The Bielefeld conspiracy (German: Bielefeldverschwörung or Bielefeld-Verschwörung, pronounced [ˈbiːləfɛltfɛɐ̯ˌʃvøːʁʊŋ]) is a satire of conspiracy theories that originated in 1993 in the German Usenet, which claims that the city of Bielefeld, Germany, does not exist, but is an illusion propagated by various forces. Originally an internet phenomenon, the conspiracy has since been mentioned in the city's marketing, and referenced by Chancellor Angela Merkel.
The story goes that the city of Bielefeld (population of 336,352 as of December 2016[update]) in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia does not actually exist. Rather, its existence is merely propagated by an entity known only as SIE ("they" in German, always in block capitals), which has conspired with the authorities to create the illusion of the city's existence.
The theory poses three questions:
- Do you know anybody from Bielefeld?
- Have you ever been to Bielefeld?
- Do you know anybody who has ever been to Bielefeld?
A majority are expected to answer no to all three queries. Anybody claiming knowledge about Bielefeld is promptly disregarded as being in on the conspiracy or having been themselves deceived.
The origins of and reasons for this conspiracy are not a part of the original theory. Speculated originators jokingly include the CIA, Mossad, or aliens who use Bielefeld University as a disguise for their spaceship.
The conspiracy theory was first made public in a posting to the newsgroup
de.talk.bizarre on May 16, 1993, by Achim Held, a computer science student at the University of Kiel. When a friend of Achim Held met someone from Bielefeld at a student party in 1993, he said "Das gibt's doch gar nicht", a phrase comparable to "I don't believe it", signifying disbelief or surprise. However, its literal translation is "That doesn't exist."; thus he (accidentally) implied that he refused to believe that someone came from Bielefeld. From there, it spread throughout the German-speaking Internet community, and has lost little of its popularity, even after 26 years.
In a television interview conducted for the tenth anniversary of the newsgroup posting, Held stated that this myth definitely originated from his Usenet posting which was intended only as a joke. According to Held, the idea for the conspiracy theory formed in his mind at a student party while speaking to an avid reader of New Age magazines, and from a car journey past Bielefeld at a time when the exit from the Autobahn to it was closed.
There are a number of conflicting theories about the reasons behind the joke's gain in popularity, the most popular being a flame war between Usenet admins and the Bielefeld-based Z-Netz BBS about text encodings.
Historian Alan Lessoff notes that a reason for the amusement value of the theory is Bielefeld's lack of notable features, as being home to no major institutions or tourist attractions and not being on the course of a major river, "Bielefeld defines nondescript".
The Bielefeld conspiracy remains one of the most popular internet jokes originating in Germany.
In November 2012, German Chancellor Angela Merkel referred to the conspiracy in public when talking about a town hall meeting she had attended in Bielefeld, adding: "... if it exists at all," and "I had the impression that I was there."
The city council of Bielefeld tries hard to generate publicity for Bielefeld and build a nationally known public image of the city. However, even 19 years (or more) after the conspiracy started, the mayor's office still received phone calls and e-mails which claimed to doubt the existence of the city.
In 1999, five years after the myth started to spread, the city council released a press statement titled Bielefeld gibt es doch! (Bielefeld does exist!) on April Fools' Day. In allusion to the origin of the conspiracy the 800th anniversary of Bielefeld was held under the motto Das gibt's doch gar nicht (That cannot be real).
In 2009, film students at Bielefeld University started a project to develop a feature film based on the Bielefeld conspiracy. The project was financed by the university and local sponsors. Most of the project's staff and actors were students or university employees; a few professionals, such as the actress Julia Kahl and the cameraman Alexander Böke, also joined the project. The screenplay was written by Thomas Walden. The film premiered in Bielefeld on 2 June 2010.
- "The Bielefeld Conspiracy". YouTube. 19 October 2015.
- von Lüpke, Marc. "'Ich habe die Bielefeld-Verschwörung unterschätzt'" ['I underestimated the Bielefeld Conspiracy']. Der Spiegel (in German). Retrieved 16 May 2014.
- Article: "Auch Merkel zweifelt an Existenz Bielefelds (in German), Die Welt, November 27, 2012 (retrieved May 07, 2013).
- "Bielefeld - Aktuelle Einwohnerzahlen" (in German). Archived from the original on 2017-02-28. Retrieved 2017-04-01.
- Die Bielefeld-Verschwörung – German page detailing the conspiracy, as originally setup by Achim Held in 1994. (in German)
- Germany's Latest Conspiracy Theory at the Deutsche Welle website
- The first newsgroup posting (Archived version at Google Groups) (in German)
- Transcript of the TV interview with Achim Held in 2004 Archived 2007-09-28 at the Wayback Machine (in German)
- "Der Mann hinter der großen Bielefeld-Verschwörung". Die Welt. 2013-01-23. (in German)
- Alan Lessoff (28 February 2015). Where Texas Meets the Sea: Corpus Christi and Its History. University of Texas Press. pp. 17–18. ISBN 978-0-292-76823-9.
- Philippe Blanchard; Dimitri Volchenkov (23 October 2008). Mathematical Analysis of Urban Spatial Networks. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 11–12. ISBN 978-3-540-87829-2.
- Bielefake-Satire – Wir sehen uns nur in dieser Welt ... at Spiegel Online (2010-6-4) (in German)
- Die Bielefeld Verschwörung on IMDb
- Günther Butkus, ed. (2010). Rätselhaftes Bielefeld. Die Verschwörung (in German). Pendragon. ISBN 978-3-86532-188-6.
- Thomas Walden (2010). Die Bielefeld-Verschwörung. Der Roman zum Film (in German). Pendragon. ISBN 978-3-86532-194-7.
- Thomas Walden (2012). Drachenzeit in Bielefeld: Aufgabe 2 der Bielefeld Verschwörung (in German). tredition. ISBN 978-3-8472-3859-1.
- Karl-Heinz von Halle (2013). Gibt es Bielefeld oder gibt es Bielefeld nicht? (in German). Eichborn-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-8479-0546-2.