Augeas

  (Redirected from Augean Stables)

In Greek mythology, Augeas (or Augeias, /ɔːˈəs/, Greek: Αὐγείας), whose name means "bright", was king of Elis and father of Epicaste. Some say that Augeas was one of the Argonauts.[1] He is best known for his stables, which housed the single greatest number of cattle in the country and had never been cleaned, until the time of the great hero Heracles.

FamilyEdit

Augeas's lineage varies in the sources: he was said to be either the son of Helios and Nausidame[1] or of Eleios, king of Elis, and Nausidame,[2] or of Poseidon,[3] or the son of Phorbas and Hyrmine.[3] His children were Epicaste, Phyleus, Agamede[4] Agasthenes, and Eurytus.[5]

MythologyEdit

 
Heracles rerouting the rivers Alpheus and Peneus, to clean out the Augean stables. Roman mosaic, 3rd century AD.

The fifth Labour of Heracles (Hercules in Latin) was to clean the Augean (/ɔːˈən/) stables. Eurystheus intended this assignment both as humiliating (rather than impressive, like the previous labours) and as impossible, since the livestock were divinely healthy (immortal) and therefore produced an enormous quantity of dung (ἡ ὄνθος). These stables had not been cleaned in over thirty years, and 3,000 cattle lived there. However, Heracles succeeded by rerouting the rivers Alpheus and Peneus to wash out the filth.

Augeas reacted angrily because he had promised Heracles one tenth of his cattle if the job was finished in one day. He refused to honor the agreement, and Heracles killed him after completing the tasks. Heracles gave his kingdom to Phyleus, Augeas' son, who had been exiled for supporting Heracles against his father.

According to the odes of the poet Pindar, Heracles then founded the Olympic Games:

the games which by the ancient tomb of Pelops the mighty Heracles founded, after that he slew Kleatos, Poseidon's godly son, and slew also Eurytos, that he might wrest from tyrannous Augeas against his will reward for service done.[6]

Eurystheus discounted the success of this labour because the rushing waters had done the work of cleaning the stables and because Heracles was paid. Stating that Heracles still had seven labours to do, Eurystheus then sent Heracles to defeat the Stymphalian Birds.

Classical Literature SourcesEdit

AugeasEdit

Chronological listing of classical literature sources for Augeas:

  • Homer, Iliad 2. 615 ff (trans. Murray) (Greek epic poetry C8th BC)
  • Homer, Iliad 2. 625 ff
  • Homer, Iliad 11. 696 ff
  • Homer, Iliad 11. 737 ff
  • Telegony Fragment 1 (Hesiod the Homeric Hymns and Homerica trans. Evelyn-White 1920) (Greek epic poetry C8th or 6th BC)
  • Pindar, Olympian Ode 10. 28 ff (trans. Sandys) (Greek lyric poetry C5th BC)
  • Pindar, Olympian Ode 10. 33ff
  • Theocritus, Idylls 25. 1 ff (trans. Banks) (Greek bucolic poetry C3rd BC)
  • Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 3. 367 ff (trans. Coleridge) (Greek epic poetry C3rd BC)
  • Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 3. 432 ff
  • Callimachus, Uncertain Location Fragment 69 (216) (trans. Mair) (Greek poetry C3rd BC)
  • Scholiast on Callimachus, Uncertain Location Fragment 69 (216) (Callimachus and Lycophron Aratus trans. Mair 1921 p. 261)
  • Diodorus Siculus, Library of History 4. 69. 2 (trans. Oldfather) (Greek history C1st BC)
  • Diodorus Siculus, Library of History 4. 13. 3
  • Diodorus Siculus, Library of History 4. 33. 1-4
  • Ovid, Metamorphoses 9. 187 ff (trans. Miller) (Roman epic poetry C1st BC to C1st AD)
  • Strabo, Geography 8. 3. 9 (trans. Jones) (Greek geography C1st BC to C1st AD)
  • Strabo, Geography 10. 2. 19
  • Philippus of Thessalonica, The Twelve Labors of Hercules (The Greek Classics ed. Miller Vol 3 1909 p. 397) (Greek epigram C1st AD)
  • Seneca, Hercules Furens 247 ff (trans. Miller) (Roman tragedy C1st AD)
  • Seneca Hercules Oetaeus 1889 ff (trans. Miller)
  • Pseudo-Apollodorus, The Library 1. 9. 16 (trans. Frazer) (Greek mythography C2nd AD)
  • Pseudo-Apollodorus, The Library 2. 5. 5
  • Pseudo-Apollodorus, The Library 2. 5. 11
  • Pseudo-Apollodorus, The Library 2. 7. 2-3
  • Pseudo-Apollodorus, The Library 2. 7. 8
  • Pausanias, Description of Greece 2. 15. 1 (trans. Jones) (Greek travelogue C2nd AD)
  • Pausanias, Description of Greece 5. 1. 8-3. 4
  • Pausanias, Description of Greece 5. 4. 2
  • Pausanias, Description of Greece 5. 8. 1-3
  • Pausanias, Description of Greece 6. 20. 15-16
  • Pausanias, Description of Greece 8. 14. 9
  • Pseudo-Hyginus, Fabulae 14 (trans. Grant) (Roman mythography C2nd AD)
  • Pseudo-Hyginus, Fabulae 30
  • Pseudo-Hyginus, Fabulae 157
  • Aelian, Historical Miscellany 1. 24 (trans. Wilson) (Greek rhetoric C2nd to 3rd AD)
  • Quintus Smyrnaeus, Fall of Troy 6. 258 ff (trans. Way) (Greek epic poetry C4th AD)
  • Servius, In Vergilii Carmina Commentarii 8. 300 ff (trans. Thilo) (Greek commentary C4th AD to 5th AD)
  • Nonnos, Dionysiaca 25. 242 ff (trans. Rouse) (Greek epic poetry C5th AD)
  • Tzetzes, Chiliades or Book of Histories 278-290 (trans. Untia) (Greco-Byzantine history C12 AD)

Stables of AugeasEdit

Chronological listing of classical literature sources for the Stables of Augeas:

  • Callimachus, Uncertain Location Fragment 69 (216) (trans. Mair) (Greek poetry C3rd BC)
  • Scholiast on Callimachus, Uncertain Location Fragment 69 (216) (Callimachus and Lycophron Aratus trans. Mair 1921 p. 261)
  • Lycophron, Alexandra 648 ff (trans. Mair) (Greek poetry C3rd BC)
  • Scholiast on Lycophron, Alexandra 648 ff (Callimachus and Lycophron Aratus trans. Mair 1921 p. 548
  • Diodorus Siculus, Library of History 4. 13. 3 (trans. Oldfather) (Greek history C1st BC)
  • Diodorus Siculus, Library of History 4. 33. 1-4
  • Ovid, Metamorphoses 9. 187 ff (trans. Miller) (Roman epic poetry C1st BC to C1st AD)
  • Seneca, Hercules Furens 247 ff (trans. Miller) (Roman tragedy C1st AD):
  • Seneca Hercules Oetaeus 1889 ff
  • Pseudo-Apollodorus, The Library 2. 5. 5 (trans. Frazer) (Greek mythography C2nd AD)
  • Pseudo-Apollodorus, The Library 2. 5. 11
  • Pseudo-Hyginus, Fabulae 30 (trans. Grant) (Roman mythography C2nd AD)
  • Quintus Smyrnaeus, Fall of Troy 6. 258 ff (trans. Way) (Greek epic poetry C4th AD)
  • Servius, In Vergilii Carmina Commentarii 8. 300 ff (trans. Thilo) (Greek commentary C4th AD to 5th AD)
  • Tzetzes, Chiliades or Book of Histories 2. 278-290 (trans.Untila) (Greco-Byzantine history C12 AD)
  • Tzetzes, Chiliades or Book of Histories 2. 497 ff
  • Tzetzes, Chiliades or Book of Histories 8. 268 ff
  • Tzetzes, Chiliades or Book of Histories 12. 248

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b Hyginus. Fabulae 14
  2. ^ Pausanias, Graeciae Descriptio 5.1.9
  3. ^ a b Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 2.88
  4. ^ Hyginus, Fabulae 157
  5. ^ Diodorus Siculus, Bibliotheca historica 4.33.3
  6. ^ Pindar. The Extant Odes of Pindar, Project Gutenberg.

ReferencesEdit