Đàng Ngoài (Hán tự: 唐外, lit. "Outer Land"), also known as Bắc Hà (北河, "North of the River") or Annam Kingdom (安南國), was an area in northern Đại Việt (now Vietnam) during the 17th and 18th centuries as the result of Trịnh–Nguyễn War. The word "Đàng Ngoài" first appeared in the Dictionarium Annamiticum Lusitanum et Latinum by Alexandre de Rhodes.
Đàng Ngoài was ruled by the Trịnh lords and the Lê dynasty with the capital was Thăng Long (now Hanoi). It was bordered by Đàng Trong (under the Nguyễn lords) along the Linh River (modern Gianh River in Quảng Bình Province). The name was gradually fading out from the people's memory after Nguyễn Huệ's conquering of the north.
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- Albert Schroeder (1904). Chronologie des souverains de l'Annam par Albert Schroeder (in French). p. 23.
Trịnh 鄭: Dits les seigneurs du Nord ou Chúa đàng ngoài 主唐外.
- Keith Weller Taylor, John K. Whitmore Essays Into Vietnamese Pasts 1995 Page 170 "The "kingdom of Cochinchina" was the polity of the Nguyễn lords (chúa), who had become the more and more independent rivals of the Trịnh lords of the north — if not of the Lê emperors whose affairs the Trịnh lords managed.."
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