1135M (Krivak II)
Rezvyy Frisky Yantar, Kaliningrad 12 December 1973 30 May 1975 30 December 1975 Northern Decommissioned in 2001
Rezkiy Sharp Yantar, Kaliningrad 28 July 1974 17 February 1976 30 September 1976 Pacific Decommissioned in 1995
Razitelnyy Striking Yantar, Kaliningrad 11 February 1975 1 July 1976 31 December 1976 Black Sea Decommissioned in 2004 Transferred to Ukrainian Navy on 1 August 1997
Grozyashchiy Threatening Yantar, Kaliningrad 4 May 1975 7 February 1977 30 September 1977 Pacific Decommissioned in 1995
Neukrotimyy Indomitable Yantar, Kaliningrad 22 January 1976 7 September 1977 30 December 1977 Baltic Decommissioned in 2009 Sank on 5 November 2012 in the Baltic Sea
Gromkiy Loud Yantar, Kaliningrad 23 June 1976 11 April 1978 30 September 1978 Northern Decommissioned in 1998
Bessmennyy Unchanging Yantar, Kaliningrad 11 January 1977 9 August 1978 26 December 1978 Northern Decommissioned in 1998
Gordelivy Proud Yantar, Kaliningrad 26 July 1977 3 May 1979 20 September 1979 Pacific Decommissioned in 1994
Ryavnyy Spirited Yantar, Kaliningrad 1 March 1978 1 September 1979 31 December 1979 Pacific Decommissioned in 1997
Revnostnyy Zealous Yantar, Kaliningrad 1 March 1978 1 September 1979 31 December 1979 Pacific Decommissioned in 2003
Pytlivyy Keen Yantar, Kaliningrad 27 June 1979 16 April 1981 30 November 1981 Black Sea Active[15]
Project 11351 Nerey (Krivak III)
Menzhinskiy Vyacheslav Menzhinsky Zaliv, Kerch 14 August 1981 31 December 1982 29 December 1983 Pacific Decommissioned in 1998
Dzerzhinskiy Felix Edmundovich Dzerzhinsky Zaliv, Kerch 20 January 1983 2 March 1984 29 December 1984 Pacific Active
Oryol
(ex-Imeni XXVII siezda KPSS, ex-Yury Andropov)
Oryol Zaliv, Kerch 26 September 1983 2 November 1985 30 September 1986 Pacific Active
Pskov
(ex-Imeni 70-letiya VChK—KGB)
Pskov Zaliv, Kerch 26 December 1985 18 February 1987 29 December 1987 Pacific Decommissioned in 2002
Anadyr
(ex-Imeni 70-letiya Pogranvoisk)
Anadyr Zaliv, Kerch 2 April 1987 2 March 1988 30 December 1988 Pacific Decommissioned in 2002
Kedrov Mikhail Sergeevich Kedrov Zaliv, Kerch 4 April 1988 30 April 1989 28 December 1989 Pacific Decommissioned in 2002
Vorovskiy Vatslav Vorovsky Zaliv, Kerch 15 May 1989 28 July 1990 29 December 1990 Pacific Decommissioned in 2017
Hetman Sahaydachniy
(ex-Kirov)
Petro Konashevych-Sahaidachny Zaliv, Kerch 5 October 1990 29 March 1992 2 April 1993 Active In service with the Ukrainian Navy
Hetman Vyshnevetskyi
(ex-Krasny Vympel)
Dmytro "Baida" Vyshnevetsky Zaliv, Kerch 27 December 1992 Scrapped incomplete in 1995
Project 11352/11353 (Krivak IV)
Lyogky
(ex-Leningradskiy Komsomolets)
Zhdanov, Leningrad 22 April 1974 1 April 1977 29 September 1977 Northern Decommissioned in 2003
Letuchiy Flighty Zhdanov, Leningrad 9 March 1977 19 March 1978 10 August 1978 Pacific Decommissioned in 2005
Pylkiy Fervent Zhdanov, Leningrad 6 May 1977 20 August 1978 28 December 1978 Baltic Decommissioned in 2012
Zharkiy Heated Zhdanov, Leningrad 16 April 1974 3 November 1975 29 June 1976 Northern Decommissioned in 2002
Project 11356 (Talwar)
Talwar Sword Baltic Shipyard, Saint Petersburg 10 March 1999 12 May 2000 March 2002 (Russia), 18 June 2003 (India) Active
Trishul Trident Baltic Shipyard, Saint Petersburg 24 September 1999 24 October 2000 February 2002 (Russia), 25 June 2003 (India) Active
Tabar Battle axe Baltic Shipyard, Saint Petersburg 26 May 2000 25 May 2001 January 2004 (Russia), 19 April 2004 (India) Active
Teg Saber Yantar, Kaliningrad 28 July 2007 27 October 2009 27 April 2012 (India) Active
Tarkash Quiver Yantar, Kaliningrad 27 October 2007 23 June 2010 October 2012 (Russia), 9 November 2012 (India) Active
Trikand Mythological arrow consisting of three arrowheads Yantar, Kaliningrad 12 June 2008 25 May 2011 April 2013 (Russia), 29 June 2013 (India) Active
Project 11356P/M (Admiral Grigorovich)
Admiral Grigorovich Ivan Konstantinovich Grigorovich Yantar, Kaliningrad 18 December 2010 14 March 2014[16] 11 March 2016[17] Black Sea Active
Admiral Essen Nikolai Ottovich Essen Yantar, Kaliningrad 8 July 2011[18][19] 7 November 2014[20] 7 June 2016[21] Black Sea Active
Admiral Makarov[22][23][24] Stepan Osipovich Makarov Yantar, Kaliningrad 29 February 2012[25][26] 2 September 2015[27] 27 December 2017[28] Black Sea Active
Admiral Butakov Grigory Ivanovich Butakov Yantar, Kaliningrad 13 July 2013[29] 5 March 2016[30] By 2022[31][32] Sold to India, under construction
Admiral Istomin Vladimir Ivanovich Istomin Yantar, Kaliningrad 15 November 2013[33] 16 November 2017[34] By 2022
Admiral Kornilov Vladimir Alexeyevich Kornilov Yantar, Kaliningrad[35] 16 November 2017[34] Before 2020 Black Sea Under construction[36]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Warship recognition mnemonic device employed by U.S. Navy intelligence officers during the Cold War when preparing deploying unit level combat "operators" (e.g., Pilots, Naval Flight Officers, Surface Warfare Officers, Submarine Officers) for overseas deployments.
  2. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2017-06-12. Retrieved 2017-04-19. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  3. ^ "Боевые искусства. Все о самообороне". Warfare.ru. Archived from the original on 2007-09-29. Retrieved 2014-03-08. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  4. ^ John Pike. "Ukraine – Navy Equipment". Globalsecurity.org. Archived from the original on 2014-03-08. Retrieved 2014-03-08. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  5. ^ Kommersant Vlast', No.7, 25 February 2008 (Russian)
  6. ^ "Yantar shipyard to build three warships for Russian Navy". Brahmand.com. 2010-10-13. Archived from the original on 2014-03-08. Retrieved 2014-03-08. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  7. ^ "Kaliningrad shipyard to build three frigates for Russian Navy | Defense | RIA Novosti". En.rian.ru. Archived from the original on 2012-10-19. Retrieved 2014-03-08. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  8. ^ "Russia to complete second missile frigate for Indian Navy by March". Archived from the original on 2008-10-19. Retrieved 2008-10-17. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  9. ^ "Фрегаты (сторожевые корабли) проекта 11356Р/М. Досье". TASS. 10 March 2016. Archived from the original on 19 April 2019. Retrieved 19 April 2019. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  10. ^ "Russia to resume the construction of the "last three" Project 11356 frigates in 2018". navyrecognition.com. 3 June 2017. Archived from the original on 4 June 2017. Retrieved 19 April 2019. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  11. ^ "India signs USD950 million deal for two Russian-built frigates". 29 October 2018. Archived from the original on 19 April 2019. Retrieved 20 November 2018. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  12. ^ Kozhara: Hetman Sahaidachny frigate to join NATO’s anti-piracy operation, Interfax-Ukraine (17 September 2013)
  13. ^ "EnglishRussia.com – "Friendly" Ship Guarding Moscow". Archived from the original on 2011-08-02. Retrieved 2011-08-05. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  14. ^ William J. Aceves. "Diplomacy at Sea: U.S. Freedom of Navigation Operations in the Black Sea". International Law Studies. 68.
  15. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2018-10-10. Retrieved 2018-10-09. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  16. ^ "The Yantar shipyard in Russia's Baltic exclave of Kaliningrad on Friday floated out the first in a series of six Project 11356 frigates being built for the Black Sea Fleet, the company said". Sputnik. Archived from the original on 2014-03-14. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  17. ^ "Archived copy" ПСЗ "Янтарь" сдал "Адмирала Григоровича" » Ресурс машиностроения. Новости машиностроения, статьи. Каталог машиностроительных заводов и предприятий.. i-mash.ru (in Russian). 10 March 2016. Archived from the original on 11 October 2017. Retrieved 5 August 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  18. ^ "Archived copy" На заводе «Янтарь» началось строительство корабля для ВМФ России (фото) (in Russian). Kaliningrad.ru. 8 July 2011. Archived from the original on 28 January 2012. Retrieved 5 November 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  19. ^ ""Адмирал номер два": фоторепортаж "Нового Калининграда.Ru"" (in Russian). Newkaliningrad.ru. 8 July 2011. Archived from the original on 8 August 2016. Retrieved 5 November 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  20. ^ "Admiral Essen frigate to be handed to Russian Navy by end of 2015". ITAR TASS. 7 November 2014. Archived from the original on 8 November 2014. Retrieved 7 November 2014. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  21. ^ Novichkov, Nikolai (9 June 2016). "Russian Navy receives Admiral Essen frigate". janes.com. Archived from the original on 9 August 2016. Retrieved 5 August 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  22. ^ "Archived copy" Новые фрегаты для ВМФ России получат имена царских адмиралов. flot.com (in Russian). 8 December 2010. Archived from the original on 5 November 2016. Retrieved 5 November 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  23. ^ "First frigate of the new project was laid down in Kaliningrad for Russian Navy". rusnavy.com. 20 December 2010. Archived from the original on 13 June 2017. Retrieved 5 November 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  24. ^ "New frigate laid down at Yantar shipyard in Kaliningrad". ITAR-TASS (in Russian). Archived from the original on 2012-09-13. Retrieved 2011-12-28. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  25. ^ Gavrilenko, Andrew (25 February 2012). "Archived copy" Флоту – новый фрегат. redstar.ru (in Russian). Archived from the original on 20 June 2017. Retrieved 5 November 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  26. ^ "Russia to Lay Down New Frigate for Navy | Defense | RIA Novosti". En.rian.ru. 2012-02-28. Archived from the original on 2012-07-08. Retrieved 2014-03-08. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  27. ^ "Archived copy" В Калининграде спустили на воду новейший фрегат "Адмирал Макаров". flotprom.ru (in Russian). 2 September 2015. Archived from the original on 22 October 2016. Retrieved 5 November 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  28. ^ "Archived copy" На новейшем фрегате «Адмирал Макаров» поднят Андреевский флаг (Press release) (in Russian). Ministry of Defence (Russia). 27 December 2017. Archived from the original on 28 December 2017. Retrieved 27 December 2017. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  29. ^ "Russia Lays Down New Frigate for Black Sea Fleet". En.ria.ru. 13 July 2013. Retrieved 5 November 2016.
  30. ^ "Rosja: W Kaliningradzie zwodowano fregatę rakietową. Bez zainstalowanej siłowni" (in Polish). defence24.pl. 5 March 2016. Archived from the original on 13 May 2016. Retrieved 5 November 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  31. ^ "India signs USD950 million deal for two Russian-built frigates". 2018-10-29. Archived from the original on 2018-11-16. Retrieved 2018-11-20. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  32. ^ "India, Russia Sign $950 Million Deal For 2 Guided-Missile Frigates". 2018-10-29. Archived from the original on 2018-11-20. Retrieved 2018-11-20. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  33. ^ "Baltic Shipyard Starts Work on New Frigate for Russian Navy". Sputnik (news agency). 15 November 2013. Archived from the original on 19 April 2019. Retrieved 19 April 2019. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  34. ^ a b "Yantar Shipyard Launched Two Project 11356 Frigates in Kaliningrad". navyrecognition.com. 16 November 2017. Archived from the original on 18 November 2017. Retrieved 17 November 2017. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  35. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2017-04-28. Retrieved 2018-11-20. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  36. ^ "Archived copy" Фрегаты (сторожевые корабли) проекта 11356Р/М. Досье. tass.ru (in Russian). 11 March 2016. Archived from the original on 4 June 2017. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)

ReferencesEdit

External linksEdit